4 (50) 2017

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

4 (50) 2017

4 (50) 2017
Inside

  • The 50th issue of our journal is published
  • Lawyers contribute to the Year of Ecology
  • Principle of legal certainty in the rule-making policy of the state 
  • Legal policy and socio-moral phenomenon

Feature

Greetings in connection with the 50th issue of the journal 

GREETINGS  IN CONNECTION WITH THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE OF "THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE: THEORY AND PRACTICE" JOURNAL
Salnikov V.P.
Law is the groundwork for the state
Enikeev Z.I.
Journal born at a turning point
Bogolyubov S.A.
There is nothing more practical than a good  theory
Tlepina Sh.V.
The rule-of-law state  is the fate of Russia
Voronin B.A.
Success comes with tenacity
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL CONFERENCE«ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY» 
Bogolyubov S.A.
Constitutional potential of the realization of environmental policy 
Makarava T.I.
Effectiveness of environmental law in the context of the participation of the Republic of Belarus in integration processes: the issues of methodology23
Volkov G.A.
Methodology of natural resources areas of  law (abstracts)
Javoroncova N.G.
Vipkhanova G.V.
The problems of ensuring environmental and economic security while implementing state policy
Vershilo T.A.
Vershilo N.D.
To the question of improving the efficiency of using forests for budgeting in Russia
Aznagulova G.M.
Legal policy as a socio-moral phenomenon
Arzamaskin N.N.
The “ecology” of federative relations in modern Russia
Galiev F.Kh.
Environmental protection as a problem of national security 
Gizzatullin R.Kh.
The role of the President of the Russian Federation in national environmental policy
Enikeev Z.I.
The problems of developing the two –tier environmental legislative system
Enikeev R.N.
On the problem of improving legal framework of environmental well-being
Lipinsky D.A.
On legal policy in the field of differentiation and individualization of environmental and legal responsibility
Luneva E.V.
Safin Z.F.
National policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of water management and conservation and the problems of  its realization
Polstovalov O.V.
National alternative for developing "Environmental forensics"
Popova A.V.
Abramova M.G.
Ecocentrism in modern political and legal discourse(on new subjects of law)
Ustyukova V.V.
Supervision over compliance with forest legislation
Utyashev M.M.
Constitutional right of the person to a favorable environment
Khismatullin R.S.
Minibaeva D. F.
Procedural and tactical features of court hearing and examining the defendant’s testimony in trying cases over environmental offenses111
THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE. HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Polishchuk N.I.
Functional value of the principle of legal definiteness in rule-making policy of the state115
Abubakarov A.A.
Ismagilov I.R.
Lezhneva O.Y.
The concept of the court as an element of civil society and  state in the "Philosophy of law" of G.W.F. Hegel
Pronina K. Y.
Transformation of forms of manifestations of legal nihilism depending on socio-political conditions
Binnatov B.A.
Principles of legal education of cadets of educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
Timonin A.N.
Colonial Jamestown: the problems of ecology, policy and law
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Khametova A.R.
To the issue of the peculiarities of criminal proceedings against the suspect (accused) whose identity is not established
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Khakimov N.N.
Pedagogical technology of improving legal education of future officers of the Interior Ministry
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 
Abdullin A.R.
Operational search and criminal procedure activities of law enforcement bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
Isayeva R.M.
Freedom of evaluating evidence in criminal proceedings: certain aspects
Ismagilov R.A.
Some problems of classification of the crimes against justice, committed by participants in criminal proceedings
Pugachev A.V.
System-wide countering illegal drug trafficking in the Republic of Bashkortostan: history and modernity
FORENSICS. FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Nazarov A.Y.
Ensuring human rights by law enforcement officers while using firearms: comparative legal analysis
Osipova N.V.
Problems and prospects of improving legislation in the field of combating crime in the sphere of illicit trafficking of new potentially dangerous psychoactive substances
Semiglazov A.G.
Agzamov I.M.
The problems of establishing the subjective elements of the offences stipulated by Articles 174 and 174.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation186
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY.  INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Zaynullinа Z.F.
China's experience in countering smuggling by criminal law means
Kuznetsova S.D.
Reasons (factors) of regionalization processes in modern European states
TO THE AUTHORS
 
 
LAW IS THE GROUNDWORK FOR THE STATE
SALNIKOV Victor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the “Legal Science: History and Modernity” Journal, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Education of the Russian Federation.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. No. 2 (32). Pp. 10-19.
2. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestven-noi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii. Sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauch-no-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.). Otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2-kh ch. Ch. 1. Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2015. Pp. 3-11.
3. Rayanov F. M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions). Moscow. Yurlitin-form, 2017.
4. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsiokul'-turnom izmerenii (The concepts of "rule-of-law state" and "civil society" in the socio-cultural dimension), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2012. No. 4 (30). Pp. 20-25.
5. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i pravovoe gosudarstvo (Legal culture and the rule-of-law state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2014. No. 2 (36). Pp. 52-57. 
JOURNAL BORN AT A TURNING POINT
Received: 01.12.2017
ENIKEEV Zufar Irgalievich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Chairman of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan , Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Россия.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. No. 2 (32). Pp. 10-19.
2. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. No. 1 (39). Pp. 6-15.
3. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions). Moscow. Yurlitin-form, 2017. 
Received: 01.12.2017
THERE IS NOTHING MORE PRACTICAL THAN A GOOD THEORY
BOGOLYUBOV Sergei Aleksandrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Head of the Department of Environmental Legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal,
Moscow, Russia
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. No. 2 (32). Pp. 10-19.
2. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. No. 1 (39). Pp. 2-15.
3. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyanie, puti pereosmysleniya (Theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: state, ways of rethinking). LEX RUSSIKA. 2015. No. 8 (avgust). Pp. 14-25.
4. Rayanov F.M. Istochnik sovremennogo prava - prosveshchennyi razum gosudarstvenno – organizovannogo naroda (The source of modern law is the enlightened mind of a state-organized people), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava. 2016. No. 2 (230). Pp. 158-166.
Received: 01.12.2017
THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE IS THE FATE OF RUSSIA
TLEPINA Sholpan Valerevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of International Law of the Faculty of Law of L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. No. 2 (32). Pp. 10-19.
2. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. № 1 (39). Pp. 6-14.
3. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.). Otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2-kh ch. Ch. 1. Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2015. 
4. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoe gosudarstvo – sud'ba Rossii (The rule-of-law state is the fate of Russia). Ufa. DizainPoligrafServis, 2007.
Received: 01.12.2017
CONSTITUTIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE REALIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 
BOGOLYUBOV Sergei Aleksandrovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Honored Science Worker of the Russian Federation, Head of the Department of Ecological Legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation. Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
With the support of the relevant norms of the Basic Law, the potential of environmental provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation is further strengthening. In connection with this, the need to establish a balance of public and private interests in environmental protection becomes topical. Therefore, the role of the state in maintaining ecological order grows and becomes decisive. It is also important to find a balance between administrative, managerial and civil law, contractual methods of regulating public relations related to environmental law. Therefore, the role of the state in maintaining ecological order grows and becomes decisive. The Government of the Russian Federation manages state-owned (federal) property, including natural resources, and is obliged to ensure the implementation of a unified state policy in the sphere of ecology in Russia. The Constitution's provision on the right of everyone to reliable information on environmental conditions presupposes the right of individuals and associations of citizens to access to the full and objective information on environmental conditions.
Key words: Constitution, ecological, environmental, nature resources law, environmental rights and duties of citizens and legal entities, state ecological function and responsibility.
References
1. 20 let Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii, sbornik statei (20 years of the Constitution of the Russian Federation: collection of articles). Moscow. Akademiya General'noi prokuratury RF, 2013.
2. Anisimov A.P. Pravo cheloveka i grazhdanina na blagopriyatnuyu okruzhayushchuyu prirod-nuyu sredu (konstitutsionno-pravovye aspekty) (The right of a person and a citizen to a favorable natural environment (constitutional and legal aspects)), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Volgograd. 1997.
3. Anisimova S.I. Vozmeshchenie v arbitrazhnom poryadke vreda, prichinennogo ekologiche-skim pravonarusheniem (Reimbursement in arbitration of damage caused by an environmental offense), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Orenburg, 2000.
4. Bogolyubov S.A. Realizatsiya ekologicheskoi politiki posredstvom prava (Implementation of environmental policy through law: monograph). Monografiya. Moscow. EKSPO. 2015.
5. Bogolyubov S.A. Sootnoshenie ekologicheskikh politik Rossii i drugikh gosudarstv (Correlation of environmental policies of Russia and other states), Ekologicheskoe pravo. 2016. No. 4. 
6. Bogolyubov S.A. Gde my s pravovym gosudarstvom? (Where are we with the rule-of-law state?), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. No. 2 (32). Pp. 38-43.
7. Bogolyubov S.A. Mesto ekologii v pravovom gosudarstvo (The place of ecology in the rule-of-law state), Aktual'nye problemy eko-logicheskoi politiki, materialy Vserossiiskoi konferentsii. Ufa. BashGU, 2010. 
8. Bogolyubov S.A. Konstitutsionno-pravovye problemy okhrany okruzhayushchei sredy v SSSR (Constitutional and legal problems of environmental protection in the USSR), dis. … d-ra. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 1990.
9. Ekologicheskie polozheniya konstitutsii: sbornik (Ecological provisions of constitutions: collection), pod red. E.A. Vystorobtsa, predisl. Yu.S. Shemshuchenko, vstup. slovo V.I. Danilova-Danil'yana. Moscow-Ufa. MIRmpOS, Tsentr interekoprava EvrAzNIIPP, 2012.
10. Gabitov R.Kh. Teoreticheskie problemy pravovoi okhrany atmosfery Zemli v sovre-mennykh usloviyakh (Theoretical problems of legal protection of the Earth's atmosphere in modern conditions), dis. d-ra yurid. nauk. Ufa, 2000.
11. Gizzatullin R.Kh. Ekologicheskaya funktsiya gosudarstva: teoriya i praktika realizatsii (Ecological function of the state: theory and practice of realization), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2015.
12. Dukhno N.A. Teoreticheskie problemy obespecheniya ekologicheskogo pravoporyadka (Theoretical problems of ensuring environmental law and order), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Ufa, 2000.
13. Efimova E.I. Razvitie instituta «ekologicheskie prava i obyazannosti» v ekologo-pravovykh issledovaniyakh (Development of the institute "environmental rights and duties" in environmental and legal studies), Ekologicheskoe pravo. 2004. № 2.
14. Kommentarii k Gradostroitel'nomu kodeksu Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Commentary on the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation). S.A. Bogolyubov, N.V. Kichigin, E.L. Kovaleva, E.L. Minina i dr., pod red. S.A. Bogolyubova. Moscow. Prospekt. 2017.
15. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Prinyata 12 dekabrya 1993 goda (Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted on December 12, 1993).
16. Minyaev A.O. Ekologicheskoe pravo: konstitutsionnye osnovy (Environmental law: constitutional foundations). Moscow, 2004. 
17. Ponomareva I.P. Konstitutsionnye osnovy ekologicheskoi politiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The constitutional foundations of the environmental policy of the Russian Federation), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Ekaterinburg, 2000.
18. Rayanov F.M. Problemy teorii i praktiki pravovogo gosudarstva (Problems of theory and practice of the rule-of-law state). Ufa. Gilem, AN RB, 2013. 
19. Syrodoev N.A O sootnoshenii zemel'nogo i grazhdanskogo zakonodatel'stva (On the correlation of land and civil legislation), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2001. № 4.
20. Ekologicheskoe pravo Rossii (Ecological Law of Russia). Sborniki materialov nauchno-prakt. konferentsii. Uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. Pod red. A.K. Golichenkova. Moscow, 1997-2017.
Received: 20.11.2017
EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PARTICIPATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN INTEGRATION PROCESSES: THE ISSUES OF METHODOLOGY
MAKARAVA Tamara Ivanovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Environmental and Agricultural Law, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The possibilities of instrumentalism methodology for research in the field of environmental law are studied. The object that can be analyzed using this method (legal mechanism of environmental protection and its elements) has been identified. We pay attention to the importance of instrumental methods in identifying approaches to the interaction between international environmental law and national environmental legislation as well as acts of interstate organizations in which the Republic of Belarus participates.
Keywords: legal instrumentalism, environmental law, environment, research methodology, legal mechanism for environmental protection, environmental and legal status of a person, international environmental law
References
1. Alekseev S.S. Pravo : azbuka – teoriya – filosofiya : opyt kompleksnogo issledovaniya (Law. ABC. Theory. Philosophy. Experience in complex research). Moscow. Statut, 1999. 
2. Obshchaya teoriya prava (General theory of law), posobie. V.A. Abramovich [i dr.], pod obshch. red. S.G. Drobyazko, S.A. Kalinina. Minsk. BGU, izdatel'stvo «Chetyre chetverti», 2014. 
3. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva (General theory of law and state), uchebnik, pod red. V.V. Lazareva. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow. Yurist", 2001. 
4. Kalіnіn S.A. Іnstrumental'ne rozumіnnya prava v kontekstі sub’єktnogo pіdkhodu: shchodo problemi vzaєmodії metodologіchnikh strategіi (Instrumental understanding of law in the context of the subject approach: on the problem of interaction of methodological strategies), Fіlosofіya prava і zagal'na teorіya prava. 2014. No. 1–2/2014. Pp. 239-252.
5. Garbuzova E.V. Instrumental'nyi podkhod v sovershenstvovanii natsional'nogo zakonodatel'stva (Instrumental approach in the improvement of national legislation), avtoref, dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Minsk, 2012. 
6. Shundikov K.V. Instrumental'naya teoriya prava – perspektivnoe napravlenie nauchnogo issledovaniya (Instrumental theory of law is a promising direction of scientific research), Pravovedenie. 2002. No. 2 (241). Pp. 16-23.
7. Shundikov K.V. Instrumental'nyi podkhod i instrumental'naya teoriya v sovremennom pravovedenii: metodologicheskii aspect (Instrumental approach and instrumental theory in modern jurisprudence: methodological aspect), Leningr. yurid. zhurn. 2005. No. 3. Pp. 167-175.
8. Sapun V.A., Turbova Ya.V. Instrumental'naya teoriya prava i pravovye sredstva kak elementy yuridicheskoi tekhniki (Instrumental theory of law and legal means as elements of legal technique), Leningr. yurid. zhurn. 2010. No. 3. Pp. 177-188.
9. Sapun V.A., Shundikov K.V. Instrumental'naya teoriya prava i chelovecheskaya deyatel'nost' (Instrumental theory of law and human activity), Pravovedenie. 2013. No. 1. Pp. 14-32.
10. Sizova V.N. Instrumentalizm v opredelenii effektivnosti rossiiskogo ugolovnogo prava (Instrumentalizm in determining the effectiveness of Russian criminal law), Vestnik Nizhegorodskoi akademii MVD Rossii. 2013. No. 23. Pp. 13-116.
11. Vyrleeva-Balaeva O.S. Sistema pravovykh ogranichenii gosudarstvennoi vlasti sovremennoi Rossii. Teoretiko-instrumental'nyi i sravnitel'nyi analiz (System of legal restrictions of state power in modern Russia. Theoretical-instrumental and comparative analysis), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2014. No. 8. Pp. 119-120.
12. Sammers S.R. Gospodstvuyushchaya pravovaya teoriya v SShA (Prevailing legal theory in the United States), Sov. gosudarstvo i pravo. 1989. No. 7. Pp. 109-116.
13. Petrov V.V. Ekologicheskoe pravo Rossii (Ecological Law of Russia), ucheb. dlya vuzov. Moscow. BEK, 1995. 
14. Brinchuk M.M. Ekologicheskoe pravo (Ecological Law), ucheb, Izd. 2-e, pererab. i dop. Moscow. Yurist", 2005. 
15. Pravovye mekhanizmy okhrany okruzhayushchei sredy i obespecheniya ekologicheskoi bezopasnosti (Legal mechanisms of environmental protection and environmental security). T.I. Makarova [i dr.], nauch. red. T.I. Makarova. Minsk. BGU, 2016. 
16. Makarova T.I. Ekologo-pravovoi status grazhdan Respubliki Belarus' (Ecological and legal status of citizens of the Republic of Belarus). Minsk. BGU, 2004. 
17. Rezolyutsiya General'noi Assamblei OON, 3 dek. 1968 g. № 2398/ХХIII «Problemy okruzhayushchei cheloveka sredy» (Resolution of the UN General Assembly, 3 December. 1968 № 2398/XXIII "Problems of the human environment"), Org. Ob"edin. Natsii [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2017. URL: http://www.un.org/russian/document/basicdoc/statut.htm. (accessed date: 14.08.2017). 
18. Deklaratsiya Stokgol'mskoi Konferentsii Organizatsii Ob"edinennykh Natsii po okruzhayushchei cheloveka srede, 17 iyunya 1972 g (Declaration of the Stockholm United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 17 June 1972), Org. Ob"edin. Natsii [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2017. URL: http://www.un.org/russian/document/basicdoc/statut.htm. (accessed date: 14.08.2017).
19. Vseobshchaya deklaratsiya prav cheloveka : prinyata Rezolyutsiei 217A (III) General. Assamblei OON ot 10 dek. 1948 g. (Universal Declaration of Human Rights: adopted by Resolution 217A (III) of the UN General Assembly of the 10th of December. 1948), Etalon-Belarus' [Elektronnyi resurs]. Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2017.
20. Mezhdunarodnyi pakt o grazhdanskikh i politicheskikh pravakh, 19 dek. 1966 g. i Fakul'tativnyi protokol k Mezhdunarodnomu paktu o grazhdanskikh i politicheskikh pravakh (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19 December 1966 and the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), Etalon-Belarus' [Elektronnyi resurs]. Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2017.
