№3 (49) 2017 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

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№3 (49) 2017

№3 (49) 2017
THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Lipinsky D.A.
Positive Legal Liability in the System of Legal Liability
Lipinsky D.A.
Repeteva O.E.
Correlations of Punishments of Civil Servants
Lipinsky D.A.
Stankin A.N.
Is Constitutional Procedural Liability an Independent Institute of Legal Liability?
Romanovskaya L.R.
Nazarova N.L.
Tsyganov V.I.
The Ideological Component of Education in the Context of National Security
Vasiliev A.V.
Limitation of Authority in the Teaching of Joseph Addison
Tretiyakov D.V.
Understanding of the Subject of Law in the Classical Legal Paradigm
Galikeeva I.G.
Notaries in the Mechanism of Legal Effect on Public Relations
Tlepina Sh.V.
The Contribution of Soviet and Russian Scholars and High Schools to the Formation of Higher Legal Education and Legal Science in Kazakhstan
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Gaponov O.N.
Compulsory Attendance in the System of Measures of Ensuring Administrative Proceedings: Essence, Application Grounds and Problem of Realization
Galeeva G. E.
Slepnev E.L.
Representative Bodies in the Formation of Municipal Property
Nugumanov A. R.
The Issues of Administrative Responsibility For Illegal Acquisition, Storage, Transportation, Manufacturing, Processing With No Intent To Sell Narcotics, Psychotropic Substances or Their Analogues
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL
AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Khamitov A.R.
Legal Legitimacy of Pension Provision For Civil Officials of the First Half of the XIX Century
Ponomarev B.A.
Legal Nature of the Public-Private Partnership Agreement
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Kondrat I.N.
Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Standards in the Mechanism of Criminal Policy
Pudakov E.R.
Dynamics of Corruption-Related Crimes in 2012-2015. Analysis of Statistical Information of the Judiciary (Part 3)
Adilov S.A.
Characteristics of Judicial Appeal in the Sphere of  Preventive and Subsequent Judicial Control in Criminal Procedure
FORENSICS. FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Kuleshova G.P.
Terrorism: Prevention Problems
Khismatullin R.S.
Minibaeva D.F.
Improvement of Judicial Activity on Crimes in the Economic Activity Sphere Is One of the Basic Conditions of Effective Security and Protection of Civil Rights and Freedoms
Aminev F.G.
Features of the Use of Special Knowledge As a Part of the Technique of Investigation of Crimes, Related to Extremism and Terrorism
Karimov R.R. 
Karimova G.Yu.
Cooperation of States on Combating the Financing of Terrorism in the   Framework of Developing Financial Anti-Money Laundering Measures137
Nizaeva S.R.
The Victim’s Identity As an Element of Criminological Characteristics of Fraud in the Turnover of Residential Property
Muratshina S.N.
The Use of Special Knowledge in Order to Detect and Overcome Countering Actions Against Investigations of Cases Over Commercial Bribery
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY.
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Demiyeva A.G.
Dualistic System of European States’ Private Law and Development of Enterprise Legislation in Russia
Shonin N.E.
Weapon of the 21-St Century and International Security
Yelizarov M.V.
Lex Mercatoria As a Non-State Regulator of International Commerce
Tulupova E.O.
Bavarian Constitutional Justice
Dytchenko G. V.
Russian and Foreign Legal Models to Enforce the Legitimacy of Operational Search Activities by Prosecution Authorities (Comparative Legal Analysis)
TO THE 85th ANNIVERSARY OF THE FIRST CHAIRMAN OF THE CONSTITITIONAL COURT OF THE REBUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN I.SH. MUKSINOV
Galiev F. Kh.
One of the Moments in the History of the Formation of the Russian Federation
REVIEWS
Galiev F. Kh.
Rayanov F.M.
PokrovskiiI.F.
The Idea of Justice and the Essence of Law.
Review of the Monograph by R.F. Ismagilov, V.P.  Salnikov “Law and Justice: Historical Traditions and Modern Models (Historical and Legal Analysis of Theoretical Studies of the Topical Issues of Relations Between the Idea of Law and Justice in the XX-XXI Centuries)”. Spb.: Fund «University», 2017. 324 P.
TO THE AUTHORS
 
POSITIVE LEGAL LIABILITY IN THE SYSTEM OF LEGAL LIABILITY
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The subject of the study is the institutional framework and the system of public relations that predetermine the system of legal liability in general and such a subsystem as positive legal liability in particular. The macrolevel of the system of legal liability is analyzed, but elements of the system of legal liability marked off at the microlevel are not subjects of this study. The author analyzes the institutional basis of positive legal liability. Particular attention is paid to norms-principles and incentive norms. The interrelation between positive and negative legal liability is revealed, the normative character of positive legal liability is proved, as well as peculiarities of norms of legal liability, their signs and characteristics are examined. Various components of positive legal liability, their interaction with each other, as well as with elements of negative legal liability are revealed. As a result of the research, it is concluded that the system of legal liability at the macrolevel includes the institutional component of positive legal liability, consisting of formalized duties, bans and powers, the implementation of which is ensured not least because of the sanctioning complex. A separate element of the subsystem of positive legal liability is the institution of encouragement, based on a special subject and method of legal regulation. The work of the entire subsystem of positive legal liability is aimed at preventing the emergence of a dynamic negative legal liability. The positive subsystem and subsystem of negative legal liability mutually support each other, predetermining the effectiveness of the entire system of legal liability.
CORRELATIONS OF PUNISHMENTSOF CIVIL SERVANTS
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. Email: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
REPETEVA Olesya Evgenievna
Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Entrepreneurial and Labor Law of the Togliatti State University. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article is devoted to the punishment of civil servants as one of the general category that unites administrative, criminal and disciplinary responsibility in the relevant interdisciplinary institute of legal responsibility. The authors open the study by defining the general category of "punishment", justifying its interdisciplinary, and not exclusively criminal, legal significance. There are common signs similar to various types of legal penalties. Following from the general to the particular, specific characteristics of various types of punishments of civil servants are determined. Special attention is paid to the genetic, coordination and subordination ties of punishments of civil servants. The conclusion of the article states that punishment of civil servants is an interdisciplinary functional institute of national law, which takes part in the regulation of legal relations of legal responsibility of civil servants. The authors also come to the conclusion that the category "punishment of civil servants" can be considered in several aspects. Firstly, as the process of applying and implementing the punishment, and also as perpetrator’s enduring of adverse consequences of the offense. Secondly, as a functional, integrated and interdisciplinary institute of national law. Thirdly, as sanctions, which capture the punishment of civil servants.
Key words: legal responsibility, punishment of civil servants, types of legal responsibility, interdisciplinary institute, collection, disciplinary action.
References
1. Khachaturov R.L., Yagutyan R.G. Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost' (Legal liability). Tol'yatti. Aktsent, 1995. 
2. Zhizhilenko A.A. Nakazanie. Ego ponyatie i otlichie ot drugikh pravookhranitel'nykh sredstv (Punishment. Its concept and difference from other law enforcement means). Pg., 1914. Tsit. po: Nakazanie i otvetstvennost' v rossiiskom prave, pod red. A.V. Mal'ko. M. Yurlitinform, 2014. 
3. Mal'ko A.V. Sistema pravovykh nakazanii: obshcheteoreticheskii podkhod k formirovaniyu ponyatiya (The system of legal punishment: a general theoretical approach to the formation of the concept), Nakazanie i otvetstvennost' v rossiiskom prave: aktual'nye problemy: monografiya, Pod red. A.V. Mal'ko. M. Yurlitinform, 2014.
4. Lipinskii D.A. O ponyatii i funktsiyakh aktov primeneniya yuridicheskoi otvetstvennosti (On the concept and functions of acts of application of legal responsibility), Rossiiskaya yustitsiya. 2013. No. 5. Pp. 2–5.