21. Mezhdunarodnyi pakt ob ekonomicheskikh, sotsial'nykh i kul'turnykh pravakh, 16 dek. 1966 g. (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966), Etalon-Belarus' [Elektronnyi resurs]. Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2017.
22. Konventsiya o dostupe k informatsii, uchastii obshchestvennosti v protsesse prinyatiya reshenii i dostupe k pravosudiyu po voprosam, kasayushchimsya okruzhayushchei sredy : ot 25 iyunya 1998 g. (Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters of by 25 June 1998), Nats. reestr pravovykh aktov Resp. Belarus'. 2003. No. 95. No. 3/866.
Received: 20.11.2017
METHODOLOGY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AREAS OF LAW (ABSTRACTS)
VOLKOV Gennadii Aleksandrovich 
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Environmental and Land Law of the Faculty of Law of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
 E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In the article, the author reviews the issues of the methodology of natural resources areas of law in the aspects of modern understanding of the place of natural resources areas of law in the modern legal system of Russia, their interrelations with other areas of law, development and improvement of the corresponding legislation.
Key words: methodology, natural resources areas of law, subject of legal regulation, permissive mode (type) of legal regulation, basic principles, natural resources branches of legislation, property right to natural resources, delineation of state ownership of natural resources.
References
1. Slovar' inostrannykh slov (Dictionary of foreign words). 15-e izd., ispr. Moscow. Rus.yaz., 1988. 
2. Filosofskii entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (Philosophical Encyclopaedic Dictionary), gl. red.: L.F. Il'ichev, P.N. Fedoseev, S.M. Kovalev, V.G. Panov. Moscow. Sov. entsiklopediya, 1983. 
3. Filosofskii slovar' (Philosophical dictionary), pod red. I.T. Frolova. 5-e izd. Moscow. Politizdat, 1986. 
4. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12.12.1993 (The Constitution of the Russian Federation, adopted by popular vote 12/12/1993), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 1993. 25 dek.
5. Vodnyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 03.06.2006 N 74-FZ (Water Code of the Russian Federation of 03.06.2006 N 74-FZ). SZ RF. 2006. N 23. St. 2381.
6. SZ RF (Code of laws of the Russian Federation). 1995. N 10. St.823.
7. Lesnoi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 04.12.2006 N 200-FZ (Forest Code of the Russian Federation as of 04.12.2006 N 200-FZ). SZ RF. 2006. N 50. St. 5278.
8. SZ RF (Code of laws of the Russian Federation). 2006. N 50. St. 5279.
9. Lesnoi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 29.01.1997 N 22-FZ (Forest Code of the Russian Federation of 29.01.1997 N 22-FZ). SZ RF. 1997. N 5. St. 610.
10. SZ RF (Code of laws of the Russian Federation). 1995. N 17. St. 1462.
11. Krassov O.I. Pravo sobstvennosti na zemlyu v stranakh Evropy, monografiya (Ownership of land in Europe: monograph). Moscow. Norma, Infra-M, 2014. [Elektronnyi resurs]. SPS Konsul'tantPlyus: versiya Prof. 
12. SZ RF (Code of laws of the Russian Federation). 2002. N 2. St. 133.
13. Federal'nyi konstitutsionnyi zakon ot 17.12.1997 N 2-FKZ «O Pravitel'stve Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Constitutional Law of 17.12.1997 N 2-FKZ "On the Government of the Russian Federation"). SZ RF. 1997. N 51. St. 5712.
14. Zakon SSSR ot 06.03.1990 N 1305-1 «O sobstvennosti v SSSR» (Law of the USSR from 06.03.1990 N 1305-1 "On property in the USSR"), Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR. 1990. N 11. St. 164.
15. Zakon SSSR ot 14.03.1990 N 1360-1 «Ob uchrezhdenii posta Prezidenta SSSR i vnesenii izmenenii i dopolnenii v Konstitutsiyu (Osnovnoi Zakon) SSSR» (USSR Law of 14.03.1990 N 1360-1 "On the establishment of the post of President of the USSR and the introduction of changes and additions to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the USSR"), Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR. 1990. N 12. St. 189.
16. Zakon RSFSR ot 24.12.1990 № 443-1 «O sobstvennosti v RSFSR» (Law of the RSFSR of 24.12.1990 No. 443-1 "On Property in the RSFSR"), Vedomosti SND RSFSR i VS RSFSR". 1990. N 30. St. 416.
17. Konstitutsiya (Osnovnoi Zakon) Rossiiskoi Sovetskoi Federativnoi Sotsialisticheskoi Respubliki. Prinyata Verkhovnym Sovetom RSFSR 12.04.1978 (Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR 12/04/1978), Vedomosti VS RSFSR". 1978. N 15. St. 407.
18. Zakon Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 09.12.1992 N 4061-1 «Ob izmeneniyakh i dopolneniyakh Konstitutsii (Osnovnogo zakona) Rossiiskoi Federatsii – Rossii» (Law of the Russian Federation No. 4061-1 of 09.12.1992 "On Amendments and Additions to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian Federation - Russia"), Vedomosti SND i VS RF. 1993. N 2. St. 55.
19. Petrov V.V. Soyuznyi Zakon o zemle i razvitie zemel'nykh otnoshenii (The Union Law on Land and Development of Land Relations), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. 11. Pravo. 1991. No. 1. Pp. 3-12.
20. Petrov V.V. Novyi zemel'nyi stroi Rossii: formy sobstvennosti na zemlyu i ee privatizatsiya (New land system in Russia: forms of ownership of land and its privatization), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. 11. Pravo. 1992. No. 1. Pp. 28-33.
21. Volkov G.A. Razgranichenie gosudarstvennoi sobstvennosti na zemlyu (pravovoi aspekt). Tezisy Nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (Delimitation of state ownership of land (legal as-pect). Theses of the Scientific and Practical Conference), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 11. Pravo. 1995. No. 6;
22. Volkov G.A. Zakonodatel'noe regulirovanie prava gosudarstvennoi sobstvennosti na prirodnye resursy (Legislative regulation of the right of state ownership to natural resources), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 1996. No. 9.
23. Postanovlenie Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 09.01.1998 N 1-P «Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti Lesnogo kodeksa Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Decree of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of 09.01.1998 N 1-P "On the case on the verification of the constitutionality of the Forest Code of the Russian Federation"). SZ RF, 1998, N 3, st. 429.
24. Postanovlenie Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 07.06.2000 N 10-P «Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti otdel'nykh polozhenii Konstitutsii Respubliki Altai i Federal'nogo zakona "Ob obshchikh printsipakh organizatsii zakonodatel'nykh (predstavitel'nykh) i ispolnitel'nykh organov gosudarstvennoi vlasti sub"ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii"» (Decree of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of 07.06.2000 N 10-P "On the case on verification of the constitutionality of certain provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Altai and the Federal Law "On general principles for the organization of legislative (representative) and executive bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation). SZ RF. 2000. N 25. St. 2728.
25. Alekseev S.S. Pravo: azbuka – teoriya – filosofiya: Opyt kompleksnogo issledovaniya (Law: ABC - Theory - Philosophy: The Experience of Comprehensive Research). Moscow, 1999.
26. Volkov G.A. Printsipy zemel'nogo prava. Moscow. OAO «Izdatel'skii dom «Gorodets». 2005.
27. Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii (chast' pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 N 51-FZ (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part One) of 30.11.1994 N 51-FZ). SZ RF. 1994. No. 32. St. 3301.
28. Obshchaya teoriya prava: Kurs lektsii (General theory of law: lectures), pod red. V.K. Babaeva. N. Novgorod, 1993.
29. Lazarev V.V., Lipen' S.V. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava, uchebnik dlya vuzov (Theory of State and Law: Textbook for Universities). 2-e izd., ispr. dop. Moscow, 2000.
30. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva: uchebnik (General theory of law and state: textbook), pod red. V.V. Lazareva. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, 2003.
Received: 20.11.2017
THE PROBLEMS OF ENSURING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SECURITY WHILE IMPLEMENTING STATE POLICY
JAVORONCOVA Natalia Grigorievna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Chair of Environmental and Nature Resources Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
VIPKHANOVA Galina Viktorovna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Environmental and Nature Resources Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article shows the role and importance of legal strategies for the formation and development of state environmental policy; the authors review its relationship with economic and environmental security. Based on the analysis of the provisions of strategic planning documents upon different criteria – target figures, objectives, threats, and implementation mechanisms the authors reveal some inconsistency in the definition of these concepts. The authors identify the signs of environmental danger and threats. The authors prove the necessity of a systematic legal regulation of relations in the field of environmental and economic development based on the batch principle of adopting and improving legal acts.
Key words: legal strategies, state environmental policy, environmental protection, environmental safety, environmental requirements, economic security, national security, environmental threats, strategic planning documents.
References
1. Pravkina I.N. Pravovye strategii kak istochnik razvitiya sovremennogo prava (Legal strategies as a source of development of modern law), avto-ref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2016.
2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 19 aprelya 2017 g. № 176 «O Strategii ekologicheskoi bezopasnosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2025 goda» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 19, 2017 No. 176 "On the Strategy of Ecological Safety of the Russian Federation for the period until 2025"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2017. No. 17. St. 2546.
3. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 13 maya 2017 g. № 208 «O Strategii ekonomicheskoi bezopasnosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2030 goda» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 13, 2017 No. 208 "On the Strategy of Economic Security of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2017. No. 20. St. 2902.
4. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 31 dekabrya 2015 g. № 683 «O Strategii natsional'noi bezopasnosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Presidential Decree of December 31, 2015, No. 683 "On the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2015. No/ 1 (chast' II). St. 212.
5. Federal'nyi zakon ot 10 yanvarya 2002 g. № 7-FZ «Ob okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy» (Federal Law of 10 January 2002 No. 7-FZ "On Environmental Protection"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2002. No. 2. St. 133.
6. Zhavoronkova N.G., Shpakovskii Yu.G. Pravovoe obespechenie ekologicheskoi bezopasnosti v usloviyakh ekonomicheskogo integratsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Legal maintenance of ecological safety in the conditions of economic integration of the Russian Federation), Moscow. Prospekt, 2017. 
7. Rusin S.N. Kontseptual'nye problemy ekologicheskoi bezopasnosti i gosudarstvennaya ekologicheskaya politika (pravovoi aspekt) (Conceptual problems of environmental safety and state environmental policy (legal aspect)), Ekologicheskoe pravo. 2010. No. 5. Pp. 12-18.
8. Rasporyazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 18 dekabrya 2012 g. № 2423-r (red. ot 10.08.2016) «Ob utverzhdenii Plana deistvii po realizatsii Osnov gosudarstvennoi politiki v oblasti ekologicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2030 goda» (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 2423-r dated December 18, 2012 (as amended on August 10, 2016) "On the approval of the Action Plan for the implementation of the Fundamentals of State Policy in the Area of Ecological Development of the Russian Federation until 2030"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2012. No. 52. St. 7561.
9. Vypkhanova G.V., Zhavoronkova N.G. Gosudarstvennaya ekologicheskaya politika i doku-menty strategicheskogo planirovaniya (State environmental policy and documents of strategic planning), Ekologicheskoe pravo. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 24-29.
Received: 20.11.2017
TO THE QUESTION OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF USING FORESTS FOR BUDGETING IN RUSSIA
VERSHILO Tatyana Aleksandrovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Financial Law of the FSBEI HE “Russian State University of Justice”, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
VERSHILO Nikolai Dmitrievich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Land and Environmental Law of the FSBEI HE “Russian State University of Justice”, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article deals with the issues of legal regulation concerning fees for the forests use in the Russian Federation, which goes to the income of the federal budget. The authors propose measures to improve the current environmental and financial legislation of our country.
Key words: payment for forest use, forest, forest fund, income, budget revenue, types of payments, rent, payment on the sales purchase agreement, environmental fund, environmental insurance.
References
1. Vershilo N.D. Ekologo-pravovye osnovy ustoichivogo razvitiya (Ecological and legal basis for sustainable development). Moscow, 2008. 
2. Giryaev M.D., Aksenova K.S., Aksenov P.A. Printsipy ustanovleniya arendnoi platy za drevesinu, otpuskaemuyu na kornyu (Principles of setting rent for wood, let out on a root), Lesnoi vestnik. 2016. № 1. 
3. Il'in V. Osnovy postroeniya ekonomicheskoi organizatsii lesnogo khozyaistva RF [Elek-tronnyi resurs] (Foundations of founding an economic organization of forestry in the RF), LesPromInform. 2017. No. 27 (124). Pp. 26. URL: http://www.lespromin form.ru/jarchive/articles /itemshow/4603.
4. Kashin V.I. Neobkhodima novaya lesnaya politika gosudarstva (New state forest policy is necessary), Pravda. 2012. 5 apr. 
5. Ozerov I.Kh. K voprosu o nashikh severnykh lesakh (To the question of our northern forests). Moscow, 1911. 
6. Po dannym FAO OON, pyat' stran mira vladeyut polovinoi ploshchadi mirovykh lesov: Rossiya (20 %), Braziliya (13 %), Kanada (7,7 %), SShA (7, 5 %), Kitai (5 %) (According to the UN FAO, five countries of the world own half the area of the world's forests: Russia (20%), Brazil (13%), Canada (7.7%), the USA (7, 5%), China (5%)), Rekomendatsii parlamentskikh slushanii na temu «Pravovye i ekonomicheskie aspekty povysheniya effektivnosti i razvitiya lesnogo kompleksa RF. Moscow, 19 fevralya 2015 g. Pp. 2.
7. Petrov V. Novaya ekonomicheskaya politika v lesnom khozyaistve Rossii (New economic policy in the forestry of Russia), LesPromIn-form. 2016. No. 7 (121). URL: http:// www.lesp rominform.ru/jarchive/articles/itemshow/4485.
8. Postanovlenie Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 02 iyunya 2015 g. № 12-P "Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti chasti 2 stat'i 99, chasti 2 stat'i 100 Lesnogo kodeksa Rossiiskoi Federatsii i polozhenii postanovleniya Pravitel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii "Ob ischislenii razmera vreda, prichinennogo lesam vsledstvie narusheniya lesnogo zakonodatel'stva" v svyazi s zhaloboi obshchestva s ogranichennoi otvetstvennost'yu "Zapolyarneft'" (Decree of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of June 2, 2015 No. 12-P "On the case on the verification of the constitutionality of Part 2 of Article 99, Part 2 of Article 100 of the Forest Code of the Russian Federation and the provisions of the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation "On the calculation of the amount of harm caused to forests due to violation of forest legislation" in connection with the complaint of the limited liability company" Zapolyarneft"), Vestnik Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF. 2015. No. 4.
9. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 22 maya 2007 g. № 310 (red. ot 09.06.2014) «O stavkakh platy za edinitsu ob"ema lesnykh resursov i stavkakh platy za edinitsu ploshchadi lesnogo uchastka, nakhodyashchegosya v federal'noi sobstvennosti» (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 310 of May 22, 2007 (Edited on 09.06.2014) "On the rates of payment for a unit of the volume of forest resources and the rates of payment for a unit of the area of a forest being in federal ownership"),  Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2007. No. 23. St. 2787.
10. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 1 fevralya 2016 g. № 53 «Ob utverzhdenii metodiki opredeleniya razmera arendnoi platy po dogovoru arendy lesnogo uchastka, zaklyuchaemomu v sootvetstvii s punktom 2 chasti 4 stat'i 74 Lesnogo kodeksa Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 53 of February 1, 2016 "On approval of the method of determining the amount of rent under the forest lease contract concluded in accordance with paragraph 2 of Part 4 of Article 74 of the Forest Code of the Russian Federation"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2016. No. 6. St. 849.
11. Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of Legislation of the Russian Federation). 2017. No. 23. St. 2787.
Received: 20.11.2017
LEGAL POLICY AS A SOCIO-MORAL PHENOMENON
AZNAGULOVA Guzel Mukhametovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Principal Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Legal policy is viewed in the context of its relationship with the traditions, customs and morals of the people. It is shown that the implementation of goals of legal policy in general and in strengthening national statehood, in particular, should be based on society moral foundations in dialectical conjunction with national-state interests.
Keywords: legal policy, legal conditions, content of legal policy, problem of scientific maintenance of legal policy, morality, moral norms.
References
1. Artkhashastra ili Nauka politiki (Arthashastra or Science of Politics), per. s sanskrita, otv. red. V.V. Struve, izd. podg. V.I. Kal'yanov. Moscow. Nauka, 1993. 
2. Kokoshin A.A. Politika kak obshchestvennyi fenomen: formy i vidy politiki, ee aktory, vzaimootnosheniya s ideologiei, voennoi strategiei i razvedkoi (Politics as a public phenomenon: forms and types of politics, its actors, relationships with ideology, military strategy and intelligence). 3-e izd., ispr. i dop. Moscow. Librokom, 2010. 
3. Matuzov N.I. Obshchaya kontseptsiya i osnovnye prioritety rossiiskoi pravovoi politiki (General concept and main priorities of the Russian legal policy), Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn'. 2000. No. 1. P. 28.
4. Shundikov K.V. Yuridicheskie sredstva realizatsii pravovoi politiki (Legal means of implementing legal policy), Pravovedenie. 1997. No. 4. P. 149.
5. Isakov N.V. Pravovaya politika Rossii: teoreticheskie aspekty (Legal policy in Russia: theoretical aspects), Saratov. Izd-vo SGU, 2003. 
6. Mal'ko A.V. Pravovaya politika sovremennoi Rossii: ot kontseptsii k real'nosti (Legal policy of modern Russia: from concept to reality). V kn. Pravovaya politika. Pravo. Pravovaya sistema, monografiya, pod red. A.V. Mal'ko. Moscow. Yur-litinform, 2013. 
7. Shelling rassmatrivaet mifologiyu kak sistemu verovanii, rozhdennuyu samim narodom. Shelling F.V.E. Sochineniya v 2 t. T. 2 (Schelling views mythology as a system of beliefs, born of the peoples themselves. Schelling F.V.E. Works in 2 volumes, V. 2); per. s nem., sost. i red. A.V. Gulyga. Moscow. Mysl', 1989. 
8. Zhyuvenel' B.de. Vlast': estestvennaya istoriya ee vozrastaniya (Power: the natural history of its increase), per s fr. V.P. Gaidamaka i A.V. Mateshuka. Moscow. IRISEN, Mysl', 2011. 
9. Gegel' G.V.F. Lektsii po estetike. V 2 t. T. 1 (Lectures on aesthetics. In 2 volumes, V. 1). St. Petersburg. Nauka, 2007. 
10. Mal'tsev G.V. Nravstvennye osnovaniya prava (Moral grounds of law), monografiya. 2-e izd., peresmotr. Moscow. Norma: INFRA–M, 2015.
Received: 20.11.2017
THE “ECOLOGY” OF FEDERATIVE RELATIONS IN MODERN RUSSIA
ARZAMASKIN Nikolai Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory of State and Law of the Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Despite the fact that the specifics of federalization in the RSFSR have been thoroughly studied in the scientific literature, the specifics of the formation and improvement of federative relations in modern Russia so far leave much to be desired for researchers. Undoubtedly, the modern form of the Russian state system retains a certain continuity with the federal nature of the RSFSR, and this situation is fraught with many dangers for the modern model of federalism. Therefore, the specifics and peculiarities of Russian federalism today need a scientifically verified development program.
Key words: ecology, society, state, law, sovereignty, federation, federative relations.
References
1. Arzamaskin N.N. Istoriko-teoreticheskie problemy stanovleniya i razvitiya formy rossiiskoi gosudarstvennosti (Historical and theoretical problems of the formation and development of the form of Russian statehood), monografiya. Ul'yanovsk, 2008.
2. Arzamaskin N.N. Federativnoe ustroistvo sovremennoi Rossii v usloviyakh perekhodnosti (The federative structure of modern Russia in transitional conditions), Predstavitel'naya vlast' XXI vek: zakonodatel'stvo, kommentarii, problemy. 2007. No. 1 (74). Pp. 7-10.
3. Arzamaskin N.N. Federalistskaya kul'tura v Rossii (Federalist culture in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2011. No. 1 (23). Pp. 7-9.
4. Arzamaskin N.N., Smirnov S.V. Suverenitet sovremennogo gosudarstva v usloviyakh glo-balizatsii (Sovereignty of the modern state in globalization conditions), monografiya. Ul'yanovsk. UlGU, 2012.
5. Vert N. Istoriya sovetskogo gosudarstva. 1990-1991 (History of the Soviet state. 1990-1991), per. s fr. Moscow, 1992. 
6. Galiev F.Kh. Sochetanie traditsionnogo i pravovogo regulyatorov v pravovoi kul'ture federativnogo gosudarstva (The combination of traditional and legal regulators in legal culture of a federal state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2009. No. 3 (17). Pp. 17-20.
7. Zubov A.B. Plyuralizm totalitarnosti (Pluralism of totalitarianism), Politicheskie issledovaniya. 1993. No. 6. 
8. Kurashvili B.P. Kriticheskaya faza perestroiki. Pravo i vlast' (The critical phase of perestroika. Law and power). Moscow, 1990. 
9. Konstitutsionnyi vestnik (The constitutional bulletin). 1991. No. 8. 
10. Luk'yanov A.I. Nevol'niki idei (Slaves of ideas), Rossiiskaya Federatsiya. 1994. No. 7.
11. Novaya Rossiya na puti k obshchemu domu (New Russia on the way to the common house), Novyi mir. 1994. No. 1. 
12. Petrov N.V. Chto takoe polietnizm ? Territorial'no-etnicheskie prityazaniya i konflikty na territorii byvshego SSSR (What is polyethnism? Territorial and ethnic claims and conflicts in the territory of the former USSR), Politicheskoe issledovaniya. 1993. No. 6.
13. Rayanov F. M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The Concept of sustainable development and Russian State-Legal Reality), Pravo i politika. 2004. No. 12 (60). Pp. 5-10.
14. Rayanov F. M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (The Federation is not an end in itself), Vlast'. 1996. No. 3. Pp. 71-73.
15. Vengerov A.B. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava. Ch. 1. Teoriya gosudarstva (Theory of state and law. Part 1. Theory of state). Moscow, 1995. 
16. Tishkov V. Tupiki natsional'noi gosudarstvennosti (Dead ends of national statehood), Pravda. 1990. 4 sent.
17. Uvarov A.A. Novoe ustroistvo Rossiiskoi Federatsii (New structure of the Russian Federation), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 1992. No. 8. 
18. Umnova I.A. Evolyutsiya pravovogo statusa kraya, oblasti kak sub"ekta RF (Evolution of legal status of a region as a subject of the Russian Federation), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 1994. No. 8-9. 
19. Chistyakov O.I. O natsional'no-gosudarstvennom razmezhevanii v period stanovleniya Rossiiskoi Federatsii (On the national-state delimitation in the period of formation of the Russian Federation), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. Moscow. Nauka, 1991. No. 1. Pp. 143-151.
Received: 20.11.2017
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AS A PROBLEM OF NATIONAL SECURITY
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, the problems of environmental protection have become particularly topical and have begun to alarm all of humankind. At the same time, there is a tendency to turn to the state, mentioning the state as the only force capable to settle the exacerbated environmental situation. At the same time, it is possible to solve the problem of environmental protection only based on joint efforts of the state and the whole society. The mechanism of legal impact on people’s consciousness and behavior is directly related to the formation of legal consciousness corresponding to modern requirements; this legal consciousness should be oriented not only to the realization of human rights and freedoms, including the right to a favorable environment, but also to environmental friendliness, environmental protection, which is the main component of the national wealth of the people. Therefore, environmental protection is one of the priority areas for ensuring national security of the country.
Key words: ecology, legal consciousness, human rights and freedoms, legal impact mechanism, environmental protection.
References
1. Komarov S.A. Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava (General theory of state and law). Uchebnik. 8-izd., ispr i dop. St. Petersburg. Izdatel'stvo Yuridicheskogo instituta, 2012. 
2. Rad'ko T.N. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava v skhemakh i opredeleniyakh (theory of state and law in schemes and definitions): uchebnoe posobie. Moscow. Prospekt, 2014. 
3. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i sootnosheniya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: problems of understanding and correlation): monografiya. Moscow. Yurlitinform, 2015. 
4. Lipatov A.A., Kupreichenko A.B., Gromova A.I., Shrader Kh. Pravil'noe obshchestvo (Correct Society), pod. red. Yu.V. Veselova. St. Petersburg. Piter, 2015.  
5. Rayanov F.M. Pravovaya organizatsiya obshchestvennoi zhizni: teoriya i praktika (Legal organization of public life: theory and practice), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2004. No. 12.
6. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy i pravovaya kul'tura v prizme istoricheskogo razvitiya (Social norms and legal culture in the prism of historical development), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava. 2010. No. 2. Pp. 5-9.
7. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestven-noi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauch-no-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa, 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2-kh ch. Ch. 1. Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2015. Pp. 3-10. 
8. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions): monografiya. Moscow. Yurlitinform, 2017.   
9. Mal'ko A.V. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava v voprosakh i otvetakh (Theory of state and law in questions and answers): uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie. 5-e izd., ispr. i dop. Moscow. Izdatel'skii dom «Delo» RANKhiGS, 2014. 
10. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of topical issues of the relationship of the idea of law and the idea of justice in the XX-XXI centuries)), monografiya. St. Petersburg. Fond «Universitet», 2017. 
11. From E. Zdorovoe obshchestvo (Healthy society), per. s angl. T. Banketovoi. Moscow. AST: AST MOSKVA, 2009. 
12. Rayanov F.M., Gardanov A.Sh. Razmyshleniya o gosudarstve (Reflections on the state). Ufa, 1994.
13. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya samoorganizatsiya poryadka (Legal culture as a legal self-organization of order), Pravo i politika. 2011. No. 4 (136). Pp. 670-676. 
14. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz (State law "diseases": historical diagnosis). Nauchno-populyarnoe izdanie. Ufa. NIIPP, 2005. 
15. Mal'tsev G.V. Ponimanie prava. Podkhody i problemy (Understanding the law. Approaches and problems). Moscow. Prometei, 1999. 
16. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and the Russian state-legal reality), Pravo i politika. 2004. No. 12. 
17. Dukhno N.A. Ekologicheskie pravovye problemy v trudakh V.V. Petrova (Environmental legal problems in the works of V.V. Petrov), Agrarnoe i zemel'noe pravo. 2009. No. 3 (51). 
18. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law). Ufa. Izd-nie Bashkirsk. un-ta, 1998. 
19. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva: istoriko-tsivilizatsionnyi podkhod (The essence of the rule-of-law state: historical and civilization approach), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2012. No. 4 (30). 
20. Rayanov F.M. Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan kak sub"ekta Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The system of legislation of the Republic of Bashkortostan as a subject of the Russian Federation), Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan: stanovlenie i dal'neishee razvitie, materialy Respublikanskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (27 fevralya 1996 g., g. Ufa). Akademiya nauk Respubliki Bashkortostan. Ufa, 1996.
Received: 20.11.2017
THE ROLE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
GIZZATULLIN Ravil Khasanovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Based on the analysis of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, determining the political and legal status of the President of the Russian Federation as head of the state, guarantor of the Constitution, of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, as well as establishing his powers, the author comes to the conclusion that the President of Russia plays a special role in  national environmental policy. This is reflected in the fact that the head of the state not only determines its main directions, but actually predetermines its efficiency through legal forms of influence on activity of institutions of public authority in the framework of realization of national environmental  policy – formation and further development of environmental legislation, its status and ability to provide effective legal regulation of relations in the sphere of interaction of society and nature, consistent and strict implementation of environmental laws.
Key words: national environmental policy, President of the Russian Federation, head of the state, governmental power, environmental law.
References
1. Dokument oficial'no opublikovan ne byl (The document has not been officially published). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tant Pljus».
2. Kommentarij k Konstitucii Rossijskoj Federacii (Commentary on the Constitution of the Russian Federation), pod red. V.D. Zor'kina, L.V. Lazareva. M. : «Jeksmo», 2010.  [Electronic resource]. Dostup iz IPO «Garant». 
3. Sobr. Zakonodatel’stva Ros. Federatsii (Collection of Legislation of the Russian Federation). 2000. No. 36, st. 3633.
4. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 04 fevralja 1994 g. № 236 «O gosudarstvennoj strategii Rossijskoj Federacii po ohrane okruzhajushhej sredy i obespecheniju ustojchivogo razvitija» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of February 4, 1994, No. 236 «On the State Strategy of the Russian Federation for the Protection of the Environment and Ensuring Sustainable Development»), SAPP RF, 1994, № 6, st. 436. 
5. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 19 aprelja 2017 g. № 176 «O Strategii jekologicheskoj bezopasnosti Rossijskoj Federacii na period do 2025 goda» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 19, 2017 № 176 «On the Strategy of Ecological Safety of the Russian Federation for the period until 2025»), Sobr. Zakonodatel’stva Ros. Federatsii. 2017. No. 17, st. 2546.
Received: 20.11.2017
THE PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPING THE TWO –TIER ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIVE SYSTEM
ENIKEEV Zufar Irgalievich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Chairman of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Россия.
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In the article, the author tells about the history of establishing the two-tier environmental legislation, considers the ways of its improvement. He highlights the arising legal conflicts between federal legislative acts and the acts of the Russian Federation’s subjects, points out the practical importance of the clear delimitation of matters of jurisdiction and authority between the government bodies of the Federation and the subjects. According to the author, the establishment of the institution of authorized representatives of the Russian Federation’s subjects in the Russian Federation’s State Duma could be one of the most important steps in the establishment of truly federative relations in the country. It is necessary to unite efforts of the Federation’s subjects in the law-making activity of the country’s Parliament. The author focuses on the fact that the condition of realization and the most important component of the regional ecological policy is the existence of the legal framework of the regional level and it is necessary to organize relevant scientific research for the further improvement of the system of environmental legislation of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Key words: two-tier system, environmental legislation, matters of joint jurisdiction, subjects’ law-making, correlation of federative and regional legislative systems.
References
1. Federal'nyi zakon ot 24.06.1999 N 119-FZ (red. ot 20.05.2002) "O printsipakh i poryadke razgranicheniya predmetov vedeniya i polnomochii mezhdu organami gosudarstvennoi vlasti Rossiiskoi Federatsii i organami gosudarstvennoi vlasti sub"ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii" (Federal Law No. 119-FZ of 24.06.1999 (as amended on 20.05.2002) "On the principles and procedure for the delimitation of the subjects of jurisdiction and authority between the bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and the state authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation).
2. Tekushchii arkhiv Gosudarstvennogo Sobraniya – Kurultaya Respubliki Bashkortostan (The current archive of the State Assembly - the Kurultai of the Republic of Bashkortostan.).
3. Borodavkina N. M. Pravovoe regulirovanie ekologicheskikh otnoshenii v sub"ektakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Legal regulation of ecological relations in the subjects of the Russian Federation), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Ufa, 1999. 
4. Malikova E. M. Ekologicheskoe zakonodatel'stvo Respubliki Bashkortostan (Ecological legislation of the Republic of Bashkortostan), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Ufa, 1995.
Received: 20.11.2017
ON THE PROBLEM OF IMPROVING LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL WELL-BEING 
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
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The well-being of people depends on many factors, among which today the most important is the relevant state of the environment. The problems related to ecology should be eliminated in the coming years, and this, first of all, depends on the features of legal justification of means and methods for solving environmental issues. The efforts of both state bodies and civil society institutions should be aimed at the solution of these problems. Reasonable attitude to nature should be one of the constituent elements of legal and general culture of a modern human being.
Key words: environmental protection, ecological well-being, sustainable development concept, natural resources, reasonable consumption, legal culture.
References
1. Lipatov A.A., Kupreichenko A.B., Gromova A.I., Shreder Kh. Pravil'noe obshchestvo (The right society), pod red. Yu.V. Veselova. St. Petersburg. Piter, 2015. 
2. Valyanskii S.I., Kalyuzhnyi D.V. Tretii put' tsivilizatsii, ili spaset li Rossiya mir? (The third way of civilization, or will Russia save the world?). Moscow. Izd-vo Eksmo, 2002. 
3. Stepin V.S., Tolstykh V.N. Demokratiya i sud'by tsivilizatsii (Democracy and the fate of civilization), Voprosy filosofii. 1996. No. 10.
4. Blekher L., Lyubarskii G. Glavnyi russkii spor: ot zapadnikov i slavyanofilov do globalizma i Novogo Srednevekov'ya (The main Russian dispute: from Westerners and Slavophiles to glo- balism and the New Middle Ages). Moscow. Akademicheskii Proekt; Institut fonda «Obshche-stvennoe mnenie», 2003.  
5. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and the Russian state-legal reality), Pravo i politika. 2004. No. 12 (60). 
6. Yakovlev V.F. Pravovoe gosudarstvo: voprosy formirovaniya (The rule-of-law state: issues of formation). T. 1. Moscow, 2012. 
7. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. No. 2 (22). 
8. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsiokul'-turnom izmerenii (The concepts of "rule-of-law state" and "civil society" in the socio-cultural dimension), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2012. No. 4 (30). Pp. 20-25.
9. Galiev F.Kh. Tsifrovye parametry pravovoi kul'tury (Digital parameters of legal culture), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 2012. No. 2 (45). Pp. 52-54.
10. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura v tsifrovykh pokazatelyakh (Legal culture in digital terms), Yuridicheskaya mysl'. 2012. No. 4 (72). Pp. 33-39.
11. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v oteche-stvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii : sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2-kh ch. Ch. 1. Ufa: RITs BashGU, 2015. Pp. 3-11.
12. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya real'nost' (Legal culture as a legal reality), Politika i obshchestvo. 2011. No. 4. Pp. 77-82.
Received: 20.11.2017
ON LEGAL POLICY IN THE FIELD OF DIFFERENTIATION AND INDIVIDUALIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of Togliatti State University, Tolyatti, Russia.
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The article is prepared based on the presentation at the international scientific and practical conference "Actual Problems of State Environmental Policy", which was held on October 18, 2017 in the Bashkir State University. The author considers the legal policy in the field of environmental responsibility as part of legal policy, one of the principles of which is the differentiation and individualization of legal responsibility. The interdisciplinary nature of environmental and legal responsibility is justified and sanctions for environmental offenses are analyzed. It is suggested that it is necessary to expand the list of alternative sanctions in order to individualize environmental and legal responsibility, it is inadmissible to exceed the upper limit of administrative fine above the lower limit of fine provided for by criminal legislation. Attention is paid to positive environmental and legal responsibility, measures of which are incentives enshrined in incentive sanctions. The author proves the need to consolidate in  environmental legislation not only benefits, but incentives for socially active lawful activities in the field of environmental protection. The article contains recommendations aimed at improving the current legislation in the field of environmental protection.
Key words: legal responsibility; environmental and legal responsibility; incentive sanctions; alternative sanctions; measures of environmental and legal responsibility; legal policy; individualization; differentiation.
References
1. Proekt koncepcii pravovoj politiki v sfere juridicheskoj otvetstvennosti (Draft concept of legal policy in the field of legal responsibility). A.V. Mal'ko, D.A. Lipinskij i dr. ; pod red. A.V. Mal'ko i D.A. Lipinskogo. M. : RIOR, 2015. 
2. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 14 fevralja 2013 goda № 4-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti Federal'nogo zakona «O vnesenii izmenenij v Kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ob administrativnyh pravonarushenijah i Federal'nyj zakon «O sobranijah, mitingah, demonstracijah, shestvijah i piketirovanijah» v svjazi s zaprosom gruppy deputatov Gosudarstvennoj Dumy i zhaloboj grazhdanina Je.V. Savenko» (Decree of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of February 14, 2013 No. 4-P "On the case on the verification of the constitutionality of the Federal Law "On Amendments to the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses” and the Federal Law "On Meetings, Demonstrations, Processions and Picketing" in connection with the request of a group of deputies of the State Duma and the complaint of citizen E.V. Savenko”). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2013. № 8. St. 868. 
3. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo suda RF ot 25 fevralja 2014 g. № 4-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti rjada polozhenij statej 7.3, 9.1, 14.43, 15.19, 15.23.1 i 19.7.3 Kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii ob administrativnyh pravonarushenijah v svjazi s zaprosom Arbitrazhnogo suda Nizhegorodskoj oblasti i zhalobami obshhestv s ogranichennoj otvetstvennost'ju «Baryshskij mjasokombinat» i «Volmet», otkrytyh akcionernyh obshhestv zavod «Rekond», «Jekspluatacionno-tehnicheskij uzel svjazi» i «Jelektronkompleks», zakrytyh akcionernyh obshhestv «Geotehnika – p» i «Rang» i Bjudzhetnogo uchrezhdenija zdravoohranenija udmurtskoj respubliki «Detskaja gorodskaja bol'nica № 3 «Nejron» Ministerstva zdravoohranenija Udmurtskoj respubliki» (Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of February 25, 2014 No. 4-P "On the case on the verification of the constitutionality of a number of provisions of Articles 7.3, 9.1, 14.43, 15.19, 15.23.1 and 19.7.3 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation in connection with the request of the Arbitration Court of the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the complaints of the limited liability companies “Baryshsky Meat-Packing Plant” and “Volmet”, the open joint-stock companies  “Rekond Plant”, “Operational and Technical Communication Center” and “Electroncomplex”, the closed joint-stock companies “Geotechnika-p” and “Rang" and the Budget health facilities of the Udmurt Republic "Children's City Hospital No. 3 "Neuron" of the Ministry of Health of the Udmurt Republic"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii ot 10 marta 2014 g. № 8. St. 868.
4. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 17 janvarja 2013 goda № 1-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti polozhenija chasti 5 stat'i 19.8 Kodeksa RF ob administrativnyh pravonarushenijah v svjazi s zhaloboj obshhestva s ogranichennoj otvetstvennost'ju «Masljanskij hlebopriemnyj punkt» (Decree of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of January 17, 2013 No. 1-P "On the case on the verification of the constitutionality of the provision of Part 5 of Article 19.8 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses in connection with the complaint of the limited liability company "Maslyansky Grain-Receiving station" ), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2013. № 4. St. 304. 
5. Lipinskij D.A. K voprosu o mehanizme differenciacii i individualizacii pozitivnoj juridicheskoj otvetstvennosti (To the question of the mechanism of differentiation and individualization of positive legal responsibility), Pravo i politika. 2017. № 8. S.91-106. DOI: 10.7256/2454-0706.2017.8.23838. URL: http://e-notabene.ru/plp/article_23838.html. 
6. Bykovskij V.K. Taksovaja otvetstvennost' za narushenie lesnogo zakonodatel'stva (Tariff liability for violation of forest legislation), Lex Russica (nauchnye trudy MGJuA). 2011. № 3. Pp. 484-490.
7. Romanov V. Grazhdansko-pravovaja otvetstvennost' za narushenie lesnogo zakonodatel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii (Civil liability for violation of forest legislation of the Russian Federation), Rossijskaja justicija. 1998. № 9.  Pp. 45-48.
8. Lipinskij D.A., Shishkin A.G. Sub"ektivnoe pravo i juridicheskaja objazannost' kak mery pozitivnoj juridicheskoj otvetstvennosti (Subjective law and legal obligation as measures of positive legal responsibility), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2014. № 10. Pp. 5-14.
9. Barshinov V.I. Pravovoe regulirovanie stimulirovanija ohrany okruzhajushhej sredy (Legal regulation of stimulation of environmental protection): avtoref. dis. … kand. jurid. nauk. M., 2009. 
Received: 20.11.201
NATIONAL POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE SPHERE OF WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION AND THE PROBLEMS OF ITS REALIZATION
LUNEVA Elena Viktorovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Environmental, Labor Law and Civil Procedure of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
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SAFIN Zavdat Faizrakhmanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Environmental, Labor Law and Civil Procedure of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
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This article reviews political and legal documents of the environmental character related to water management and conservation. These documents recognize the need to ensure integrated and rational water use, as well as the necessity for achieving high ecological standards of water bodies, preventing water adverse impact, improving safety of hydraulic structures and other activities. The main problem of state policy in the field of water management and conservation is that political and legal documents do not determine the main directions for the development of water and other sectoral legislation. The authors reveal that it is necessary to improve the regulation of water use agreement, legal regimes of ponds, hydraulic structures, self-cleaning ability of water bodies and other areas of legal validity concerning water management and conservation. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to determine the main directions of the state policy on the development of the relevant legislation at the level of political and legal documents. 
Key words: water resources, national environmental policy, development of water legislation, water use agreement, ponds, hydraulic structures.
References
1. Volkov G.A. Pravovoi rezhim prudov i obvodnennykh kar'erov: kto sobstvennik? (Legal regime of ponds and watered quarries: who is the owner?), Ekologicheskoe pravo. 2012. No. 5. Pp. 24-27.
2. Luneva E.V. Pravovaya sushchnost' assimilyatsionnogo potentsiala okruzhayushchei sredy: post-anovka problem (The legal essence of the assimilative potential of environment: formulation of the problem), Yurist. 2017. No. 11. Pp. 30-35.
3. Luneva E.V. Ratsional'noe ispol'zovanie prirodnykh resursov: ponyatie i pravovye kriterii (Ra-tional use of natural resources: concept and legal criteria),  Lex Russica. 2017. No. 8. Pp. 61-72.
4. Luneva E.V., Safin Z.F. Sistema dogovorov po ispol'zovaniyu vodnykh resursov (The system of contracts for the use of water resources), Vestnik Saratovskoi gosudarstvennoi yuridicheskoi akade-mii. 2016. No. 6 (113). Pp. 95-102.
5. Rumyantsev F.P. O prirode dogovora vodopol'zovaniya (On the Nature of the water use contract), Nauka segodnya: vyzovy i re-sheniya, materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Vologda. Nauchnyi tsentr «Disput», 2016. Pp. 141-142.
6. Sivakov D.O. Vodnyi ob"ekt i vodnyi fond kak pravovye ponyatiya (Water object and water fund as legal concepts), Lex russica. 2016. No. 6. Pp. 91-102.
Received: 20.11.2017
NATIONAL ALTERNATIVE FOR DEVELOPING "ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS"
POLSTOVALOV Oleg Vladimirovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
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The article analyzes the problem of "environmental forensics" as an applied direction of interdisciplinary nature, oriented not only to ensuring the process of investigation and disclosure of a crime, but also to all spheres of law enforcement practice already at the level of current dangerous crime situations. The author does not pretend to change the system of forensics, but dwells on the generalization and adoption in the framework of the well-known national traditions of foreign experience for the most part freedom from the branch belonging of the corresponding expert practices.
Key words: environmental forensics, forensic crime prevention, subject of forensics, interdisciplinary researches.
References
1. Suggs, Jennifer A. Environmental crime. Prepared for: 16th International Forensic Science Symposium. October 5-8, 2010. Denver, Colorado: National Enforcement Investigations Center, 2010. 
2. Wenning R.J., Simmons K. Editorial. Environmental Forensics. 2000. March. P. 1:1.
3. Morrison, Robert D. Environmental forensics : principles and applications. New York, Washington, DC: CRC Press LLC, 2000. P. 3.
4. Environmental Forensics. Contaminant Specific Guide. Editors Robert D. Morrison, Ph.D. Brian L. Murphy, Ph.D. Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo: Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier, 2006. 
5. Petrisor I.G. Environmental forensics fundamentals. A Practical Guide. Boca Raton, London, New York. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. 
6. Popov V.A. Raskrytie i rassledovanie ekologicheskikh prestuplenii (informatsionnyi aspekt) (Dis-closure and investigation of environmental crimes (information aspect)), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2005; Osipova E. V. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy rassledovaniya ekologicheskikh (Theoretical and practical problems of ecological investigation), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk.  Kaliningrad, 2005; Krichun S.V. Kriminalisticheskie osnovy obespecheniya ekologicheskoi bezopasnosti Rossii (Forensic bases of the maintenance of ecological safety of Russia), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Stavropol', 2009; Taraiko V.I. Raskrytie i rassledovanie ekologicheskikh prestuplenii (Disclosure and investigation of environmental crimes), monografiya. Moscow. Yurlitinform, 2013; Petrukhina O.A. Rassledovanie ekologicheskikh prestuplenii (Investigation of environmental crimes), uchebnoe posobie. Moscow. Yurlitinform, 2015 i dr.
7. Ivanova L.A. Kriminalisticheskaya kharakteristika i pervonachal'nyi etap rassledovaniya prestuple-nii, svyazannykh s zagryazneniem vod i atmosfery (Forensic characteristics and the initial stage of in-vestigation of crimes related to water and atmosphere pollution), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Ekaterin-burg, 2003; Yakovleva O.A. Kriminalisticheskaya kharakteristika i pervonachal'-nyi etap rassledo-vaniya ekologicheskikh prestuplenii, svyazannykh s narusheniem pravil okhrany okruzhayushchei sredy pri proizvodstve rabot (Forensic characteristics and the initial stage of the investigation of environmental crimes related to violation of the rules of environmental protection in the production of works), dis.  … kand. yurid. nauk. Volgograd, 2005; Kuzovkin A.S. Metodika rassledovaniya ekologicheskikh prestuplenii, sovershennykh v protsesse dobychi uglevodorodov (Methodology for investigating environmental crimes committed in the process of hydrocarbon production), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Surgut, 2008; Ruzmetov S.A. Ispol'zovanie spetsial'nykh poznanii pri rassledovanii ekologicheskikh prestuplenii (Use of special knowledge in the investigation of environmental crimes), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Kaliningrad, 2003; Golovan' O.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie osnovy ispol'zovaniya spetsial'nykh znanii pri rassledovanii ekologicheskikh prestuplenii (Theoretical and practical bases of the use of special knowledge in the investigation of environmental crimes), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Krasnodar, 2008 i dr.
8. Melent'ev V.V., Melent'ev K.V., Petterssen L.Kh. Metody i sredstva sputnikovoi eko-logicheskoi kriminalistiki i ikh ispol'zovanie dlya kontrolya dobychi i transportirovki nefti (Methods and means of satellite environmental criminology and their use for controlling the extraction and transportation of oil), Regional'naya ekologiya. 2013. No. 1–2 (34). Pp. 86-103.
9. Shagimuratova Z.A. Vostrebovannost' kriminalisticheskikh znanii za predelami ugolovnogo sudo-proizvodstva (Demand for forensic knowledge beyond criminal proceedings), Pravovoe gosudar-stvo: teoriya i praktika. 2017. No. 2 (48). Pp. 157-161.
10. Uchebno-metodicheskii kompleks distsipliny «Ekologicheskaya kriminalistika» (Educational-methodical complex of the discipline "Environmental Forensics"). Murmansk, 2014. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL : http://murmansk.buepl.ru/files/annot/opd-v-02-02.pdf (accessed date: 23.06.2017).
Received: 20.11.2017
ECOCENTRISM IN MODERN POLITICAL AND LEGAL DISCOURSE (ON NEW SUBJECTS OF LAW)
POPOVA Anna Vladislavovna
Doctor of Law, Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Associate Professor, Professor of the 
Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University"; Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity 
of the FSEBI HE "Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation"; Professor of the Chair of Constitutional Law of the Institute of Law and National Security of the FSEBI HE "Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public 
Administration", Moscow, Russia.
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ABRAMOVA Marianna Grigorievna
Candidate of Sciences (History), Master in Law, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Public Policy of the Faculty of Political Science of the FSEBI HE “Lomonosov Moscow State University”, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The problem concerning Man’s place and his role in Nature is acquiring evermore importance in the present-day world. The anthropocentric approach, which is characteristic of the Western model of human life in the world, has led us into a blind alley. The given article offers an analysis of certain novelties in the legislation of several countries (Bolivia, Ecuador, Germany and others) that have conferred upon Nature and animals the legal right of a subject of law; they insist upon the inter-dependence of rights and duties of Nature and Man, and raise the question of a state-sponsored ecology policy. The authors arrive at the conclusion that only such an approach of humanity to the regulation of these relations can naturally lead to the development of new norms of law regulating the interaction of Nature, society and man.
Key words: Man, Nature, consciousness, subject of law, collective rights, nature management.
References
1. Abramova M.G. Politiko-pravovaya aksiologiya novogo konstitutsionnogo stroitel'stva v Latinskoi Amerike (Politico-legal axiology of the new constitutional construction in Latin America), Yuridicheskaya mysl'. 2014. No. 4.
2. Antologiya mirovoi filosofii (Anthology of world philosophy). V 4-kh t. Red.-sost., avt. vstup. st. V.V. Sokolov. T. 1. Filosofiya drevnosti i srednevekov'ya. Ch. 2. Moskva. Mysl', 1969.
3. Belov V.A. Evropeiskoe «svinskoe» pravo? (k voprosu ob odnoi Direktive Soveta Ev-ropeiskogo Soyuza) (European "swinish" law? (On the question of one Directive of the Council of the European Union)), Zakon. 2014. No. 7 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URK: consultant.ru (accessed date: 01.02.2017).
4. Gorokhov D.B., Gorokhova Yu.V. Zhivotnye i rasteniya sub"ekty prava po zakonodatel'stvu Rossiiskoi Federatsii: konstatatsiya absurda ili nauchnoe otkrytie? (Animals and plants subjects of law by the legislation of the Russian Federation: a statement of absurdity or a scientific discovery?), Advokat. 2016. No. 11 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URK: consultant.ru (accessed date: 01.02.2017).
5. Eroshina T.A. Problema cheloveka v filosofii Drevnego Vostoka (The problem of man in the philosophy of the Ancient East), Lichnost' v menya-yushchemsya mire: zdorov'e, adaptatsiya, razvitie. 2014. No. 1 (4). Pp. 3 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: www.humjournal.rzgmu.ru (accessed date:  12.02.2017).
6. Zakony Manu (Laws of Manu). [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: www. Bharatia.ru (accessed date: 12.02.2017).
7. Ivanova O.V. Puti garmonizatsii otnoshenii cheloveka i prirody (Ways to harmonize relations be-tween man and nature), Sotsial'no-ekologicheskie tekhnologii. 2015. No. 1-2. Pp. 5-12.
8. Kozikov I.A. M.V. Lomonosov, D.I. Mendeleev, V.I. Vernadskii o Rossii (M.V. Lomonosov, D.I. Mendeleev, V.I. Vernadsky about Russia). Moscow. Izd-vo Moskovskogo universiteta, 2011. 
9. Kochergin A.A., Kochergin A.N. Koevolyutsionnoe vzaimodeistvie obshchestva i prirody kak uslovie perekhoda biosfery v noosferu (Co-evolutionary interaction of society and nature as a condition for the transition of the biosphere to the noosphere), Biocosmology – neo-Aristotelism. 2015. No. 2. T. 5. Pp. 158-173.
10. Myakinnikov S.P. Spetsifika zapadnogo tipa mirovozzreniya obshchestva kak prepyatstvie dlya global'noi ekologizatsii (Specificity of the Western type of the world outlook of society as an ob-stacle to global ecologization), Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2015. No. 7 (182). Pp. 30-37.
11. Popova A.V., Abramova M.G. Konstitutsionnoe pravo zarubezhnykh stran (Constitutional law of foreign countries): uchebnik i praktikum dlya akademicheskogo bakalavriata. Moscow. Izd-vo Yurait, 2016.  
12. Rezhabek B.G. Uchenie V.I. Vernadskogo o noosfere i poisk puti vykhoda iz global'nykh krizisov (The doctrine of V.I. Vernadsky of the noosphere and the search for a way out of global crises), Vek globalizatsii. 2008. No. 1. Pp. 159-167. 
13. Rovinskii R.E. Biosfera i fenomen cheloveka (The biosphere and the phenomenon of man), No-vaya epokha. 1996. No. 2 (10). Pp. 159-167 [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.newepoch.ru/ journals/10-8/biosphere.html (accessed date: 14.02.2017).
14. Declaracion Universal de los Derechos de la Madre Tierra [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL:  http://rio20.net/propuestas/declaracion-universal-de-los-derechos-de-la-madre-tierra/ (accessed date: 12.02.2017).
15. Ley De de la Madre Tierra [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.slideshare.net/ ecuadordemo-cratico/bolivia-ley-de-la-madre-tierra (accessed date: 12.02.2017).
Received: 20.11.2017
SUPERVISION OVER COMPLIANCE WITH FOREST LEGISLATION
USTYUKOVA Valentina Vladimirovna
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Head of the Sector of Agrarian and Land law, Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science, Institute of State and Law, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In the paper on the basis of the analysis of judicial practice, the author examines the activities of the bodies exercising state forest supervision, reveals shortcomings in their activities, and also shows the important role of these bodies to promote reasonable multi-purpose and sustainable forest management while maintaining their ecological functions.