5. Otvetstvennost' v sisteme gosudarstvennoi vlasti i mestnogo samoupravleniya i pro-tivodeistvie korruptsii (Responsibility in the system of state power and local self-government and the fight against corruption), pod red. E.S. Shugrinoi. M. Yurlitinform, 2013.
6. Musatkina A.A. O obshchem ponyatii sanktsii normy prava (On the general concept of the sanction of the norm of law), Aktual'nye problemy rossiiskogo prava. 2015. No. 1. Pp. 10–14.
7. Vitruk N.V. Obshchaya teoriya yuridicheskoi otvetstvennosti (General theory of legal responsibility). M. Norma, 2009. 
8. Lipinskii D.A. Printsipy i pravootnosheniya yuridicheskoi otvetstvennosti (Principles and legal relations of legal responsibility). M. Nota Bene, 2003.
Received: 05.06.2017
IS CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURAL LIABILITY AN INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE OF LEGAL LIABILITY?
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. Email: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
STANKIN Alexey Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The authors examine the problem of legal nature of constitutional and procedural liability. Scientific analysis opens with the coverage of problems of understanding legal procedure and constitutional procedure, since the definition of constitutional and procedural liability, the inclusion of certain measures and norms in its composition depends on their understanding. The authors draw a conclusion about the expedient "narrow" definition of legal and constitutional procedure, as an independent institution of legal liability. From this point of view, the position of scientists who, trying to justify the independent legal nature of constitutional and procedural liability, refer to it measures that are not peculiar to it, thus eliminating constitutional liability does not hold up against criticism. On the contrary, if relying upon a narrow understanding of legal procedure and constitutional procedure, one can conclude that constitutional and procedural liability as an independent institution of legal liability is only at the formation stage. At present, it is possible to state that there is a sub-institution of constitutional procedural liability, which is part of the institution of procedural liability. The definition of constitutional and procedural liability, originating from a broad understanding of legal and constitutional procedure, effectively neutralizes constitutional liability, since there is an almost complete transfer of traditional measures of constitutional liability to constitutional procedural ones.
Key words: legal liability, constitutional procedural liability, offense, constitutional procedure, legal procedure, types of legal liability.
THE IDEOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF NATIONAL SECURITY
ROMANOVSKAYA Lyubava Rostislavovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Municipal Law of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра. 
NAZAROVA Nadezhda Leontievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Deputy Dean of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
TSYGANOV Viktor Ivanovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article is devoted to the topical issues of implementation of the new National Security Strategy regarding matters of education, science and culture. Tendencies of development of modern higher education, including legal, are inconsistent with the strategic national priorities. There is an intrinsic, deep connection of national education and national security. Education is a means of transmitting not only knowledge but also traditional Russian spiritual and moral values to the younger generations. Ideological, moral, patriotic, cultural, moral component is very important in not only primary and secondary but also higher education. This problem must be fixed in the state educational standards of higher education. It is also necessary to develop effective mechanism of its implementation. Competence approach in education needs to be supplemented with value-oriented (ideological) component as a basic.
Key words: national security, strategic priorities, national education, traditional values, moral development, legal education. 
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39. Sal'nikov M.V. Zapadnaya traditsiya prava: politiko-pravovyye tsennosti i idealy (Western tradition of law: political and legal values and ideals), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. № 10. P. 170-191.
40. Sal'nikov M.V., Velezhev S.I., Tishchenko A.G. Otechestvennaya i zapadnaya politiko-pravovyye traditsii: sravnitel'no-pravovoy aksiologicheskiy analiz (Domestic and Western political and legal traditions: comparative legal axiological analysis), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta MVD Rossii. 2004. № 4(24). P. 29-31.
41. Social'noe vospitanie detej i molodezhi Rossii: sovremennye realii i problemy. (Social education of children and youth in Russia: modern reality and challenges.), Demographia.net: Rossijskij institut strategicheskih issledovanij. http://demographia.net/socialnoe-vospitanie-detey-i-molodezhi-rossii-sovremennye-realii-i-problemy (reference date: 11.03.2017).
42. Sulakshin S.S. Gosudarstvennaya bezopasnost' i obrazovanie (State safety and education). http://rusrand.ru/docconf/natsionalnaja-bezopasnost-strany-i-kachestvo-obrazovaniya (reference date: 11.03.2017).
43. Shishkina N.I. Novaya strategiya nacional'noj bezopasnosti. (The new national security strategy). http://rusrand.ru/analytics/novaya-strategiya-nacionalnoy-bezopasnosti (reference date: 11.03.2017).
44. Yurevich A.V., Yurevich M.A. Dinamika psihologicheskogo sostoyaniya rossijskogo obshchestva: ehkspertnaya ocenka (Dynamics of the psychological state of Russian society: Expert analysis), Nravstvennost' sovremennogo rossijskogo obshchestva: psihologicheskij analiz. Otv. red. A.L.Zhuravlev, A.V.Yurevich. Moskva, Izdatel'stvo «Institut psihologii RAN», 2012, рр. 21–41.
45. The UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 http:// http://en.unesco.org/node/252168
46. Zhdanov P.S., Romanovskaya V.B., Tsyganov V.I. Legal Reflection during the Crisis of the New European Worldview Paradigm: Problem Statement.// Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2015. Vol 6. No 3. Р. 79-84.
Received: 15.06.2017 
LIMITATION OF AUTHORITY IN THE TEACHING OF JOSEPH ADDISON
VASILIEV Alexander Viktorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article is devoted to the little-known treatise of the English publicist, writer and politician Joseph Addison "On the British Constitution". Joseph Addison's views on limiting authority became a natural development of John Locke’s conceptual ideas on the separation of power with a number of fundamental differences. Addison does not share Locke's opinion that the legislative power is supreme in the state. The Addison concept is much closer to the construction of Sh. L. Montesquieu. In the state-legal mechanism, the realization of the ideas of limitation of authority and separation of powers will create a stable system of checks and balances.
Key words: Addison, limitation of authority, separation of powers, parliamentarianism, constitutionalism, legislature.
UNDERSTANDING OF THE SUBJECT OF LAW IN THE CLASSICAL LEGAL PARADIGM
TRETIYAKOV Dmitry Vladimirovich
Senior Military Prosecutor of the 3 Department of Personnel Administration of the Chief
Military Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.
 E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article examines the problem of understanding the subject of law from the point of view of the classical legal paradigm in modern Russian legal science, the subject of law is defined, the main problems of the classical methodology emerging during its study are revealed. It is concluded that the modern classical interpretation of the subject of law in which the subject of law is considered as a result of state activity was developed within the framework of a positivist understanding of law.
Key words: subject of law, subject of legal relations, individual, legal status, positivist legal understanding, legal standing, legist positivism.
References
1. Problemy obshchei teorii prava i gosudarstva : uchebnik dlya yuridicheskikh vuzov (Problems of general theory of law and state: Textbook for law schools), pod obshch. red. V.S. Nersesyantsa. M. NORMA-INFRA, 1999. 
2. Azimi D.M. O klassifikatsii sub"ektov prava v kontekste issledovaniya voprosov otraslevoi sistematiki prava (On the classification of subjects of law in the context of the research of questions of branch systematics of law), Sovremennoe pravo. 2011. No. 5. Pp. 3–5 
3. Arkhipov S.I. Sub"ekt prava (teoreticheskoe issledovanie) (The subject of law (theoretical study)). Dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Ekaterinburg, 2005. 
4. Isaeva N.V. Individual'nyi sub"ekt prava kak sub"ekt pravovoi identichnosti (Individual subject of law as a subject of legal identity), Vestnik RGGU. Seriya: Ekonomika. Upravlenie. Pravo. 2012. No. 3 (83). Pp. 14–19.