Key words: forest monitoring, forest protection service, environmental supervision, state fire supervision, offense, administrative responsibility for violation of forest legislation.
References
1. Likhacheva E.Yu., Baskakova S.I. Nadzor za ispolneniem lesnogo zakonodatel'stva (Supervision over the implementation of forest legislation), Zakonnost'. 2011. No. 1. Pp. 14-18.
2. Poryadok organizatsii raboty po kontrolyu i nadzoru za ispolneniem organami gosudarstvennoi vlasti sub"ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii peredannykh im polnomochii Rossiiskoi Federatsii po osushchestvleniyu gosudarstvennogo lesnogo kontrolya i nadzora (utv. Prikazom Minsel'khoza Rossii ot 26 sentyabrya 2008 g. № 443) (The order of organization of work to control and supervise the execution by state authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation of the powers of the Russian Federation referred to them to implement state forest control and supervision (approved by Order No. 443 of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation of September 26, 2008)). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Zakonodatel'stvo.
3. Postanovlenie Federal'nogo arbitrazhnogo suda Zapadno-Sibirskogo okruga ot 06.04.2010 № A03-387/2010 (Judgment of the Federal Arbitration Court of the West Siberian District of 06.04.2010 No. A03-387 / 2010). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
4. Postanovlenie Desyatogo apellyatsionnogo suda ot 02.02.2015 № 10AP-16265/2014 po delu № A41-68428/14 (Judgment of the Tenth Appeal Court of 02.02.2015 No. 10AP-16265/2014 in case No. A41-68428 / 14). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
5. Postanovlenie Federal'nogo arbitrazhnogo suda Volgo-Vyatskogo okruga ot 26.11.2015 g. po delu № A29-15/2015 (Judgment of the Federal Arbitration Court of the Volga-Vyatka District of 26.11.2015 in case No. A29-15 / 2015). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
6. Postanovlenie Federal'nogo arbitrazhnogo suda Volgo-Vyatskogo okruga ot 28.04.2015 g. po delu № A29-4556/2014 (Judgment of the Federal Arbitration Court of the Volga-Vyatka District of 28.04.2015 in case No. A29-4556 / 2014). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
7. Postanovlenie Federal'nogo arbitrazhnogo suda Moskovskogo okruga ot 18.05.2015 g. po delu № A41-52612/14 (Judgment of the Federal Arbitration Court of the Moscow District of 18.05.2015 in case No. A41-52612 / 14). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
8. Postanovlenie Federal'nogo arbitrazhnogo suda Moskovskogo okruga ot 8.07.2015 g. po delu № A41-67704/14 (Judgment of the Federal Arbitration Court of the Moscow District of 8 July 2015. in case No. A41-67704). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
9. Postanovlenie Federal'nogo arbitrazhnogo suda Vostochno-Sibirskogo okruga ot 03.04.2014 g. po delu № A19-7223/2013 (Judgment of the Federal Arbitration Court of the East Siberian District of 04/03/2014 in case No. A19-7223 / 2013). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika.
10. Reshenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Respubliki Kareliya ot 30.10.2009 po delu № A26-8377/2009 (De-cision of the Arbitration Court of the Republic of Karelia on 30.10.2009 in case No. A26-8377 / 2009). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus. Sudebnaya praktika. 
11. Shupletsova Yu.I. Perspektivy i napravleniya razvitiya lesnogo zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Prospects and directions of the development of forest legislation of the Russian Federation), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava. 2015. No. 3. Pp. 72-79.
Received: 20.11.2017
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT OF THE PERSON TO A FAVORABLE ENVIRONMENT
UTYASHEV Marat Mukharovich
Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa. Russia.
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The article is devoted to three problems that make up the content of the constitutional right of the individual to a favorable environment. The author proceeds from the fact that the realization of the right under consideration depends entirely on the state authorities: this is the right to receive objective, complete and timely information about the state of the environment and the right to compensation for harm to the person or property from an environmental offense, and the right to participate in the discussion and decision-making related to environmental problems. State power, in the author's opinion, does not take all the necessary measures to implement these human rights.
Key words: constitutional right, ecology, damage compensation, environmental information, objective information, public participation, individual rights.
References
1. Kommentarii k Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Commentary on the Constitution of the Russian Federation), pod red. V.D. Zor'kina. Moscow, 2009.
Received: 20.11.2017
PROCEDURAL AND TACTICAL FEATURES OF COURT HEARING AND EXAMINING THE DEFENDANT’S TESTIMONY IN TRYING CASES OVER ENVIRONMENTAL OFFENSES
KHISMATULLIN Rashit Sagitovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
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MINIBAEVA Diana Farkhatovna
Assistant to the Chairperson of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article analyzes procedural and tactical features of court hearing and examining the defendant’s testimony in trying cases over environmental offenses. The most typical situations of the defendants' behavior when giving testimony are highlighted. Some proposals have been made to improve the criminal procedure legislation.
References
1. Poslanie Prezidenta Rossiiskoi Federatsii Federal'nomu Sobraniyu ot 01 dekabrya 2016 goda (Ad-dress of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of December 1, 2016)б Parlamentskaya gazeta. No. 45. 02-08. 12.2016. [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
2. Obzor sudebnoi praktiki Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Review of the judicial practice of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation), Ofitsial'nyi sait Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Fed-eratsii [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.supcourt.ru (accessed date: 24.09.2017).
3. Khismatullin R.S. Preduprezhdenie sudom prestuplenii v sfere ekonomicheskoi deyatel'nosti kak odno iz napravlenii protivodeistviya ekstremizmu v Rossii (Court prevention of crimes in the sphere of economic activity as one of the directions of counteraction to extremism in Russia), Natsionalnaya bezopasnost' v sovremennoi Rossii: strategiya protivodeistviya ekstremizmu i terrorizmu i perspektivy preodoleniya global'nykh problem, materialy Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii, v 2 t. Tom 1. Saransk. Individual'nyi predprinimatel' Afanas'ev V.S., 2016. Pp. 327-331.
4. Khismatullin R.S. Nravstvenno-psikhologicheskie osobennosti deyatel'nosti jsuda po preduprezhdeniyu retsidivnoi prestupnosti (Moral and psychological features of the court's activity on the prevention of recidivism), Ugolovno-ispolnitel'naya sistema na sovremennom etape: vzai-modeistvie nauki i praktiki, sb. nauch. trudov po materialam Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi mezhvedomstvennoi konferentsii, pod obshch. red. A.A. Votinova. Samara. Izd-vo Samarskii yuridicheskii institut Federal'noi sluzhby ispolneniya nakazaniya, 2016. Pp. 685-686.  
5. Khismatullin R.S., Minibaeva D.F. Takticheskie osnovy sudebnogo rassmotreniya del o prestupleniyakh v sfere ekonomicheskoi deyatel'nosti (Tactical bases of judicial consideration of cases over crimes in the sphere of economic activity): monografiya. Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2014.  
Received: 20.11.2017
FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGAL DEFINITENESS IN RULE-MAKING POLICY OF THE STATE
POLISHCHUK Nikolai Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the FGEI HPE “Academy of Law and Management of the Federal Penal Service of Russia”, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In the article, the author reviews the questions of the functional value of the principle of legal definiteness in modern rule-making policy of the state; the author analyses lawmaking activity of the subjects having the right to initiate bills from the perspective of their interaction at the federal and regional levels.
Key words: legal policy, legal definiteness, initiation of bills, bill, legal text, law-making process, improvement of the legislation, principle of legal definiteness.
References
1. Vlasenko N.A. Razumnost' i opredelennost' v pravovom regulirovanii (Reasonability and certainty in legal regulation). Moscow, 2015. 
2. Komarov S.A. Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava: uchebnik (General theory of state and law: textbook). 8-e izd., ispr. i dop. St. Petersburg. Izd-vo Yuridicheskogo instituta, 2012.
3. Kommentarii k Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii (po sostoyaniyu na 1 iyunya 2014 g.) (Commen-tary on the Constitution of the Russian Federation (as of June 1, 2014)), pod red. prof. S.A. Koma-rova. 2-e izd., ispr. i dop. St. Petersburg. Izd-vo Yuridicheskogo instituta, 2014.
4. Polishchuk N. I. Tendentsii sovremennoi ugolovno-pravovoi politiki gosudarstv (Trends in modern criminal law policy of states), Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta imeni N.A. Nekrasova: osnovnoi vypusk. 2015. No. 
Received: 28.09.2017
THE CONCEPT OF THE COURT AS AN ELEMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND  STATE IN THE "PHILOSOPHY OF LAW" OF G.W.F. HEGEL
ABUBAKAROV  Arbi Abusaidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Chairman of the Committee, Head of the Department for External Economic Cooperation of the Committee for External Relations of the Government of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate Lawyer of Eurasian Resources Group (Luxembourg). E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
LEZHNEVA Olga Yurievna
Judge of the Moscow City Arbitration Court, Moscow, Russia
Hegel attributed the institution of the court to the sphere of civil society. However, he did not oppose it to the state and state power, but, on the contrary, regarded it as a link between two forms of the phenomenon of a single moral substance of society. The court is an expression of the "subjectness" of civil society, just as the "court of history" is the expression of the "subjectness" of international relations. The court of history for Hegel is the supreme sovereign over the peoples and at the same time the highest result of the development of law.
Key words: civil society, law, state, court, Hegel, history.
References
1. Artamonova G.K., Shumkov D.V., Reuf V.M. Kontseptsiya gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta: sotsial'no-politicheskie i ideino-teoreticheskie istoki (The concept of state sovereignty: socio-political and ideological and theoretical origins), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2012. No. 2. Pp. 44-48.
2. Vikhrov A.A., Sal'nikov M.V., Adamyan T.A., Biktasov O.V. Ponyatie i sushchnost' suvere-niteta (Concept and essence of the sovereignty), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta MVD Rossii. 2005. No. 3 (27). Pp. 14-25.
3. Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofiya prava (Philosophy of law). Moscow. Mysl', 1990.
4. Gegel' G.V.F. Entsiklopediya filosofskikh nauk (Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences). T. 3. Moscow. Mysl', 1977.
5. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoi filosofii prava, nauchnoe izdanie (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law: scientific publication). R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyaeva. St. Petersburg. Fond «Universitet», 2012.  
6. Ismagilov I.R., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K. Gegel' o suverenitete kak konstitutsionnoi tsennosti (Hegel on Sovereignty as a Constitutional Value), Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsionalizma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg. Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi ekonomicheskii universitet, 2017. Pp. 138-144. 
7. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Poisk empiricheskikh osnovanii spravedlivosti i prava v tvorchestve Tomasa Gobbsa, Dzhona Lokka, Sharlya Montesk'e i Zhana-Zhaka Russo (The search for empirical grounds for justice and law in the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Charles Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 10. Pp. 38-44.
8. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v  ХХ-ХХI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of topical issues of the relationship between the idea of law and the idea of justice in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries)), monografiya. St. Petersburg. Fond «Universitet», 2017. 
9. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya I. Kanta i G.V.F. Gegelya: refleksiya nachal spravedlivosti i prava (Hegel: reflection over sources of justice and law), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2016. No. 5. Pp. 155-164.
10. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P., Chislov A.I  Sovremennye integratsionnye protsessy i rol' gosudarstva i prava v mirovom soobshchestve (Modern integration processes and the role of the state and law in the world community), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 8. Pp. 193-197.
11. Klimenko O.A. Ideya suvereniteta v filosofii prava G.V.F. Gegelya (The idea of sovereignty in the philosophy of law of G.W.F. Hegel), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 7. Pp. 191-196.
12. Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K. Razvitie ponyatiya suvereniteta ot Marsiliya Paduanskogo do Gegelya (Development of the concept of sovereignty from Marsilia Paduansky to Hegel), Yuridicheskaya nauka. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 22-29.
13. Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K. Suverenitet gosudarstva i suverenitet naroda v sovremennoi evro-peiskoi mysli (State sovereignty and people’s sovereignty in modern European thought), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 11. Pp. 50-64.
14. Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Gosudarstvennyi suverenitet kak kom-pleksnaya problema sovremennosti (State sovereignty as a complex problem of our time), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2017. No. 3. Pp. 59-65.
15. Maslennikov D.V. Priroda logicheskogo v filosofii absolyutnogo idealizma (Gegel' i Fikhte) (The nature of the logical in the philosophy of absolute idealism (Hegel and Fichte)). St. Petersburg, 2011.
16. Mirzoev A.K. Dispozitivnyi rezhim obespecheniya gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta kak faktor sta-bil'nosti v usloviyakh global'nykh i regional'nykh ugroz mezhdunarodnomu pravoporyadku (Disposi-tive mode of ensuring state sovereignty as a factor of stability in conditions of global and regional threats to international law and order), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. No. 4 (42). Pp. 166-173.
17. Nersesyants V.S. «Filosofiya prava»: istoriya i sovremennost' ("Philosophy of Law": History and Modernity), Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofiya prava. Moscow. Mysl', 1990. Pp. 3-43.
18. Sal'nikov S.P., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Zhan-Zhak Russo i Dzhon Lokk: nekotorye idei o suverenitete i estestvennom prave (Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke: Some Ideas on Sovereignty and Natural Law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2016. No. 5. Pp. 173-179.
19. Shumkov D.V. Gosudarstvennyi suverenitet Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost' (State sovereignty of Russia: history and modernity), monografiya. St. Petersburg, 2002.
Received: 30.09.2017
TRANSFORMATION OF FORMS OF MANIFESTATIONS OF LEGAL NIHILISM DEPENDING ON SOCIO-POLITICAL CONDITIONS
PRONINA Kseniya Yirievna
Instructor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the State and Municipal Officers Training Institute of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article examines the approaches of Russian scientists regarding the variety of forms of manifestation of legal nihilism; an attempt is made to classify its basic forms depending on various criteria: the scope of its manifestation, the subject of manifestation, legal effect, sector profile, legal position. The article concludes that the forms of manifestation of legal nihilism are interrelated and their transformation depends on various conditions, while the decisive influence can be rendered both by objective factors connected with the legislator’s will and subjective factors depending on a certain subject. The transformation of the forms of manifestation of legal nihilism can be expressed both in the transition of one form to another, and be characterized by changes within a particular form, expressed in an increase or decrease in the level of the spread of legal nihilism.
Key words: legal nihilism, forms of manifestation, classification, nihilism of youth, misdemeanors, crimes, change of forms.
References
1. Gorohov P.A. Problema osnovanij pravovogo nigilizma: gnoseologicheskij aspekt (The problem of the bases of legal nihilism: the epistemological aspect), dis. …kand. filos. nauk. Orenburg. 1998. 
2. Zrjachkin A.N. Pravovoj nigilizm: prichiny i puti ih preodolenija (Legal nihilism: the reasons and ways to overcome them), dis. … kand. jurid. nauk. Saratov, 2007. 
3. Matuzov N.I. Pravovoj nigilizm i pravovoj idealizm kak dve storony "odnoj medali" (Legal nihil-ism and legal idealism as two sides of "one coin"), Pravovedenie, 1994, No. 2, pp. 3–16.
4. Matuzov N.I. Pravovoj nigilizm kak obraz zhizni (Legal nihilism as a way of life), Pravovaja kul'tura, 2012, No. 1 (12), pp. 8-24. 
5. O vnesenii izmenenij v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii po voprosu usilenija otvetstvennosti za sovershenie pravonarushenij v sfere bezopasnosti dorozhnogo dvizhenija: feder. zakon ot 31 dekabrja 2014 g. No 528-FZ (On the introduction of amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the issue of strengthening responsibility for committing offenses in the field of traffic safety: Feder. Law of December 31, 2014 No. 528-FZ), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2015, No. 1 (chast' I), st. 81.
6. Ob utverzhdenii Osnov gosudarstvennoj molodezhnoj politiki Rossijskoj Federacii na period do 2025 goda: Rasporjazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 29.11.2014 g. No 2403-r (On the approval of the Fun-damentals of the State Youth Policy of the Russian Federation for the period until 2025: Order of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 2403-r of November 29, 2014), Sobranie za-konodatel'stva RF,15.12.2014, 50, No. st. 7185.
7. Polishhuk N.I. Izvechnyj sputnik prava – pravovoj nigilizm (The eternal companion of law – legal nihilism), Chelovek: prestuplenie i nakazanie, 2006, No 1, pp. 79-89. 
8. Rad'kov O.S. Pravovoj nigilizm v Rossii (konec ХХ – nachalo ХХI vv.) (Legal nihilism in Russia (late XX - early XXI centuries)), dis. … kand. jurid. nauk. Rostov-na-Donu. 2005. 
9. Romashov R.A., Shukshina E.G. Legal culture and legal nihilism in the youth environment [Pravovaja kul'tura i pravovoj nigilizm v molodezhnoj srede]. Istorija gosudarstva i prava, 2006, No. 2, pp. 2-9. 
Received: 21.09.2017
PRINCIPLES OF LEGAL EDUCATION OF CADETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF RUSSIA
BINNATOV Bakhram Abulfatovich
Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The paper reviews legal education of cadets of educational institutions of the MIA of Russia in the context of revealing the nature and content of fundamental principles, including humanity, legality, democracy, scientific character, objectivity and others. On the basis of the undertaken research the author of the paper concludes that it is necessary to comply with the listed principles as part of legal education of that category of students.
Key words: legal education, principles, humanism, legality, democracy, connection, scientific character, objectivity, accessibility, openness, systematic nature, cadets of the MIA of Russia.
References
1. Dutov Yu.I Formirovanie pravovoi kul'tury kursantov obrazovatel'nykh uchrezhdenii MVD Rossii (Formation of legal culture of cadets of educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia), avtoref. …kand. ped. nauk. Voronezhskii institut MVD Rossii. Voronezh, 2006.
2. Kotov A.M., Klimov V.G. Sovershenstvovanie pravovogo vospitaniya kursantov v obrazo-vatel'nom protsesse vuzov vnutrennikh voisk MVD Rossii (Improving legal education of cadets in the educational process in high educational institutions of internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia), Gumanitarnye problemy voennogo dela. 2014. No. 1 (1).
3. Morkhinin A.M. Vospitanie voinskogo dolga u kursantov vuzov vnutrennikh voisk MVD Rossii (The education of military duty among cadets of high educational institutions of internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia), dis. … kand. ped. nauk. Moskva, 2016.
4. Osintseva L.M. Nravstvennoe vospitanie kursantov vuzov MVD Rossii (Moral education of cadets of high educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia), Psikhopedagogika v pravookhranitel'nykh organakh. 2010. № 3 (42).
5. Ostapenko V.S. Formirovanie nauchnogo mirovozzreniya kursantov vuzov MVD Rossii (Formation of scientific outlook of cadets of high educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia), avtoref. … d-ra ped. nauk. Voronezh, 2011.
Received: 23.09.2017
COLONIAL JAMESTOWN: THE PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY,POLICY AND LAW
TIMONIN Anatoly Nicolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
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Jamestown was not the first among early, but the "first among equals" - a new model of British colonial outposts in North America, born as a result of numerous colonial experiments. The original Jamestown was a dead-end form of British expansion, a colony that had been dying from hunger and cold, malaria, dysentery, conflicts with Indians. Many colonists were morally broken by the weight of completely unrealizable tasks: instead of noble metals and the shortest path to the riches of Asia, they found terrible suffering, degradation and death. The praised English self-government was degrading: the aristocrats were intriguing against each other, acted as a united front against the most successful member of the colony council - John Smith, who had many times saved the colonists from starvation. The situation changed little even after martial law had been imposed there. Although terror became a regular method of control, at first it created only the appearance of a way out of this impasse as mortality remained high, the colony, as before, did not bring tangible dividends to its shareholders. The real salvation for the colony was the "tobacco revolution", which was inconceivable without a mass workforce and potential landowners. Its beginning was laid in the process of transforming the military model into a new quality - the agrarian colony. The belated response of the Indians to this process was the "Indian Massacre" of 1622; British colonization had already become mass. 
Key words: British colonial expansion, colonial models, doctrine of conquest.
Библиографические ссылки. References
1. First letters patent granted by Henry VII to John Cabot and his sons // The Precursors of Jacques Cartier 1497-1584. A collection of documents relating to the early history of the dominion of Canada. Edit. by H. P. Biggar, B. Litt. Of the Archives Branch. Ottawa, 1911. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://archive.org/details/precursorsofjacq00bigguoft (дата обращения: 22.11.2016) (accessed date: 22.11.2016).
2. Observations Gathered out of a Discourse of the Plantation of the Southern Colony in Virginia by the English, 1606. Written by that honorable Gentleman, Master George Percy. London: 1608. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: ttp://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/ amer-begin/settlement/text1/JamestownPercyObservations.pdf (дата обращения: 05.06.2017) (accessed date 05.06.2017).
3. Anthony Pagden. Law, Colonization, Legitimation and the European Background // The Cambridge history of law in America. Volume I. Early America (1580 –1815) / Edit. by Michael Grossberg, Christopher Tomlins. Cambridge, 2008. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL://http/ http://bookfi.net/book/1194501 (дата обращения: 10.08.2017) (accessed date: 10.08.2017).
4. The Complete Works of Captain John Smith (1580-1631) in Three Volumes /Edited by Philip L. Barbour. Vol. I. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL://http://www.virtua ljame-stown.org/exist/cocoon/jamestown/fha-js/SmiWorks1 (дата обращения: 05.08.2017) (accessed date: 05.08.2017).
5. Hamor R. A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia. London, 1615. [Электронный ре-сурс] [Electronic resource]. URL.https://archive.org/details/truediscourseofp00hamo (дата обраще-ния: 05.08.2017) (accessed date: 05.08.2017).
6. Williams R. A. Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest. New York, 1990. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://bookre.org›Reader›? file=834538 (дата обращения: 12.09.2016) (accessed date: 05.08.2017).
7. Rolfe J. A True Relation of the state of Virginia lefte by Sir Thomas Dale Knight in May last 1616. Charlottesville, 1951. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: https://archive.org/details/ truediscourseofp00hamo (дата обращения: 05.08.2017) (accessed date: 05.08.2017).
8. Percy G. A True Relation of the Proceedings and Occurances of Moment which have happened in Virginia from the Time Sir Thomas Gates shipwrecked upon the Bermudes anno 1609 until my departure out of the Country which was in anno Domini 1612. London, 1624. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/settlement/text2/ JamestownPercyRelation.pdf (дата обращения: 11.10.2017) (accessed date: 11.10.2017).
9. For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, &c. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: //http://www.citizensource.com/ Histo-ry/PreRevolution/Dales.pdf (дата обращения: 20.08.2017) (accessed date: 20.08.2017).
10. White cargo: the forgotten history of Britain’s White slaves in America / Don Jordan and Michael Walsh. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.en.booksee.org›book/ 1244825 (дата обращения: 11.11.2016) (accessed date: 11.11.2016).
11. Kupperman K.O. The Jamestown Project. Cambridge, Mass., 2008. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://booksee.org/book/1158487 (дата обращения: 13.10.2017) (accessed date: 13.10.2017).
12. Baird R. Understanding Headrights // Bob's Genealogy Filing Cabinet. 2001. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.genfiles.com/articles/headrights/ (дата обращения: 10.11.2017) (accessed date: 10.11.2017).
Дата поступления: 20.11.2017Received: 20.11.2017
TO THE ISSUE OF THE PECULIARITIES OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST THE SUSPECT (ACCUSED) WHOSE IDENTITY IS NOT ESTABLISHED
KHAMETOVA Alisa Rasimovna
Instructor of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia.
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The problem of criminal proceedings against the suspect (accused) whose identity is not established permanently attracts the attention of many scientists and it is very important for practitioners. However, the current procedural legislation and normative framework regulating the arrest and detention of the suspect (accused) whose identity is not established, need further researches. The foregoing predetermines the need for legal analysis of certain issues of identification of the suspect (accused) at the present stage of legislation development, it is necessary to determine actual issues arising in this field and offer further ways of improvement. Some aspects to be improved in the Criminal procedure law are revealed. The author initiates legislation aimed at improving the current Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation and this will allow to solve a number of problems encountered by law enforcers while implementing criminal proceedings.
Key words: criminal proceedings, suspects and accused persons, personal identification, overseas experience, unidentified person, arrest, detention, personal information.
References
1. Bezlepkin B.T Kommentarii k Ugolovno-protsessual'nomu kodeksu Rossiiskoi Federatsii (postateinyi). 14-e izd. (Commentary on the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation (article-by-article). 14th ed.), pererab. i dop. Moskva. Prospekt, 2017. 
2. Belkin A.R. Zaderzhanie po podozreniyu v sovershenii prestupleniya: spornye voprosy i vozmozhnye puti razresheniya problem (Detention on suspicion of committing a crime: contentious issues and possible ways of solving problems), Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo. 2011. No. 4. Pp. 127–130.
3. Voskobitova L.A. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Glavy 1-32.1. Postateinyi nauchno-prakticheskii kommentarii (The Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation. Chapters 1-32.1. Scientific and practical commentary). Moskva. Redaktsiya «Rossiiskoi gazety», 2015. 
4. Gazetdinov N.I. O neobkhodimosti i obosnovannosti zaklyucheniya pod strazhu (On the need and reasonableness of imprisonment), Rossiiskii sud'ya. 2009. No. 4. Pp. 52–54.
5. Goryanov Yu.I. Ustanovlenie personal'nykh dannykh podozrevaemykh i obvinyaemykh (Establishment of personal data of suspects and accused). URL: http://livelawyer.ru/ugo lovnyj-protsess/rassledovanie/item/6-ustanovlenie-personalnykh-dannykh-podozrevaemykh-i-obvinyaemykh.
6. Ismagilov R.A. Protsessual'nye problemy pri zaderzhanii litsa po podozreniyu v sovershenii prestupleniya (Procedural problems while arresting a person on suspicion of committing a crime), Mir yuridicheskoi nauki. 2015. No. 6. Pp. 54–59.
7. Naumov M.V. Usloviya, motivy i osnovaniya zaderzhaniya litsa po podozreniyu v so-vershenii prestupleniya (Conditions, motives and grounds for detaining a person on suspicion of committing a crime), Aktual'nye problemy rossiiskogo prava. 2013. No. 7. Pp. 86–89.
8. Obzor sudebnoi praktiki po ugolovnym delam prezidiuma Nizhegorodskogo oblastnogo suda za pervyi kvartal 2014 goda (Review of judicial practice in criminal cases of the presidium of the Nizhny Novgorod regional court for the first quarter of 2014). URL: http://oblsudnn.ru/index.php/obzory-sudebnoj-praktiki/1002-obzor-sudebnoj-praktiki-nizhegorodskogo-oblastnogo-suda-za-pervoe-polugodie-2010g-po-grazhdanskim-delam-2.
9. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF ot 19.12.2013 № 41 (red. ot 24.05.2016). O praktike primeneniya sudami zakonodatel'stva o merakh presecheniya v vide zaklyucheniya pod strazhu, domashnego aresta i zaloga (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation No. 41 of December 19, 2013 (as amended on May 24, 2016). On the practice of courts applying legislation on preventive measures in the form of detention, home arrest and bail). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
10. Samoilov A.Yu. Osobennosti polucheniya orientiruyushchei informatsii o svoistvakh litsa, sover-shivshego prestuplenie (Peculiarities of obtaining orienting information about the properties of the person who committed the crime), Kriminalistika i sudebno-ekspertnaya deyatel'-nost' v usloviyakh sovremennosti, materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Krasnodar, 29 aprelya 2016 g. Krasnodar. Krasnodarskii universitet MVD Rossii, 2016. Pp. 380–384.
11. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyi kodeks Gruzii (The Code of Criminal Procedure of Georgia). URL: https://matsne.gov.ge/ru/document/ download/90034/45/ru/pdf.
12. Federal'nyi zakon ot 25.07.2002 № 115-FZ O pravovom polozhenii inostrannykh grazhdan v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Federal Law of 25.07.2002 No. 115-FZ On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tant-Plyus».
Received: 22.09.2017
PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY OF IMPROVING LEGAL EDUCATION OF FUTURE OFFICERS OF THE INTERIOR MINISTRY
KHAKIMOV Nazim Nazipovich
Instructor of the Department of Professional Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. 
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This article refers to the educational technology of legal education of future cadets and listeners of educational institutions of the MIA of Russia. The basis of the material is made up of provisions of research methods in pedagogy, approaches to creation and analysis of pedagogical techniques, allowing to develop the improvement of legal education of cadets. and listeners. 
Key words: legal education, improvement, pedagogical activity, pedagogical technology, future officers.
PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY OF IMPROVING LEGAL EDUCATION OF FUTURE OFFICERS OF THE INTERIOR MINISTRY
KHAKIMOV Nazim Nazipovich
Instructor of the Department of Professional Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. 
E-mail:Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
This article refers to the educational technology of legal education of future cadets and listeners of educational institutions of the MIA of Russia. The basis of the material is made up of provisions of research methods in pedagogy, approaches to creation and analysis of pedagogical techniques, allowing to develop the improvement of legal education of cadets. and listeners. 
Key words: legal education, improvement, pedagogical activity, pedagogical technology, future officers.
References
1. Bespal'ko V.P. Slagaemye pedagogicheskoi tekhnologii (Components of pedagogical technology). Moscow. Pedagogika, 1989.
2. Skvortsov I.M. Popov A.S. Pedagogicheskie usloviya formirovaniya pravovoi kul'tury kursantov vnutrennikh voisk MVD Rossii v obrazovatel'noi deyatel'nosti (Pedagogical conditions of formation of legal culture of cadets of internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in educational activity), Napravleniya i perspektivy razvitiya obrazovaniya v voennykh institutakh vnutrennikh voisk MVD Rossii, sbornik trudov konferentsii. Novosibirsk. FGKVOU VPO "Novosibirskii voennyi institut vnutrennikh voisk im. generala I.K. Yakovleva MVD RF", 2014. Pp. 390-395.
3. Snegirev A.L., Sukhovetskaya E.Yu., Khomyakov I.D. Uchebnoe modelirovanie v protsesse formirovaniya voenno-professional'nykh kompetentsii budushchikh ofitserov (Educational modeling in the process of forming military professional competences of future officers), monografiya. Novosibirsk. FGKVOU VPO "Novosibirskii voennyi institut vnutrennikh voisk im. generala I.K. Yakovleva MVD RF", 2014.
4. Tarasov M.M. Individual'nyi podkhod v vospitanii kursantov MVD Rossii (Individual approach in the education of cadets of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia), ucheb. St. Petersburg. SPVI VV MVD Rossii, 2000. 
5. Tarasov D.Yu. Motivatsiya kursantov vnutrennikh voisk MVD Rossii na nachal'nom etape osvoeniya professii (Motivation of cadets of internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia at the initial stage of mastering the profession), monografiya. Novosibirsk : FGKVOU VPO "Novosibirskii voennyi institut vnutrennikh voisk im. generala I.K. Yakovleva MVD RF", 2015. 
6. Sharukhina T.G. Upravlenie razvitiem pedagogicheskogo tvorchestva prepodavatelei vuzov MVD Rossii (Management of the development of pedagogical creativity of teachers of higher education institutions of the MIA of Russia), dis. … d-ra ped. nauk. St. Petersburg, 2002.
Received: 12.10.2017
OPERATIONAL SEARCH AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE ACTIVITIES OF LAW ENFORCEMENT BODIES OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
ABDULLIN Artur Rishatovich
Senior Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, г. Уфа, Россия.
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In article, the author considers the questions of relations between statutes of the legislation on operational search and criminal procedure activities. The issues of interpreting the terminology of "operational search activities" are determined, scientists’ opinions are designated, and also the analysis of the principles of operational search activities is carried out by divisions of police and migration monitoring bodies. The author draws a conclusion that it is necessary to carry out accurate differentiation between the subject of operational search activities and the subject of criminal procedure. The author also clarifies that when involving in criminal procedure legal relationship acquire only the status of subjects of criminal procedure – procedural bodies. There is also a need to make changes regarding the names of the subjects of operational search activity, which, during the involvement in criminal procedural legal relations shall acquire the status of subjects of criminal procedure – procedural bodies.
Keywords: operational search activities, operational search providing, law-enforcement bodies, police agencies, criminal procedure activities.
References
1. Berova D.M. Pravovoe obespechenie ispol'zovaniya rezul'tatov operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti: problemy i resheniya (Legal groundwork of the use of the results of operational search activities: problems and solutions), Obshchestvo i pravo. 2013. No. 3 (45). Pp. 204-208. 
2. Bobrov V.G. K voprosu ob osnovaniyakh i usloviyakh provedeniya operativno-rozysknykh mero-priyatii (On the issue of the grounds and conditions for the conduct of operational search activities), Aktual'nye problemy teorii bor'by s prestupnost'yu i pravoprimenitel'noi praktiki, mezhvuz. sb. nauch. tr. Krasnoyarsk, 2015. Vyp. 6. Pp. 153-171.
3. Dubko Yu.V., Ivanov S.I. Operativno-rozysknaya operatsiya. Problema klassifikatsii (Operational search act. Classification problem), Byul. po obmenu opytom raboty. 2009. No. 177. 
4. Olimpiev A.Yu. O protivorechivosti polozhenii stat'i 89 UPK RF (On the inconsistency of the provisions of Article 89 of the Code of Criminal Procedure), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2011. No. 6. Pp. 246-248.
5. Prikaz MVD Rossii, Ministerstva oborony RF, FSB Rossii, Federal'noi sluzhby okhrany RF, Federal'noi tamozhennoi sluzhby, Sluzhby vneshnei razvedki RF, Federal'noi sluzhby ispolneniya nakazanii, Federal'noi sluzhby RF po kontrolyu za oborotom narkotikov, Sledstvennogo komiteta RF ot 27 sentyabrya 2013 g. N 776/703/509/507/1820/42/535/398/68 «Ob utverzhdenii Instruktsii o poryadke predstavleniya rezul'tatov operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti organu doznaniya, sledovatelyu ili v sud» (The order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the Federal Security Service of Russia, the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, the Federal Customs Service, the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation, the Federal Penitentiary Service, the Federal Service for Drug Control of the Russian Federation, the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation of September 27, 2013 N 776/703/509/507/1820/42/535/398/68 "On approval of the Instruction on the procedure for submitting the results of operative-investigative activity to the body of inquiry, the investigator or to the court"), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 2013. 13 dek.
6. «Ugolovno-protsessual'nyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii» ot 18.12.2001 N 174-FZ ("Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation" of 18.12.2001 N 174-FZ), Vedomosti Federal'nogo Sobraniya RF. 01.01.2002. No. 1. St. 1.
7. Federal'nyi zakon ot 12.08.1995 N 144-FZ (red. ot 06.07.2016) «Ob operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti» (Federal Law of 12.08.1995 N 144-FZ (Edited on 06.07.2016) "On Operative-Search Activity"), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 1995. 18.avg.
8. Federal'nyi zakon ot 07.02.2011 N 3-FZ (red. ot 03.07.2016) «O politsii» (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 04.07.2016) (Federal Law of 07.02.2011 No. 3-FZ (as amended on 03.07.2016) "On the Police" (with amendments and additions, entered into force on 04.07.2016)), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 14.02.2011. No. 7. St. 900.