5. Alekseev S.S. Gosudarstvo i pravo. Nachal'nyi kurs (State and Law. Initial course). 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M. Yurid. lit-ra, 1996.
6. Vitruk N.V. Obshchaya teoriya pravovogo polozheniya lichnosti (General theory of legal position of the individual). M. Norma, 2008. 
7. Marchenko N.M. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: ucheb. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop (Theory of State and Law: Textbook. 2nd ed., revised and added). M. TK Velbi; Prospekt, 2008.
8. Cherdantsev A.F. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava: ucheb. dlya vuzov (Theory of State and Law: Textbook for universities). M., 2002. 
9. Yavich L.S. Obshchaya teoriya prava (General theory of law). L., 1976. 
10. Malakhov V. P. Pravovaya politika i pravoporyadok (Legal policy and public order), Pravovaya politika i puti sovershenstvovaniya pravotvorcheskoi deyatel'nosti v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, otv. red. N.S. Sokolova. M. Izd-vo RUDN, 2006. Pp. 255–321. URL: http: // www.centrlaw.ru/publikacii/ Malakhov1/index.html (reference date: 11.09.2016).
11. Finogentova O.E. Osobennosti marksiskogo pravoponimaniya v  sotsiologicheskoi kontseptsii prava E.B. Pashukanisa (Peculiarities of Marxian legal understanding in the sociological concept of law by E.B. Pashukanis), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2016. No. 1 (43). Pp. 27–39.
12. Dolgolenko T.N., Finogentova O. E. Aksiologicheskii i formal'no-yuridicheskii smysl tolkovaniya prava (The axiological and formal legal meaning of the interpretation of law). Ekaterinburg. Izdatel'stvo UMTs UPI, 2013.
Received: 15.06.2017
NOTARIES IN THE MECHANISM OF LEGAL EFFECT ON PUBLIC RELATIONS
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir
State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
As a result of the influence of the entire body of legal phenomena throughout the life of society on public relations as a result of joint efforts of the society and state striving to achieve universal consent between people by means of law, a mechanism of legal influence on public relations is being formed. Therefore, legal effect, in general terms, is the influence of law on people consciousness and behavior on the basis of ideas on legal possibilities of solving vital problems in society. The modern notary is one of the most effective elements in the structure of the mechanism of legal effect on public relations, promoting the realization of civil rights and freedoms in accordance with the principles of the rule-of-law state and civil society.
Key words: mechanism of legal effect, public relations, state, law, notary.
References
1. Komarov S.A. Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava, uchebnik (General theory of state and law: Textbook). 8-e izd., ispr i dop. SPb. Iz-datel'stvo Yuridicheskogo instituta, 2012.
2. Rad'ko T.N. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava v skhemakh i opredeleniyakh: uchebnoe posobie (Theory of state and law in schemes and definitions: Teaching aid). Moskva. Prospekt, 2014.
3. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i soot-nosheniya: monografiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: problems of understanding and relationship: Monograph). Moskva. Yurlitinform, 2015.
4. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsiokul'tur-nom izmerenii (Concepts of "rule-of-law state" and "civil society" in the socio-cultural dimension), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2012. No. 4 (30). Pp. 20–26.
5. Lipatov A.A., Kupreichenko A.B., Gromova A.I., Shrader Kh. Pravil'noe obshchestvo (Correct society), pod. red. Yu.V. Veselova. SPb. Piter, 2015.
6. Rayanov F.M. Pravovaya organizatsiya obshchestvennoi zhizni: teoriya i praktika (The legal organization of public life: theory and practice), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2004. No. 12. Pp. 5–9.
7. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy i pravovaya kul'tura v prizme istoricheskogo razvitiya (Social norms and legal culture in the prism of historical development), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava. 2010. No. 2. Pp. 5–9.
8. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa, 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2 ch. Ch. 1. Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2015. Pp. 3–10. 
9. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya real'nost' (Legal culture as a legal reality), Politika i obshchestvo. 2011. No. 4. Pp. 77–82. 
10. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody, monografiya (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions: Monograph). Moskva. Yurlitinform, 2017. 
11. Mal'ko A.V. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava v voprosakh i otvetakh, uchebno-metodicheskoe po-sobie (Theory of state and law in questions and answers: Teaching and methodological aid). 5-e izd., ispr. i dop. Moskva. Izdatel'skii dom «Delo» RANKhiGS, 2014.
12. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.), monografiya (Law and justice: historical traditions and contemporary models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of the actual issues of the relationship between the idea of law and of justice in the XX-XXI centuries): Monograph). SPb. Fond «Universitet», 2017.
13. From E. Zdorovoe obshchestvo (Healthy Society). Per. s angl. T. Banketovoi. Moskva. AST, AST MOSKVA, 2009.
14. Rayanov F.M., Gardanov A.Sh. Razmyshleniya o gosudarstve (Reflections on the state). Ufa, 1994.
15. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya samoorganizatsiya poryadka (Legal culture as a legal self-organization of order), Pravo i politika. 2011. No. 4 (136). Pp. 670–676.
16. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz (State law "diseases": historical diagnosis). Nauchno-populyarnoe izdanie. Ufa. NIIPP, 2005.
Received: 15.08.2017
THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOVIET AND RUSSIAN SCHOLARS AND HIGH SCHOOLS TO THE FORMATION
OF HIGHER LEGAL EDUCATION AND LEGAL SCIENCE IN KAZAKHSTAN 
TLEPINA Sholpan Valerevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of International Law of the Faculty of Law of  L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The formation and development of legal education and science in Kazakhstan has its own peculiar features only for this country. These features are due to those events that occurred in the twentieth century on all the space that occupied the USSR. Therefore, the study of the specifics of the formation and development of legal education, as well as legal science in Kazakhstan, is inseparable from the assistance rendered to the republic by the universities of Soviet Russia, and then the USSR in the training of professional legal staff, in the organization of law schools, in the training of scientists lawyers. The study of the development of legal education and legal science is also impossible without an analysis of scientific interests and professional activities of the first legal scholars who arrived in Kazakhstan from leading Soviet universities to organize professional legal education in Kazakhstan.
Key words: Russia, Kazakhstan, history of legal education, system of legal education, legal science in Kazakhstan, A.T. Abzhanov, M.P. Shalamov, G.M. Maslov, A.N. Ageev, N.Y. Kondratyeva. 
References
1. Udartsev S.F. Uchitelya i kollegi. Iz istorii yuridicheskoi mysli Kazakhstana XX‒nach. XXI vv (Teachers and colleagues. From the history of juridical thought of Kazakhstan XX-beg. XXI centuries). Astana, 2011.
2. Yuridicheskii fakul'tet Kazanskogo universiteta: tretii vek obrazovaniya, nauki i vospitaniya (Faculty of Law of Kazan University: the third century of education, science and education), nauch. red. Tarkhanov I.A. Kazan': Kazan. gos. un-t, 2009.
3. Sapargaliev M. Istoriya narodnykh sudov Kazakhstana (1917–1965 gg.) (History of People's Courts of Kazakhstan (1917-1965)). Alma-Ata. Kazakh-stan, 1966.
4. Gertsenzon A. Moskovskii yuridicheskii i 185-letie vysshego yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya (Moscow law and the 185th anniversary of higher legal education), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1940. No. 2. Pp. 133–147.
5. Tsentral'nyi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Respubliki Kazakhstan (dalee – TsGA RK) (The Central State Archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter referred to as CSA RK)), f. 1380, op. 2, d. 398, l. 156–159.