Received: 14.10.2017
FREEDOM OF EVALUATING EVIDENCE IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS: CERTAIN ASPECTS
ISAYEVA Regina Miniyarovna
Candidate of Law, Senior Instructor of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The social value of criminal proceedings lies in its ability to provide both the interests of the whole society, and the rights, freedoms, legitimate interests of every person and citizen. This manifesto draws its promises in international legal acts, the constitutions of many countries, including the Russian one, and is reflected in the most central article of the Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter - the Criminal Procedure Code) of the named "Appointment of Criminal Proceedings". The need to protect social values led to the formation of criminal proceedings based on the principle of adversarial nature of the parties and the leading function of the court to establish the circumstances that are included in the subject of proof. Therefore, the most important mechanism of cognition of such circumstances is proving - gathering, checking and evaluation of evidence. In connection with this, the correct evaluation of evidence is the final result of the adoption of lawful, justified and fair procedural decisions in the investigated and considered criminal case.
Key words: freedom of assessment, evidence, proof, investigation bodies, court, values, evaluation, internal conviction, law and conscience.
References
1. Gorevoy E.D., Kozyavin A.A. Spravedlivost' sudebnogo razbiratel'stva kak usloviye svobodnoy otsenki dokazatel'stv v rossiyskom ugolovnom protsesse (The fairness of the trial as a condition for the free evaluation of evidence in the Russian criminal procedure), Mirovoj sud'ja, 2007, No. 12, рр. 16–19.
2. Kolokolov N. Prisyazhnyye zasedateli: fakt i pravo (Jurors: fact and law), EZH-Jurist, 2017, No. 32, рр. 3–7.
3. Luginets E.F. Ideya «protsessual'noy svobody» v sovremennom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: (The idea of "procedural freedom" in modern criminal proceedings), avtoref. dis. … d-ra jurid. nauk. N. Novogorod, 2016.
4. Opredeleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 28.03.2017 N 560-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby grazhdanina Dreyeva Romana Mikhaylovicha na narusheniye yego konstitutsionnykh prav polozheniyami statey 8, 14 i chasti pervoy stat'i 111 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii, statey 29, 73-75, 85-88 i 196 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii, a takzhe punkta 13 Pravil opredeleniya stepeni tyazhesti vreda, prichinennogo zdorov'yu cheloveka, utverzhdennykh postanovleniyem Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 17 avgusta 2007 goda № 522». (Determination of the Constitutional Court Russian Federation from 28.03.2017 N 560-О "On a Dismissal of a request for hearing of a complaint of citizen of Dreyev Roman Mikhajlovich on violation of his constitutional rights by provisions of articles 8, 14 and part 1 of article 111 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, articless 29, 73-75, 85-88 and 196 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation, and also  clause 13 of the Rules of determination of degree of weight of the harm caused to the health of man, ratified by the decision of the Government of Russian Federation from August, 17 2007 N 522"). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tantPljus»  (accessed date: 12.09.2017).
5. Opredeleniye Konstitutsionnogo suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 25 yanvarya 2005 g. N 45-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby grazhdanina Butusova Mikhaila Sergeyevicha na narusheniye yego konstitutsionnykh prav chast'yu pervoy stat'i 17 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii». (Determination of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of January 25, 2005 N 45-О "On refusal to accept the complaint of citizen Butusov Mikhail Sergeevich for violation of his constitutional rights by part one of Article 17 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation"). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tantPljus» (accessed date: 12.09.2017).
6. Postanovleniye Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF «O sudebnom prigovore» ot 29 noyabrya 2016 g. N 55 (abzats 2 punkt 17) "…v silu printsipa prezumptsii nevinovnosti obvinitel'nyy prigovor ne mozhet byt' osnovan na predpolozheniyakh, a vse neustranimyye somneniya v dokazannosti obvineniya, v tom chisle otdel'nykh yego sostavlyayushchikh (formy viny, stepeni i kharaktera uchastiya v sovershenii prestupleniya, smyagchayushchikh i otyagchayushchikh nakazaniye obstoyatel'stv i t.d.), tolkuyutsya v pol'zu podsudimogo. Priznaniye podsudimym svoyey viny, yesli ono ne podtverzhdeno sovokupnost'yu drugikh sobrannykh po delu dokazatel'stv, ne mozhet sluzhit' osnovaniyem dlya postanovleniya obvinitel'nogo prigovora". (Decision of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation "On the Judgment" of November 29, 2016 N 55 (paragraph 2, clause 17) "... by virtue of the principle of the presumption of innocence, the conviction can not be based on assumptions, and all the ineradicable doubts about the evidence of the prosecution, including the forms of guilt, the degree and nature of participation in the commission of a crime, mitigating and aggravating the punishment of circumstances, etc.) are interpreted in favor of the defendant. The defendant’s plead of guilty, if not confirmed by a combination of other evidence in the case, can not serve as the basis for a guilty verdict"). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tantPljus» (accessed date: 12.09.2017).
7. Resheniye Yevropeyskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 23 aprelya 2002 g. Po voprosu priyem-lemosti zhaloby № 48040/99 «Yevgeniy Zhelezov protiv Rossii» (Chetvertaya sektsiya) (Decision of the European Court of Human Rights on April 23, 2002. On the admissibility of the complaint N 48040/99 "Evgeny Zhelezov v. Russia" (Fourth Section)), Zhurnal rossijskogo prava, 2003, No 3, рр. 102–107.
8. Ugolovnyy protsess Rossii: uchebnik (Criminal procedure in Russia: textbook), А.С. Aleksandrov, N.N. Kovtun, M.P. Polyakov, S.P. Serebrova; nauch. red. V.T. Tomin. M. : Jurajt-Izdat, 2003..
Received: 15.10.2017
SOME PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION OF THE CRIMES AGAINST JUSTICE, COMMITTED BY PARTICIPANTS IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
ISMAGILOV Rinat Albertovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article deals with the study of the structure of constituent elements of crimes against justice, the author assesses the opinions of the scientists who have previously published their scientific works on the subject, develops his own point of view on the classification of the crimes against justice committed by participants of criminal proceedings. According to the author, the elimination of some controversial aspects of the classification of crimes against justice is possible through additions to part 1 of article 294 of the Criminal Code of Russia, putting after the word "form" and the words "with the exception of actions under articles 295, 296, 302, 303, 308 and 309 of the current Code", eliminating the wording in respect of comprehensiveness, completeness and objectivity of investigation of the criminal case from the disposition of part 2 of article 294 of the Criminal Code of Russia.
Key words: crime, preliminary investigation, justice, law enforcement bodies, encroachment, public relations, legislator, inchoate crime, official position, criminal law.
References
1. Volkov B.S. Motiv i kvalifikatsiya prestuplenii (Motive and qualification of crimes). Kazan', Izd-vo Kazanskogo instituta, 1968.
2. Volynskii A.F., Lavrov V.P. Organizovannoe protivodeistvie raskrytiyu i ras-sledovaniyu prestuplenii (problemy teorii i praktiki) (Organized counteraction to the disclosure and investigation of crimes (problems of theory and practice)), Organizovannoe protivodeistvie raskrytiyu i rassledovaniyu prestuplenii i mery po ego neitralizatsii: materialy nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (29–30 oktyabrya 1996 g., g. Ruza). Moskva, YuI MVD Rossii, 1997, pp. 93–99.
3. Lobanova L.V. Prestupleniya protiv pravosudiya: teoreticheskie problemy klassifikatsii i za-konodatel'noi reglamentatsii (Crimes against justice: theoretical problems of classification and legislative regulation). Volgograd, Izd-vo VolGU, 1999. 
4. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda SSSR ot 22 sentyabrya 1989 g. № 9 «Ob ot-vetstvennosti za posyagatel'stva na zhizn', zdorov'e i dostoinstvo rabotnikov militsii, narodnykh dru-zhinnikov, a takzhe voennosluzhashchikh v svyazi s vypolneniem imi obyazannostei po okhrane ob-shchestvennogo poryadka» (Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR of September 22, 1989, No. 9 "On liability for attacks on the life, health and dignity of militiamen, people's volun-teers, and servicemen in connection with their duty to protect public order"). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus» (accessed date: 20.09.2017).
5. Piontkovskii A.A., Romashkin P.S. Kurs sovetskogo ugolovnogo prava, v 6 t. T. 2. (The course of Soviet criminal law: in 6 v. V. 2.), pod red. V.M. Chkhikvadze. Moskva, Nauka, 1970. 
6. Sait Verkhovnogo suda Respubliki Buryatiya (The site of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Buryatia). URL: http: // www.vs.bur.sudrf.ru (accessed date: 20.09.2017).
7. Svidlov N.M. Spetsial'nye normy v ugolovnom prave (Special norms in criminal law), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 1970.
8. Kharisov K.N. Otvetstvennost' za prestupnoe vmeshatel'stvo v deyatel'nost' lits, osushchestvlyay-ushchikh pravosudie i ugolovnoe presledovanie: problemy teorii i zakono-tvorchestva (Responsibility for criminal interference in the activities of persons carrying out justice and criminal prosecution: the problems of theory and law-making), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Kazan', 2004.
Received: 25.09.2017
SYSTEM-WIDE COUNTERING ILLEGAL DRUG TRAFFICKING IN THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN: HISTORY AND MODERNITY
MAKSIMOV Konstantin Viktorovich
Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Department of Health and Safety Protection of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail:Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
PUGACHEV Aleksey Viktorovich 
Senior Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail:Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The paper highlights historical and legal aspects of countering spread of drug abuse on the territory of Bashkortostan. Based on the study of Soviet period archived documents which are introduced into scientific use for the first time and on modern statistics it is proved by specific examples that the comprehensive measures taken in the republic to combat drug abuse spread were before and are now a significant factor in ensuring regional security. The experience of Bashkortostan in system-wide counteraction to illegal drug trafficking is in demand at the federal level 
Key words: drug addiction, illegal drug trafficking, drug situation monitoring, the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Republic of Bashkortostan, internal affairs agencies, drug control agencies, anti-drug commission of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
References
1. Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The State Archives of the Russian Federation). 10096. Op. 2. D. 727.
2. Natsional'nyi arkhiv Respubliki Bashkortostan (The National Archives of the Republic of Bashkortostan). F. 173. Op. 1. D. 536.
3. NA RB  (The National Archives of the Republic of Bashkortostan). F. 122. Op. 190. D. 127.
4. NA RB  (The National Archives of the Republic of Bashkortostan). F. 122. Op. 206. D. 126.
5. Zakon o profilaktike alkogolizma, narkomanii i tabakokureniya. Prinyat Gosudarstvennym So-braniem-Kurultaem Respubliki Bashkortostan 15 iyulya 2005 goda № 202-zs (The Law on the Pre-vention of Alcohol, Drug Addiction and Tobacco Smoking , adopted by the State Assembly-Kurultai of the Republic of Bashkortostan on July 15, 2005 No. 202-ss). [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://zakon-region3.ru/1/26566/ (accessed date: 15.04.2017).
6. Ukaz Prezidenta Respubliki Bashkortostan ot 29 dekabrya 2004 goda № UP-642 “Ob ob"yavlenii 2005 goda godom profilaktiki narkomanii, alkogolizma i tabakokureniya v Respublike Bashkortostan” (Decree of the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan on December 29, 2004 No. UP-642 "On declaring 2005 the year of prevention of drug addiction, alcoholism and tobacco smoking in the Republic of Bashkortostan"). [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.sudrf.kodeks.ru/ document/935109454 (accessed date: 15.04.2017).
7. Ukaz Prezidenta RF “Voprosy sovershenstvovaniya gosudarstvennogo upravleniya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii” № 306 ot 11.03.2003 g. (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation "Issues of the improvement of state administration in the Russian Federation" No. 306 of 11.03.2003), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2003. No. 23. St. 2198.
8. Babai A.N., Koltashov A.I. Bor'ba s narkoprestupnost'yu i narkomaniei na Dal'nem Vostoke Rossii (seredina XIX-nachalo XX veka), monografiya (The fight against drug crime and drug addiction in the Russian Far East (mid-19th-early 20th century): monograph). Khabarovsk : DVIPK FSKN Rossii, 2011. 
9. Blyudina U. Bor'ba s narkomaniei v sovremennoi Rossii: vzglyad sotsiologa prava. Ul'yanovsk (The fight against drug addiction in modern Russia: the view of a sociologist of law). Izd-vo Ul'yanovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2006. 
10. Bogomolov A. Narkobarony poyavilis' eshche pri Khrushcheve (Narcombarons appeared even under Khrushchev), Komsomol'skaya pravda. 2013. 11 fevralya. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.ufa.kp.ru/daily/26028/2946727/ (accessed date: 15.04.2017).
11. Doklad o narkosituatsii v Respublike Bashkortostan po itogam 2016 goda (Report on the results of 2016 regarding  the drug situation in the Republic of Bashkortostan following). Ufa, 2017. 
12. Ibragimov T.A., Abdrakhmanov D.M., Maksimov K.V. Vklad nauchnogo soobshchestva Bashkortostana v izuchenie problem narkomanii (The contribution of the scientific community of Bashkortostan to the study of drug problems), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta. 2013. T. 18. No. 2. Pp. 505–511. 
13. Istoriko-pravovye aspekty protivodeistviya rasprostraneniyu narkomanii i alkogolizma (Historical and Legal Aspects of Counteracting the Spread of Drug Addiction and Alcoholism), Materialy kruglogo stola (25 fevralya 2016 g. ). Upravlenie Federal'noi sluzhby Rossiiskoi Federatsii po kontrolyu za oborotom narkotikov po Respublike Bashkortostan ; Vostochnaya ekonomiko-yuridicheskaya gumanitarnaya akademiya (Akademiya VEGU) ; regional'noe otdelenie Akademii voennykh nauk po Respublike Bashkortostan. Ufa, 2017. 
14. Kalachev B.F. Narkotiki na Rusi. Issledovanie B.F. Kalacheva (Drugs in Russia. Research by B.F. Kalachev). www.narkotiki.ru. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.narkotiki. ru/5_5283.htm (accessed date: 15.04.2017).
15. Kushkhov A.A., Kul'bov A.R. Istoriko-pravovoi analiz rasprostraneniya nezakonnogo oborota narkotikov v Rossii i Severo-Kavkazskom regione (Historical and Legal Analysis of the Spread of Il-licit Drug Trafficking in Russia and the North Caucasus Region), Perspektivy sovershen-stvovaniya pravovykh institutov v usloviyakh formirovaniya novoi natsional'noi anti-narkoticheskoi modeli: mate-rialy Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, 25 oktyabrya 2011 g., Rostov-na-Donu, chast' 2. M., 2012. Pp. 150–161;
16. Monitoring narkoticheskoi situatsii v Respublike Bashkortostan po itogam 2009 goda (Atlas) (Monitoring the narcotic situation in the Republic of Bashkortostan following the results of 2009 (Atlas)). Upravlenie Federal'noi sluzhby Rossiiskoi Federatsii po kontrolyu za oborotom narkotikov po Respublike Bashkortostan. Ufa. Izd-vo “Zdravookhranenie Bashkortostana”, 2010. 
17. Nigamedzyanov E.A., Kiekbaev M.D., Abdrakhmanov D.M. Narkotizm v Respublike Bashkortostan (opyt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniya) (Narcotism in the Republic of Bashkortostan (experience of sociological research)). Ufa, 2006. Pp. 9–21.
18. Savel'ev V. “Pogodi, vot vyzhivem...” (istoriya pro banditskii zakhvat samoleta v 1986 godu) (Wait, we'll survive ..." (story of the bandit capture of an airplane in 1986)), Vechernyaya Ufa. 1987. 26 oktyabrya.
19. Spektor S.I., Bogdanov S.I. Narkomanii v Sverdlovskoi oblasti: istoriya, sovremennoe sostoyanie i prognoz (Drug addiction in the Sverdlovsk region: history, modern state and forecast). Ekaterinburg, 2003. 
20. Fedorov A.V. Protivodeistvie nezakonnomu oborotu narkoticheskikh sredstv, psikho-tropnykh, sil'nodeistvuyushchikh i yadovitykh veshchestv: ugolovno-politicheskie, istoriko-pravovye, ugolovno-pravovye i mezhdunarodno-pravovye aspekty (Counteraction to illegal traffic of narcotic drugs, psychotropic, potent and poisonous substances: criminal-political, historical and legal, criminal law and international legal aspects). Sbornik statei. Moskva. Yurist, 2013. 
21. Frolova N.A. Antinarkoticheskaya politika Rossii: dinamika razvitiya i napravleniya sovershenstvovaniya (The anti-drug policy of Russia: dynamics of development and the direction of improvement). Moskva. Orbita-M, 2012.
Received: 25.09.2017
ENSURING HUMAN RIGHTS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS WHILE USING FIREARMS: COMPARATIVE LEGAL ANALYSIS
NAZAROV Alexey Yurevich
Deputy Head of the Department of Fire and Tactical Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA Russia , Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Currently, the legislation of the Russian Federation contains fairly extensive and diverse legal norms for the use of firearms by law enforcement officers. The right to use firearms takes a special place among the powers that law enforcement officers are entitled to. On the one hand, this authority, like no other, deeply invades the sphere of the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens and is associated with a high risk of serious and irreversible consequences, including deprivation of life; on the other, it is an effective means of protecting the rights and lawful interests of law-abiding citizens and the employees themselves from socially dangerous encroachments on the part of persons who knowingly and rudely violate the law. Based on the analysis of legislation and practice of its application, the author justifies the necessity and the possibility of supplementing and amending certain norms of federal laws regulating the use of firearms by law enforcement officers. It is proposed to unify similar legal norms of various legislative acts that deal with exceptions to the general rules of the ban on the use of firearms. As the main condition for further improvement of legal regulation in this area of public relations, the author proposes the harmonization of the provisions of federal laws with the criminal legislation of the Russian Federation and finding the optimal balance in using the achievements of domestic legal science and law enforcement practice.
Key words: law enforcement officers, use, firearms, normative legal acts, police, National Guard troops, Federal Security Service.
 
References
1. Apellyatsionnoe opredelenie Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 16 sentyabrya 2015 goda № 72-APU15-34 (Appeal determination of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of September 16, 2015 No. 72-APU15-34) [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dokument opublikovan ne byl. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
2. Volkov K.A. Neobkhodimaya oborona v deyatel'nosti politsii: voprosy teorii i sudebnoi praktiki (Necessary defense in police activities: questions of theory and judicial practice), Rossiiskii sud'ya. 2013. No. 4. PP. 11-13. 
3. Kaburneev E.V. Pravovaya osnova i otsenka deistvii sotrudnikov OVD, prichinyayu-shchikh vred litsu, sovershivshemu prestuplenie, v protsesse ego zaderzhaniya (The legal basis and assessment of actions of law enforcement officers who cause harm to the person who has committed the crime, in the process of his detention). Rossiiskii sledovatel'. No. 2. 2007. PP. 14-16.
4. Kaplunov A.I., Milyukov S.F. Primenenie i ispol'zovanie ognestrel'nogo oruzhiya po za-konodatel'stvu Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The use of firearms under the laws of the Russian Federation). St. Petersburg. Znanie, 1998. 
5. Kommentarii k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossiiskoi Federatsii : v 2 t. (postateinyi) (Commentary to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: in 2 V. (article-by-article)), pod red. A.V. Brilliantova. T. 2, 2-e izd. Moscow. «Prospekt», 2015.
6. Kommentarii k Federal'nomu zakonu «O politsii» (postateinyi) (Commentary to the Federal Law "On Police" (article-by-article)). Yu.E. Avrutin, S.P. Bulavin, Yu.P. Solovei i dr. Moscow. Prospekt, 2012.
7. Mikhailov V.I. Pravovoe regulirovanie prichineniya vreda pri pravomernom vypolnenii profession-al'nykh (dolzhnostnykh) funktsii (Legal regulation of causing harm in lawful execution of pro-fessional (official) functions), Advokat. 2015. No. 5. PP. 33-42. 
8. Neobkhodimaya oborona, krainyaya neobkhodimost', zaderzhanie prestupnika (pravovaya otsenka deistvii sotrudnikov politsii) (Necessary defense, extreme necessity, detention of a criminal (legal as-sessment of the actions of police officers)). S.V. Borisov, A.P. Dmitrenko, E.A. Russkevich, M.M. Daishutov; otv. red. N.G. Kadnikov. Moscow. Yurisprudentsiya. 2012. 
9. Ob oruzhii: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 13 dekabrya 1996 goda No. 150-FZ: prinyat Gos. Dumoi Feder. Sobr. Ros Federatsii 13 noyabrya 1996 g. (On weapons: federal law of the Russian Federation of December 13, 1996 No 150-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation November 13, 1996), Ros. gaz. 1996. 18 dek., Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii. 1996. No. 51. St. 5681; ofitsial'nyi internet-portal pravovoi informatsii http://www.pravo.gov.ru (accessed date: 30.07.2017).
10. O politsii: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 7 fevralya 2011 g. No. 3-FZ: prinyat Gos. Dumoi Fed-er. Sobr. Ros Federatsii 13 noyabrya 1996 g.  (On the Police: federal law of the Russian Federation of February 7, 1996 No 3-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of November 13, 1996), Ros. gaz. 2011. 8 fev., 10 fev., Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii. 2011. No. 7. St. 900; ofitsial'nyi internet-portale pravovoi informatsii http://www.pravo.gov.ru (accessed date: 30.07.2017).
11. O vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii po voprosu usileniya kontrolya v sfere oborota grazhdanskogo oruzhiya: feder. zakon. Ros. Federatsii ot 28 dekabrya 2010 goda No. 398-FZ. (On the introduction of amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the issue of strengthening control over the circulation of civilian weapons: Federal law of the Russian Federation of December 28, 2010 № 398-FZ), Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii. 2011. № 1. St. 10.
12. O voiskakh natsional'noi gvardii Rossiiskoi Federatsii: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 3 iyulya 2016 g. No. 226-FZ: prinyat Gos. Dumoi Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 22 iyunya 2016 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Fedor. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 29 iyunya 2016 goda (On the troops of the National Guard of the Russian Federation: federal law of the Russian Federation of July 3, 2016 No 226-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of June22, 2016; adopted by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of July 3, 2016), Ros. gaz. 2016. 6 iyulya, Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii. 2016, No. 27, ch. I, st. 4159.
13. O nekotorykh voprosakh sudebnoi praktiki po ugolovnym delam o prestupleniyakh terroristich-eskoi napravlennosti: postanovlenie Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 9 fevralya 2012 goda No. 1 (red. ot 03.11.2016) (On some issues of judicial practice in criminal cases over crimes of terrorist activity: Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Feder-ation of February 9, 2012 No. 1 (as amended on November 3, 2013)), Ros. gaz. 2012. 17 fevr.; Byulleten' Verkhovnogo Suda RF. 2012. No. 4.
14. O primenenii sudami zakonodatel'stva o neobkhodimoi oborone i prichinenii vreda pri za-derzhanii litsa, sovershivshego prestuplenie: postanovlenie Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 27 sentyabrya 2012 goda No. 19 (On application by courts of the legislation on necessary defense and infliction of time at detention of the person who has committed a crime: the decision of Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation from September, 27th, 2012 № 19), Ros. gaz. 2012. 3 okt., Byulleten' Verkhovnogo Suda RF. 2012. No. 11.
15. Savinov A.V. Ponyatie i priznaki prichineniya vreda pri neobkhodimoi oborone (The concept and signs of causing harm while necessary defense). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tant-Plyus».
16. Sbornik mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov SSSR (Collection of international treaties of the USSR). Vyp. XLIII. M., 1989. PP. 99–105.
17. Skorilkina N., Kolomenskii P. Znachenie ugolovno-pravovogo instituta zaderzhaniya litsa, sover-shivshego prestuplenie v prakticheskoi deyatel'nosti organov vnutrennikh del (The significance of the criminal law institution of detention of the person who has committed a crime in practical activities of internal affairs bodies). Ugolovnoe pravo. 2000. No. 4. PP. 33–34.
19. Smirnova L.N. Ugolovno-pravovoe regulirovanie zaderzhaniya litsa, sovershivshego prestuplenie (Criminal legal regulation of the detention of the person who has committed a crime). St. Petersburg. Yuridicheskii tsentr Press, 2005. 
20. Shkabin G.S. Vred v ugolovnom prave: vidy i pravovoe regulirovanie (Harm in criminal law: types and legal regulation), Lex russica. 2016. No. 8. PP. 62–80.
Received: 24.10.2017
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF IMPROVING LEGISLATION IN THE FIELD OF COMBATING CRIME IN THE SPHERE OF ILLICIT TRAFFICKING OF NEW POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
OSIPOVA Nadeajda Vladimirovna
Cаndidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry 
of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In connection with reforming of the system of bodies on control over drug trafficking, the article analyzes legal provisions that reduce the efficiency of detection and investigation of crimes related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Criticizing the previously existing procedure of initiation of criminal cases in this area, which included the possibility of introducing new drugs to the lists of narcotic drugs only after they became known to law enforcement officials and got official status, the author using scientific methods of analogy and modeling, provides a mechanism for improving legislation. 
Key words: designer drugs, synthetic substances, prohibited substances, Federal Service of the Russian Federation for control over drug trafficking.
References
1. O sovershenstvovanii gosudarstvennogo upravleniya v sfere kontrolya za oborotom narko-ticheskikh sredstv, psikhotropnykh veshchestv i ikh prekursorov i v sfere migratsii: Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 5 aprelya 2016 goda No. 156 (On the improvement of public administration in the sphere of control over the circulation of narcotics, psychotropic substances and their precursors and in the sphere of migration: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 5, 2016 No. 156), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2016. No. 15. St. 2071. 
2. O vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 03.02.2015 No. 7-FZ (On the Introduction of Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation of February 3, 2015 No. 7-FZ), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2015. No. 6. St. 885.
Received: 27.09.2017
THE PROBLEMS OF ESTABLISHING THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENCES STIPULATED BY ARTICLES 174 AND 174.1 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
SEMIGLAZOV Artur Gennadievich
Senior Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
AGZAMOV Ildar Marsovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Administrative Law Disciplines of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. 
The article describes the problems of establishing the characteristics of the subjective side of elements of crimes (in particular, forms of guilt), specified in articles 174 and 174.1 of the Russian Criminal Code (hereinafter-Criminal Code). The author cites the opinions of various members of criminal law science and foreign legal acts. In conclusion, the authors point to the need for changes to the legislative structure of the considered composition, as one of the main priorities of the criminal policy of the Russian state is providing decriminalization of the economy by law-enforcement, supervisory and regulatory bodies and by other state agencies, in modern conditions it can not be achieved without effective counteraction to legalization (laundering) of proceeds obtained by criminal means.
Key words: illegal legalization, money laundering, by criminal means, subjective signs of legalization, forms of guilt, intent, negligence.
References
1. Aliev V.M. Legalizatsiya (otmyvanie) dokhodov, poluchennykh nezakonnym putem: osnovnye napravleniya spetsial'nogo preduprezhdeniya (Legalization (laundering) of proceeds received illegally: the main areas of special prevention), Organizatsionno-pravovye problemy bor'by s prestupnost'yu v regionakh Rossii, sb. nauch. tr. VNII MVD Rossii. Moscow, 2001.
2. Garmaev Yu.L. Ugolovno-pravovaya kharakteristika nevozvrashcheniya iz-za granitsy sredstv v inostrannoi valyute (st. 193 UK RF) (Criminal law characteristic of non-return from abroad of funds in foreign currency (Article 193 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation)), Ugolovnoe pravo. 2001. No.. 2. Pp 11-15.
3. Dulatbekov I.O., Kruglikov L.L. Ekonomicheskie prestupleniya (voprosy differentsiatsii i individualizatsii otvetstvennosti i nakazaniya) (Economic crimes (issues of differentiation and individualization of responsibility and punishment)), uchebnoe posobie. Yaroslavl. Izd-vo Yarosl. un-ta, 2001.
4. Obvinitel'noe zaklyuchenie po ugolovnomu delu № 1892 po obvineniyu Asadullina R.R. (The in-dictment in criminal case No. 1892 on charges of Asadullin R.R.).
5. Obvinitel'noe zaklyuchenie po ugolovnomu delu № 1932 po obvineniyu Cherkunovoi O.V. (The indictment in criminal case No. 1932 on charges of O.V. Cherkunova).
6. Problemy bor'by s otmyvaniem denezhnykh sredstv ili inogo imushchestva, priob-retennykh neza-konnym putem: materialy kruglogo stola (Problems of combating money-laundering or other property acquired illegally: materials of the round table). K publ. podg. V.V. Luneev, N.V. Togonidze). Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2001. No. 2. Pp. 106-119.
7. Tret'yakov I.L. O zakonodatel'nom regulirovanii voprosov protivodeistviya legalizatsii (otmyvani-yu) dokhodov, poluchennykh prestupnym putem (On the legislative regulation of the issues of countering the legalization (laundering) of proceeds obtained illegally), Zakonodatel'stvo i ekonomika. 2004. No. 4.
8. Yani P.S. Legalizatsiya imushchestva, priobretennogo nezakonnym putem (Legalization of property obtained by illegal means), Zakonodatel'stvo. 1999. No. 7. Pp. 14-18.
9. Die Sammlung der Entscheidungen des Bundesgenchtshofs. S.
Received: 20.11.2017
CHINA'S EXPERIENCE IN COUNTERING SMUGGLING BY CRIMINAL LAW MEANS
ZAYNULLINА Zulfiya Faizrakhmanova
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Forensics of the Peoples’ Friendship University
of Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In connection with globalization processes and the development of international economic relations, the urgency of preventing such illegal acts as smuggling increases. One of the effective countering means is criminal liability. In reverse, in this area the Russian legislator has decriminalized a large part of trafficking instances. However, there are other approaches in foreign legislative practice. In this connection, it is interesting to study foreign experience, particularly the experience of China in combating smuggling by criminal law means. The criminal law of the PRC represents a model of a rather repressive approach to criminal liability for smuggling. The other distinguishing feature is a rather detailed differentiation on various grounds. The article analyzes the current Chinese criminal law, its features are reviewed.
Key words: PRC, smuggling, peculiarities, criminal law, cultural values, drugs.
References
1. Akhmetshin N. Kh. Istoriya ugolovnogo prava KNR (History of the criminal law of the PRC). Moscow, 2005.
2. Shugauang Z., Zhang Y., Wan Z. Maesuring the costs of protection in China.Washington, 1998.
3. Nikolaev A.M. Bor'ba tamozhennykh organov KNR s kontrabandoi (Struggle of customs authorities of the PRC with smuggling), Tamozhennaya p-litika Rossii na Dal'nem Vostoke. 2014. No. 3. 
4. Tekst UK Kitaya priveden v sootvetstvii s ego ofitsial'noi angloyazychnoi versiei (The text of the Criminal Code of China is given in accordance with its official English-language version). URL: [http://www.china.org.cn/english/government/207319.htm].
5. Luzyanin S.G., Troshchinskii P.V., Sukhodolov Ya.A. Osobennosti pravovogo reguliro-vaniya bor'by s prestupnost'yu v Kitae (Features of legal regulation of the fight against crime in China), Vse-rossiiskii kriminologicheskii zhurnal. 2016. T. 10. No. 4. Pp. 812-824.
6. Pravovye i organizatsionnye osnovy mekhanizma protivodeistviya torgovle lyud'mi: nauchno-prakticheskoe posobie (Legal and organizational foundations of the mechanism of combating human trafficking: scientific and practical guide). R.V. Nigmatullin [i dr.], pod obshch. red. F.B. Mukhametshina. Ufa. UYuI MVD Rossii, 2012. 
7. Rusanov G. A. Kontrabanda kul'turnykh tsennostei (ugolovno-pravovoe, kriminolo-gicheskoe i sravnitel'no-pravovoe issledovanie) (Smuggling of cultural property (criminal law, forensics and com-parative law research)), dis. …kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2009. 
8. Pan D. Ugolovnoe zakonodatel'stvo Rossii i Kitaya o kontrabande (Criminal legislation of Russia and China on smuggling), Aziatsko-tikhookeanskii region: ekonomika, politika, pravo. 2007. No. 1.
Received: 20.08.2017
REASONS (FACTORS) OF REGIONALIZATION PROCESSES IN MODERN EUROPEAN STATES
KUZNETSOVA Stella Dzhafarovna
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Constitutional Law of the Department of Law named after M.M. Speransky, Institute of Law and National Security, RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia. 
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The constitutional legal study of the state-territorial structure of modern European states is inextricably linked with the coverage of the problem of regionalization as a trend in the development of forms of state-territorial organization. The processes of regionalization, under the influence of the causes of their origin and development, lead to the transformation (including qualitative changes) of the very form of the territorial organization of the state (the transition from a unitary form to a federal or regionalist one, the formation of territorial (political) autonomy within the state, state of a new territorial unit, territorial disintegration of the state, etc.). In the current conditions of the emerging trend of regionalization, it is especially relevant to identify and study the driving causes (factors) of the emergence and development of regionalization processes. The article contains an attempt to identify these reasons in the form of a certain classification. Three groups of regionalization factors (factors) based on the comparative analysis of the modern European countries (Belgium, Great Britain, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Finland, France, Ukraine, and the former Yugoslavia) are formulated: 1) the reasons associated with the processes of state and legal development nations; 2) the reasons associated with the development of the economy of the regions; 3) the reasons associated with the territorial (natural-geographical) features of the regions.
Key words: regionalization, regionalization processes, causes, form of state-territorial structure, European states.
References
1. McCrone D. Understand Scotland: The Sociology of a Stateless Nation. 2nd Edition. London. N.Y. Routledge, 2001.
2. Ramet S.P. The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918-2005. Bloomington. Indiana University Press, 2006.
3. Vozzhenikov A., Strel'chenko V. Regional'naya asimmetriya i ugrozy tselostnosti strany (Regional asymmetry and threats to the integrity of the country), Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba. 2009. No. 1. Pp. 45-50.
4. Pakhorukov K.I. Detsentralizatsiya vo Frantsii: osobaya rol' Korsiki (Decentralization in France: a special role of Corsica), Vserossiiskii zhurnal nauchnykh publikatsii. 2011. No. 7 (8). Pp. 69-71.
5. Syrykh V.M. Istoriya i metodologiya yuridicheskoi nauki, uchebnik (History and methodology of legal science: textbook). Moscow. Norma, INFRA-M, 2012. 
6. Tyurin E.A., Savinova E.N. Natsional'nyi stil' razvitiya politicheskogo protsessa v sovremennoi Shotlandii: k voprosu o shotlandskoi identichnosti (National style of the development of the political process in modern Scotland: the question of Scottish identity), Vlast'. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 195-200.
7. Shepelev O.M., Shepelev V.M. Opredelenie samodostatochnosti ekonomicheskogo poten-tsiala regionov (Definition of self-sufficiency of economic potential of regions), Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie yavleniya i protsessy. 2011. No. 8. Pp. 162-166.
8. Filosofiya. Uchebnik (Philosophy: textbook), pod red. A.F. Zotova, V.V. Mironova, A.B. Razina. 6-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, 2009.
Received: 20.09.2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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