6. TsGA RK (CSA RK), f. 1380, op. 2, d. 398, l. 43.
7. TsGA RK (CSA RK), f. 1380, op. 2, d. 515, l. 9.
8. TsGA RK (CSA RK), f. 1380, op. 2, d. 515, l. 4.
9. Arkhiv Prezidenta Respubliki Kazakhstan (Dalee – AP RK) (Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter - AP RK)), f. 708, op. 27, d. 1530, l. 1–8, 10–16, 18–23. 
10. Evseev S. Ob «Uchenykh zapiskakh» yuridicheskikh vuzov (On "Scholastic scrapbooks" of law schools), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1953. No. 2–3.
11. V TsK VKP (b). O rasshirenii i uluchshenii yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya v strane (The Central Committee of the CPSU (b). On the expansion and improvement of legal education in the country), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1946. No. 11–12. Pp. 50–52.
12. Prikaz ministra vysshego obrazovaniya SSSR (g. Moskva, № 614, 5 noyabrya 1946 g.) «O meropriyatiyakh po realizatsii postanovleniya TsK VKP (b)» ot 5 oktyabrya 1946 g. «O rasshi-renii i uluchshenii yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya v strane» (Order of the Minister of Higher Education of the USSR (Moscow, No. 614, November 5, 1946) "On measures to implement the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b)" of October 5, 1946 "On the expansion and improvement of legal education in the country "), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1947. No. 1. Pp. 73–75.
13. Za uluchshenie yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya v SSSR (For the improvement of legal education in the USSR), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1956. No. 8. Pp. 3–12.
14. Soveshchanie po voprosam vysshego yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya v SSSR (Meeting on the issues of higher legal education in the USSR), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1957. No. 6. Pp. 130.
15. Shebanov A.F. Vysshee yuridicheskoe obrazovanie – na uroven' novykh zadach (Higher legal education - to the level of new tasks), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1958. No. 11. Pp. 27–36.
16. Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravovye uchrezhdeniya v soyuznykh respublikakh (Juridical science and legal institutions in union republics), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1962. No. 12. Pp. 98–99.
Received: 17.06.2017
COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE IN THE SYSTEM OF MEASURES OF ENSURING ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS: ESSENCE, APPLICATION GROUNDS AND PROBLEM OF REALIZATION
GAPONOV Oleg Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of Administrative and Criminal Law of the RANEPA Bryansk branch, Bryansk,Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Now a current task of public authorities in the Russian Federation is improvement and consecutive realization of the effective system of implementation of compulsory impact on the persons who have committed administrative offenses.  Compulsory attendance as one of compulsory measures of ensuring administrative proceedings is capable on the one hand to increase significantly the efficiency of realization of administrative responsibility, and on the other hand in the conditions of existence of numerous gaps and contradictions in legal regulation it is capable to provoke conflict situations between public officials and citizens. According to the author, improvement of some legal aspects of compulsory attendance in the administrative and legal sphere will create necessary conditions to take up adequately grounds and order of its application by public officials while implementing coercive acts and will allow giving additional qualities to a legitimate ground of compulsory impact on participants of administrative proceedings.
Key words: administrative offense, administrative coercion, administrative responsibility, public officials, providing measures, compulsory attendance.
References
1. Gaponov O.N. Problemy primeneniya mer obespecheniya pri proizvodstve po delam ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh, posyagayushchikh na obshchestvennyi poryadok: monografiya (The problems of applying security measures in the proceedings on cases of administrative offenses that encroach public order: monograph). Bryansk, 2007. 
2. Kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh ot 30 dek. 2001 g. № 195-FZ: prinyat Gos. Dumoi Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 20 dek. 2001 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 26 dek. 2001 g: vvod. Feder. zakonom Ros. Federatsii ot 30 dek. 2001 g. № 196-FZ (The Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses of 30 December 2001 No. 195-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 20 Dec. 2001: approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 26 Dec. 2001: input by the Federal law of the Russian Federation of 30 December 2001 No. 196-FZ), Parlament. gaz. 2002. 5 yanv. Ros. gaz. 2001. 31 dek. Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii. 2002. No. 1, p. 1, Art. 1.
3. Kodeks RSFSR ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh (Code of the RSFSR on administrative offences) [Elektronnyi resurs]: utv. VS RSFSR 20 iyunya 1984 g. (utratil silu). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tant plyus».
4. Mikhailov A.A. Administrativno-yurisdiktsionnaya deyatel'nost' militsii: teoriya i praktika (Administrative and jurisdictional activity of the police: theory and practice), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2003. 
5. O militsii  (On militia) [Elektronnyi resurs]: zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 18 apr. 1991 g. №1026-1 (utratil silu). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tant plyus».
6. O sudebnykh pristavakh: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 21 iyulya 1997 g. № 118-FZ: prinyat Gos. Dumoi Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 4 iyunya 1997 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 3 iyulya 1997 g. (On bailiffs: Federal law of the Russian Federation of July 21, 1997, No. 118-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 4 June, 1997: approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 3 July, 1997), Ros. gaz. 1997. 5 avgusta.
7. O politsii: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 7 fev. 2011 g. № 3-FZ: prinyat Gos. Dumoi Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 28 yanv. 2011 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 2 fev. 2011 g. (On the police: Federal law of the Russian Federation of 7 February 2011 № 3-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 28 January  2011: approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 2 February 2011), Ros. gaz. 2011. 8 fevralya.
8. Ob utverzhdenii Instruktsii o poryadke osushchestvleniya privoda: prikaz MVD Rossii ot 21 iyunya 2003 g. No. 438 (On the approval of the Instruction on the order of compulsory attendance: the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia of June 21, 2003 No. 438), Ros. gaz. 2003. 11 iyulya.
9. Ob utverzhdenii Poryadka osushchestvleniya privoda sudebnymi pristavami po obespeche-niyu ustanovlennogo poryadka deyatel'nosti sudov: prikaz Minyusta Rossii ot 13 iyulya 2016 g. № 164 (On the approval of the order of compulsory attendance by bailiffs to ensure the established order in courts: Order of the Ministry of Justice of Russia of July 13, 2016 No. 164), Byull. normativnykh aktov feder. organov ispolnitel'noi vlasti. 2016. No. 33.
10. Pomogalova Yu.V. Administrativnoe zaderzhanie, dostavlenie i privod v sisteme mer administrativnogo prinuzhdeniya (Administrative detention, delivery and compulsory attendance in the system of measures of administrative coercion), diss. … kand. yurid. nauk. Saratov, 2005.
11. Popugaev Yu.I. Administrativno-protsessual'nye mery, primenyaemye militsiei v svyazi s soversheniem pravonarusheniya (Administrative procedural measures used by the police in connection with committing an offense), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 1991.
12. Ryabov Yu.S. Administrativno-predupreditel'nye mery (Administrative and preventive measures). Perm', 1974.
13. Seregin A.V. Osnovaniya i poryadok primeneniya mer administrativnogo vozdeistviya (Grounds and procedure for applying administrative measures). Moskva, Akadeniya MVD SSSR, 1974.
14. Sokolov A.Yu. Mery obespecheniya proizvodstva po delam ob administrativnykh pravo-narusheniyakh, monografiya (Measures to ensure administrative proceedings: monograph). Moskva, Norma, 2015.
Received: 27.06.2017
REPRESENTATIVE BODIES IN THE FORMATION OF MUNICIPAL PROPERTY
GALEEVA Galina Evgenievna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the  Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
SLEPNEV Evgenii Leonidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI  HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Municipalities have the right to property in the public interest. Local governments are able to acquire and exercise of property rights and obligations. The competence and status of such bodies are established by legal acts. The interest of the municipality, the utility of its property is to meet different public needs. The article reviews concession agreements in respect of municipal property as well as the balance of interests of community inhabitants and public interests.
Key words: municipal form of ownership, citizens’ needs, balance of private and public interests, regime of property of municipalities, legal mechanisms for exercising of the property right, concession agreement.
References
1. Slepnev E.L. Pravo sobstvennosti munitsipal'nykh obrazovanii (Property right of municipalities). Monografiya. Ufa, RIO BashGU, 2003.
2. Alekseev S.S. Pravo sobstvennosti. Problemy teorii (The right of property. Theory problems). Ekaterinburg, Institut chastnogo prava, 2006. 
3. Yakovlev V.F. Pravovoe gosudarstvo. Voprosy formirovaniya (Rule-of-law state. Formation issues). Moscow, Statut, 2012.
4. Gongalo B.M. Obespechenie ispolneniya obyazatel'stv (Ensuring fulfillment of obligations). Moscow, Spark, 1999.
5. Ofitsial'nyi sait Arbitrazhnogo suda Respubliki Bashkortostan (The official site of the Arbitration Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan). URL: http://ufa.arbitr.ru (accessed date: 24.05.2017)
6. Zhemaletdinov R.M. Grazhdansko-pravovoe regulirovanie kontsessionnykh soglashenii (Civil law regulation of concession agreements). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2013.
Received: 05.05.2017
THE ISSUES OF ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ILLEGAL ACQUISITION, STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION, MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING WITH NO INTENT TO SELL NARCOTICS, PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES OR THEIR ANALOGUES
NUGUMANOV Azat Rimovich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Head of the Department of Administrative Law Disciplines of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. 
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In this paper, the author considers the norms of administrative law, establishing responsibility for illegal acquisition, storage, transportation, manufacturing, processing with no intent to sell narcotics, psychotropic substances and narcotic plants. The author reveals the shortcomings and problems in identifying the elements of that administrative offence and the ways of their solution.
Key words: storage, transportation, manufacturing, processing, production, sale, narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, precursors of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
References
1. O vnesenii izmenenij v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii po voprosu kul'tivirovanija rastenij, soderzhashhih narkoticheskie sredstva ili psihotropnye veshhestva libo ih precursory (On amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the issue of cultivation of plants containing narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances or their precursors): [Jelektronnyj resurs]: federal'nyj zakon Ros. Federacii ot 19 maja 2010 g. № 87-FZ (red. ot 03 ijulja 2016 g.). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tantPljus».
2. O narkoticheskih sredstvah i psihotropnyh veshhestvah (On narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances): [Jelektronnyj resurs]: federal'nyj zakon Ros. Federacii ot 08 janvarja 1998 g. № 3-FZ (red. ot 03 ijulja 2016 g.). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tantPljus».
3. Fedorov A.V. Sootnoshenie narkoprestuplenij i administrativnyh narkopravonarushenij (the Ratio of drug-related crimes and administrative drug-related offences), Biblioteka kriminalista: Nauchnyj zhurnal. 2013. № 2 (7). P. 268. 
4. Popugaev Ju.I. Administrativno-deliktnye i administrativno-processual'nye aspekty protivodejstvija nezakonnomu oborotu narkotikov (Administrative tort and administrative procedural aspects of anti-drug trafficking), Administrativnoe pravo i process. 2015. № 1. P. 22–27. 
Received: 15.05.2017
LEGAL LEGITIMACY OF PENSION PROVISION FOR CIVIL OFFICIALS OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY 
KHAMITOV Ainur Rasimovich
Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA
of Russia, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The scientific community has been concerned with the problem of civil employees’ pension provision for more than a century. Despite a wide range of legislative basis on this issue, the debate on legal legitimacy of pension provision remains open. This article covers the origins of the formation of pension provision in our State. The author reveals the diversity of pension law making, with a set of its original unique legal characteristics. The article traces a dramatic material segregation of civil servants of various grades and ranks, which can be a background of the tendency towards accumulation of advance savings by means of corruption and embezzlement.
Key words: civilian officials, pension, laws, retirement, lump-sum grant, service, Russian legal system, state.
References
1. Vistengof P. Ocherki moskovskoj zhizni (Essays of life in Moscow). [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.knigafund.ru/books/54615.
2. Kul'chitckij A.V. Istorija pensionnogo obespechenija rossijan: 1827-1917 gg. (The history of the pension of the Russians: 1827-1917), Obshhestvennye i gumanitarnye nauki.
3. Pensionnyj ustav 1827 goda. Svod zakonov Rossijskoj imperii. T.3. Kniga pervaja (Pension Charter 1827). The code of laws of the Russian Empire. V. 3. The first book. [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.knigafund.ru/books/19094/read#page2.
4. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj imperii (Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire). [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.nlr.ru/e-res/law_r/search.php. 
5. Svod zakonov Rossijskoj imperii. T.3. Kniga pervaja (The laws of the Russian Empire. V. 3. The first book). [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.kniga fund. ru/ books /190 94/ read #page2. 
6. Tumanjanc K.A. Genezis pensionnoj sistemy v Rossii (Genesis of the pension system in Russia), Vestnik Volgogradskogo Go-sudarstvennogo Universiteta. 2007. № 11. S. 144–149.
7. Fatkulina R.R. Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii ob otstavnyh chinovnikah (1825-1850 gg.) (Legislation of the Russian Empire on retired officials (1825-1850)), Problemy otechestvennoj i zarubezhnoj istorii: materialy 4-j ezhegodnoj nauchnoj konferencii studentov i aspirantov BirGSPA. Birsk, 2012. P. 25–28. 
8. Chesnokova Ju.V. Stanovlenie pensionnogo obespechenija v Rossii v XVI–nachale XX vv. (Developing pension provision in Russia in XVI–early XX centuries), Izvestija PGPU im. V.G. Belinskogo. 2012. № 28. P. 173–175.
Received: 05.07.2017
LEGAL NATURE OF THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT
PONOMAREV Bulat Askarovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law of the Faculty of law of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kazan (Volga region) Federal University», Kazan, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The need to identify the essential features of the agreement on public-private partnership is associated with the peculiarities of legal nature of this contractual design, which determine its industry affiliation. Special attention is drawn to the issue of interaction of private and public interests within the framework of the agreement on public-private partnership. The study of the principles of partnerships arising on the basis of this agreement allows us to conclude that they are correlated with the basic principles of civil law. The analysis of the components of the agreement under consideration indicates that they are more of a civil-law contractual design. The conducted research allows to formulate a conclusion that the partner legal relations arising during the implementation of the public-private partnership project are primarily of a civil-law nature.
Key words: legal nature, public-private partnership, partnership agreement, concessionary agreement, principles of partnership, private interest, mixed contract. 
References
1. Ablaev I.M. Osnovnye printsipy gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva v usloviyakh modernizatsii rossiiskoi ekonomiki (Basic principles of public-private partnership in the conditions of the modernization of the Russian economy), Ekonomicheskie nauki, 2013. No. 2 (99). Pp. 17–20.
2. Abdrakhmanov A.I. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo kak aktual'nyi mekhanizm postkrizisnogo razvitiya Rossii (Public-private partnership as an actual mechanism of Russia's post-crisis development), Problemnyi analiz i gosudarstvenno-upravlencheskoe proektirovanie. 2011. T.1. No. 3. Pp. 30–36.
3. Alekseev S.S. Obshchie dozvoleniya i obshchie zaprety v sovetskom prave (General permissions and general prohibitions in Soviet law). Moskva. Yurid. lit., 1989.
4. Batrova T.A., Antroptseva I.O., Vorob'ev N.I., Shapkina E.A., Pushkin A.V., Artem'ev E.V., Ruzanov I.V., Kandelaki G.G., Bogatyreva N.V., Kotukhov S.A. Kommentarii k Federal'nomu zakonu ot 13 iyulya 2015 g. № 224-FZ “O gosudarstvenno-chastnom part-nerstve, munitsipal'no-chastnom partnerstve v Rossiiskoi Federatsii i vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii” (postateinyi) (Commentary to Federal Law No. 224-FZ of July 13, 2015 "On Public-Private Partnership, Municipal-Private Partnership in the Russian Federation and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation" (itemized)). SPS Konsul'tant Plyus. 2016.
5. Belitskaya A.V. Kommentarii k Federal'nomu zakonu ot 13 iyulya 2015 g. № 224-FZ “O gosudarstvenno-chastnom partnerstve, munitsipal'no-chastnom partnerstve v Rossiiskoi Federatsii i vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii” (Commentary to Federal Law No. 224-FZ of July 13, 2015 "On Public-Private Partnership, Municipal-Private Partnership in the Russian Federation and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation"). Moskva. Yustitsinform, 2016. 
6. Belitskaya A.V. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo: ponyatie, soderzhanie, pravovoe regulirovanie (Public-private partnership: concept, content, legal regulation), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2010. 
7. Belitskaya A.V. Pravovoe regulirovanie gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva (Legal regulation of public-private partnership). Moskva. Statut, 2012. 
8. Bratus' D.A. Ponyatie “yuridicheskaya priroda”: aktual'nye problemy teorii i praktiki (The concept of "legal nature": actual problems of theory and practice). Yurist. 2010. No. 1. Pp. 29–35.
9. Vinnitskii A.V. Publichnaya sobstvennost' (Public property). Moskva. Statut, 2013. 
10. Gorshunov D.N. Interes v chastnom prave: voprosy teorii (Interest in private law: questions of theory). Kazan'. Kazanskii gosudarstvennyi universitet im. V.I. Ul'yanova-Lenina, 2005.
11. Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii (GK RF) ot 30.11.1994 № 51-FZ. Ch. 1 (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Civil Code) of November 30, 1994 No. 51-FZ. Part 1). SZ RF. 1994. № 32. st. 3301.
12. Grazhdanskoe pravo: uchebnik. V 2 t. T. 1 (Civil law: Textbook. In 2 vol. V.1). S.S. Alekseev, O.G. Alekseeva, K.P. Belya-ev i dr.; pod red. B.M. Gongalo. Moskva. Statut, 2016. 
13. Efremova T.F. Novyi slovar' russkogo yazyka. Tolkovo-slovoobrazovatel'nyi (New Dictionary of Russian. Interpretative and word-building). Moskva. Russkii yazyk, 2000.
14. Zakharov V.A. Sozdanie yuridicheskikh lits: pravovye voprosy (Establishment of legal entities: legal issues). Moskva. Norma, 2002. 
15. Kachkin D.V., Repin R.R. Soglashenie o gosudarstvenno-chastnom partnerstve kak grazhdansko-pravovoi dogovor (The agreement on public-private partnership as a civil law treaty), Zakon. 2015. No. 10. Pp. 147–156.
16. Kommentarii k Federal'nomu zakonu “O gosudarstvenno-chastnom partnerstve, mu-nitsipal'no-chastnom partnerstve v Rossiiskoi Federatsii i vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii” (nauchno-prakticheskii, postateinyi) (Commentary on the Federal Law "On Public-Private Partnership, Private-Private Partnership in the Russian Federation and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation" (scientific-practical, article-by-article)). E.V. Gritsenko, E.A. Dmitrikova, A.K. Dolgov i dr., pod red. V.F. Popondopulo, V.V. Kilinkarova. Moskva, Infotropik Media, 2016.
17. Komissarova E.G. Formal'no-logicheskie aspekty ponyatiya “pravovaya priroda” (Formal logical aspects of the concept of "legal nature"), Vest. Permskogo un-ta. Ser. “Yurid. nauki”. 2012. No. 2. Pp. 23–29.
18. Malyugin S.V. Kategoriya “pravovaya priroda”: ponyatie, determinanty, osnovnye kharakteristiki i podkhody k opredeleniyu (Category "legal nature": concept, determinants, main characteristics and approaches to the definition), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 2016. No. 3. Pp. 46–58.
19. Ozhegov S. I. Slovar' russkogo yazyka: ok. 53 000 slov (Dictionary of the Russian language: approx. 53 000 words), pod obshch. red. prof. L.I. Skvortsova. 24-e izd., isp. Moskva. Oniks, Mir i Obrazovanie, 2007. 
20. Popondopulo V.F. Pravovoi rezhim predprinimatel'stva (Legal regime of entrepreneurship). SPb., 1994.  
21. Postateinyi kommentarii k Grazhdanskomu kodeksu Rossiiskoi Federatsii, chasti pervoi (Commentary to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, part one). V.V. Andropov, K.P. Belyaev, B.M. Gongalo i dr., pod red. P.V. Krasheninnikova. Moskva. Statut, 2011.
22. Publichno-chastnoe partnerstvo v Rossii i zarubezhnykh stranakh: pravovye aspekty (Public-private partnership in Russia and foreign countries: legal aspects). S.A. Belov, E.V. Gritsenko, D.A. Zhmulina i dr., pod red. V.F. Popondopulo, N.A. Shevelevoi. Moskva. Infotropik Media, 2015. 
23. Sazonov V.E. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo v Rossii i za rubezhom: admini-strativno-pravovoe issledovanie (Public-private partnership in Russia and abroad: administrative and legal research), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2013.
24. Saidov Z.A. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo v mekhanizme administrativno-pravovogo regulirovaniya ekonomiki (Public-private partnership in the mechanism of administrative and legal regulation of the economy), Rossiiskaya yustitsiya. 2015. No. 9. Pp. 46–51.
25. Samolovov D.A. Soglashenie o gosudarstvenno-chastnom partnerstve: voprosy pravovoi kvalifikatsii (Agreement on public-private partnership: questions of legal qualification), Aktual'nye problemy rossiiskogo prava. 2015. No. 4. Pp. 139–145.
26. Samolovov D.A. Soglashenie o gosudarstvenno-chastnom partnerstve kak grazhdansko-pravovoi dogovor (Agreement on public-private partnership as a civil law agreement), Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 2015. No. 8. Pp. 21–30.
27. Sosna S.A. Kontsessionnye soglasheniya. Teoriya i praktika (Concession agreements. Theory and practice). M., 2002.
28. Tolstoi Yu.K. Printsipy grazhdanskogo prava (Principles of civil law), Pravovedenie. 1992. No. 2. Pp. 49–53.
29. Federal'nyi zakon ot 25.02.1999 N 39-FZ “Ob investitsionnoi deyatel'nosti v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, osushchestvlyaemoi v forme kapital'nykh vlozhenii” (Federal Law of 25.02.1999 N 39-FZ "On investment activities in the Russian Federation, implemented in the form of capital investments"), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 1999. No. 41–42.
30. Federal'nyi zakon ot 13.07.2015 № 224-FZ “O gosudarstvenno-chastnom partnerstve, munitsipal'no-chastnom partnerstve v Rossiiskoi Federatsii i vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii” (Federal Law No. 224-FZ of July 13, 2015 "On Public-Private Partnerships, Municipal-Private Partnership in the Russian Federation and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation"), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 17.07.2015. No. 156.
31. Shorokhov S.V. Kontsessionnoe soglashenie kak forma publichnogo upravleniya: srav-nitel'no-pravovoe issledovanie (Concession agreement as a form of public administration: a comparative legal study), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2009 
Received: 15.05.2017
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE STANDARDS IN THE MECHANISM OF CRIMINAL POLICY 
KONDRAT Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Department of Legal Support of Management of MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Those public relations that are the subject of legal regulation of criminal and criminal-procedural legislation are imbued with entitative bonds, which are referred to as subject system bonds of criminal and criminal procedure legislation. In modern jurisprudence, the view is quite common that procedural branches are "continuation of relevant material areas". At the same time, it is necessary to clarify the question of the relation between substantive and procedural elements in the structure of a single criminal policy mechanism. The author considers criminal law regulation as an important element of the criminal policy system, which has its own subject and methods. Consequently, structural elements of the mechanism of legal regulation by their basic characteristics are similar to elements of the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal policy in general. Criminal procedure relations exist in order to let the subjects of these relations, through implementing their subjective rights and duties draw conclusion of the presence or absence of legal facts provided by substantive standards of criminal law.
Key words: criminal policy; criminal law policy; criminal procedure policy; operational research policy; penal policy; criminal preventive policy; criminal organizational policy.
References
1. Postanovlenie Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 29 iyunya 2004 g. № 13-P «Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti otdel'nykh polozhenii statei 7, 15, 107, 234 i 450 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiiskoi Federatsii v svyazi s zaprosom gruppy deputatov Gosudarstvennoi Dumy» (The judgment of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on June 29, 2004 № 13-P "On the case on the constitutionality of certain provisions of Articles 7, 15, 107, 234 and 450 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the request of the State Duma deputies group"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 2004. № 27. St. 2804.
2. Abubakirov F.M. Ugolovno-pravovaya otsenka nasiliya v ugolovnom zakonodatel'stve i sudebnoi praktike (Criminal law assessment of the violence in criminal law and judicial practice), Rossiiskii sud'ya, 2011, No. 8, pp. 19–22.
3. Aleksandrov A.I. Ugolovnaya politika i ugolovnyi protsess v rossiiskoi gosudarstvennosti: istoriya, sovremennost', perspektivy, problemy (Criminal policy and criminal procedure in the Russian statehood: History, present and prospects, problems), pod red. V.Z. Lukashevicha; predisl. akad. RAN, laureata Gosudarstvennoi premii SSSR, Zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki Rossiiskoi Federatsii, d-ra. yurid. nauk V.N. Kudryavtseva. SPb. SPbGU, 2003.
4. Aleksandrov A.I. Filosofiya zla i filosofiya prestupnosti (voprosy filosofii prava, ugolovnoi politiki i ugolovnogo protsessa) (Philosophy of evil and philosophy of crime (questions of philosophy of law, criminal policy and criminal procedure)), Vstupitel'noe slovo chlen-korrespondenta Rossiiskoi akademii nauk, doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, professora D.A. Kerimova. SPb. SPbGU, 2013.  
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15. Efimichev P.S., Efimichev S.P. Rassledovanie prestuplenii: teoriya, praktika, obespechenie prav lichnosti (Investigation of crimes: theory, practice and providing the rights of the individual). M. Yustitsinform, 2008. 
16. Zhalinskii A.E. Ugolovnoe pravo v ozhidanii peremen: teoretiko-instrumental'nyi analiz (Criminal law in anticipation of changes: theoretical and instrumental analysis). 2-e izd. M. Prospekt, 2009.
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23. Profatilova N.V. Otsenka sledovatelem dostatochnosti dokazatel'stv pri prinyatii osnovnykh protsessual'nykh reshenii po ugolovnym delam, monografiya (Assessment of sufficiency of the evidence by the investigator when making key procedural decisions in criminal cases: Monograph). M. Yurlitinform, 2009. 
24. Rabtsevich O.I. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovno-protsessual'noe pravo: k voprosu o samostoyatel'nosti normativnogo kompleksa (International Criminal Procedure Law: to the question of the independence of the regulatory complex), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2011, No. 3.
25. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Ugolovno-ispolnitel'naya politika (Penitentiary policy), Vestnik Samarskogo yuridicheskogo instituta. Nauchno-prakticheskii zhurnal, 2016, No. 4.
26. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Operativno-rozysknaya politika kak kontsen-trirovannoe vyrazhenie ekonomiki (Operative search policy as a concentrated expression of economics), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 3, pp. 90–97.
27. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Operativno-rozysknaya politika kak element ugolovnoi politiki sovremennoi Rossii (Operative search policy as an element of criminal policy of modern Russia), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 6, pp. 96–108.
28. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Ugolovno-preventivnaya   politika kak element ugolovnoi politiki sovremennoi Rossii (Criminal preventive policy as an element of criminal policy of modern Russia), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 8.
29. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Ugolovno-ispolnitel'naya  politika kak element ugolovnoi politiki sovremennoi Rossii (Penitentiary policy as an element of criminal policy of modern Russia), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 7.
30. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Ugolovno-pravovaya politika kak element ugolovnoi politiki sovremennoi Rossii (Criminal law policy as an element of criminal policy of modern Russia), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 5, pp. 94–107.
31. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Ugolovno-protsessual'naya politika kak element ugolovnoi politiki sovremennoi Rossii (Criminal procedure policy as an element of criminal policy of modern Russia), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 9 pp. 70–97.
32. Sal'nikov V.P., Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov M.V. Ugolovnaya i ugolovno-protsessual'naya politika (Criminal and criminal procedure law policy), Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika. Vestnik Nizhegorodskoi akademii MVD Rossii, 2016, No. 3, pp 260–283.
33. Santalov A.I. Teoreticheskie voprosy ugolovnoi otvetstvennosti (Theoretical issues of criminal responsibility). L., 1982. 
34. Stakhov Ya.G. Ugolovnaya politika i ee realizatsiya sub"ektami Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Criminal policy and its implementation by the Russian Federation subjects), dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk. M. Akademiya upravleniya MVD RF, 2006. 
35. Ugolovno-protsessual'noe pravo Rossiiskoi Federatsii: uchebnik (Criminal Procedure Law of the Russian Federation: Textbook), otv. red. P.A. Lupinskaya. M. Yurist", 2005.
36. Ugolovnyi protsess, uchebnik (Criminal process: Textbook), pod red. A.D. Proshlyakova, V.S. Balakshina, Yu.V. Kozubenko. M. Volters Kluver, 2011. 
37. Frantsiforov Yu.V. Protivorechiya ugolovnogo protsessa (Contradictions of criminal process). M. Priorizdat, 2006.
38. Churilov S.N. Metodika rassledovaniya prestuplenii: obshchie polozheniya (Methods of investigation of crimes: general provisions). M. Yustitsinform, 2011.
39. Churilov S.N. Predmet dokazyvaniya v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve i kriminalistike, nauchno-praktich. posobie (Subject evidence in criminal justice and criminology: Research and practical aid). M. Yustitsinform, 2011. 
40. El'kind P.S. Tseli i sredstva ikh dostizheniya v sovetskom ugolovno-protsessual'nom prave (The aims and means of their achievement in Soviet criminal procedure law). L., 1976.
Received: 20.01.2017
DYNAMICS OF CORRUPTION-RELATED CRIMES IN 2012-2015. ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL INFORMATION OF THE JUDICIARY (PART 3)
PUDAKOV Evgeniy Rustamovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Сhair of Criminal Law, Procedure and Forensics of the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies (branch) of the AL and SR  (Moscow), Head of the Institution FGI CC-13of the FPS of Russia for the Republic of Bashkortostan, 
Ufa, Russia  Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.р
The success of the State's work on anti-corruption is directly dependent on the availability of relevant and objective information, both in law enforcement and judicial activities in this field, in the first place to determine the effectiveness of the measures. Intensive standard-setting work of the legislature carried out in recent years as well as coordinating activities of the executive and the judiciary to combat corruption in our country indicates certain, both positive and negative results.
Key words: corruption-related crimes; General Prosecutor's Office; Judicial Department; deprivation of liberty; confiscation of property; fine; information on incomes; civil servants.
References
1. Statisticheskie dannye sudebnogo departamenta (Statistics of the judicial department). URL:http: // www.cdep.ru/ (reference date: 15.01.2017).
2. Ofitsial'nyi sait General'noi prokuratury Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The official website of the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation). URL:http://genproc.gov.ru/anticor (reference date: 06.01.2017).
Received: 14.01.2017
CHARACTERISTICS OF JUDICIAL APPEAL IN THE SPHERE OF PREVENTIVE AND SUBSEQUENT JUDICIAL CONTROL IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
ADILOV Sanzhar Askenovich
Deputy Head of the Department of Internal Affairs of Astana City of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Upon introduction into the Kazakhstan criminal procedure of the new independent prejudicial investigation participant, i.e. investigating magistrate, theory and practice of judicial procedure displayed issues related not only to implementation of the powers vested onto the said subject, but also related to judicial appeal of the decisions made by him. The author of the scientific article calls attention to the issues of the current legislation and discusses the correlation of the subject and limits of the judicial appeal during the preventive and subsequent judicial control. The article also analyses the mechanism of court review of the actions and decisions made by the prejudicial investigation authorities in case of implementation of unsanctioned investigative actions and defines criteria of distinction between deeming the presented evidence inadmissible and the decision of the investigating magistrate on deeming the unsanctioned investigative action illegal. As a consequence, the author makes recommendations and suggestions regarding clarification of the existing legal norms regulating the procedure of judicial appeal at various judicial authorities. Prospects of further scientific research on the presented topic are also discussed.
Key words: complaint, protest, judicial control, investigative action, investigating magistrate, prosecutor, prejudicial investigation authority, investigating magistrate’s ruling.
References
1. Sudebnaja kollegija po ugolovnym delam goroda Astany. Analiz dejatel'nosti sledstvennyh sudej za 11 mesjacev 2016 goda v sravnenii s 2015 godom (Judicial Board on criminal cases of Astana city. Analysis of the activity of investigative judges in the first 11 months of the year 2016 in comparison with 2015). Astana, 23 dekabrja 2016 goda. 
2. Halikov A.N. Osobennosti instituta sudebnogo obzhalovanija v dosudebnom proizvodstve (Features of the Institute of judicial review in pre-trial proceedings), Rossijskaja justicija. 2003. No. 7. P. 53 
3. Isaenko V.N. Sledstvennye dejstvija i polnomochija prokurora po nadzoru za nimi (Investigative actions and powers of the Prosecutor's supervision), Zakonnost'. 2003. No. 2. P. 23.
Received: 20.08.2017
TERRORISM:  PREVENTION PROBLEMS  
KULESHOVA Galina Petrovna
Doctor of Sciences (Sociology), Head of the Department of Law Enforcement and Executive Proceedings of the Mid-Volga Branch of the FSBEI HE "All-Russian State University of Justice (RLA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia)", Saransk, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The basis of any crime prevention is the study of the causes of their commission. Terrorism prevention starts with the study of the causes of the emergence and existence of this negative antisocial phenomenon. Identifying these reasons can allow taking timely necessary measures, to forestall thus, the manifestations of terrorism, which are terrorist acts. All these causes are of two levels – global, national and individual level, which reveals the causes of individual susceptibility of specific individuals to extremist views and ideas. Those and other causes must be considered together, as it allows to understand the mechanism of terrorism in modern society and to identify the most effective measures and means to counter it. Thus, it is necessary to refuse the stereotypes of perception of terrorism as a consequence of economic or social contradictions and, as a consequence of the impoverishment of certain segments of the population. This stereotype is false and is designed to uncover the true causes of terrorism, but only to justify that is a sin against the truth and creates the basis for the justification that should not and can not be done.
Key words: terrorism, extremism, crime prevention, identity of the terrorist.
References
1. Bengazi: smert «skorpionov» (Benghazi: the death of "Scorpions") http://chargeonline.ru/2015/09/09/bengazi-smert-skorpionov/.
2. Vavilov A.I. «Islamskiy» terrorizm: mifyi i realnost ("Islamic" terrorism: myths and reality), Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo lingvisticheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Obschestvennyie nauki, 2010, No. 581, pp. 19–32.
3. Donodaev S.V., Paltsev A.I. Problemyi opredeleniya prichin i suschnosti mezhdunarodnogo terrorizma na sovremennom etape (The problems of determining the causes and nature of international terrorism at the present stage), Sibirskiy mezhdunarodnyiy, 2010, No. 11, pp. 90–93.
4. Zhizn naroda Livii pri Kaddafi – tolko faktyi (The life of the people of Libya under Gaddafi, only the facts). [Elektronnyiy resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: http://za-kaddafi.org/node/94.
5. Koposova E.N. Za kulisami sverzheniya kaddafi: stoila li igra svech? (Behind the scenes of the overthrow of Gaddafi: is the game worth the candle?), Vlast, 2015, No. 8, pp. 213–217.
6. Kuznetsov A.A. «Islamskoe gosudarstvo» v kontekste politicheskih izmeneniy na Blizhnem Vostoke ("Islamic state" in the context of political changes in the middle East), Vestnik MGIMO Universiteta, 2015, No. 2 (41), pp. 184–192.
7. Severnyiy Kavkaz – ob'ekt vliyaniya mezhdunarodnogo terrorizma (The North Caucasus is an object of the influence of international terrorism) [Elektronnyiy resurs]. URL: http://www. warandpeace.ru/ru/exclusive/view/92212/.
8. Skobennikov A. Ekspansiya turetskih spetssluzhb na Severnom Kavkaze (The expansion of Turkish intelligence in the North Caucasus) [Elektronnyiy resurs]. URL: http://www.segodnia.ru/ content/26045.
9. Spetsificheskie kachestva lichnosti ekstremista i terrorista (Specific qualities of the personality of extremist and terrorist). [Elektronnyiy resurs]. URL: http://isfic.info/terlog/suniv10.htm.
10. Terrorizm molodeet (Terrorism is becoming younger). [Elektronnyiy resurs]. URL: http://www.sibsiu.ru/antiterror/?p=277.
Received: 17.07.2017
IMPROVEMENT OF JUDICIAL ACTIVITY ON CRIMES IN THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY SPHERE IS ONE OF THE BASIC CONDITIONS
OF EFFECTIVE SECURITY AND PROTECTION OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
KHISMATULLIN Rashit Sagitovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
MINIBAEVA Diana Farkhatovna
Assistant to the Chairperson of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article discusses topical issues of improving judicial activity in cases over crimes in the economic activity sphere. The improvement and modernization of judicial activity in cases over crimes in the economic activity sphere contributes to the all-round effective provision and protection of civil rights and freedoms. An important means of improving judicial activities on effective protection of civil rights and freedoms, including participants in proceedings in cases over crimes in the sphere of economic activity, is panel hearing of cases of this category. An effective and significant means of improving judicial activity in cases over crimes in the sphere of economic activity is the specialization of judges to review the mentioned category of criminal cases. In this connection, it becomes necessary and expedient to invite representatives of RF Presidential Commissioner for the Rights of Business People to court hearings of the criminal cases analyzed by the authors. The improvement of the Criminal Procedure Law and modernization of judicial activity in cases over crimes in the sphere of economic activity is one of the main conditions of effective security and protection of civil rights and freedoms.
Key words: court, judicial activity, crimes in economic activity sphere, civil rights and freedoms.
References
1. Pravo na delo (The right to a case), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 2017. 29 maya. 
2. Khismatullin R. S. Problemy kriminologii: uchebnoe posobie (Problems of criminology: Textbook). Ufa, 2009.
3. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii (St. 10, ch. 1 st. 11 i ch. 1 st. 118). Prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12 dekabrya 1993 (s uchetom popravok, vnesennykh Zakonami Rossiiskoi Federatsii o popravkakh k Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 30.12.2008 N 6-FKZ, ot 30.12.2008 N 7-FKZ, ot 05.02.2014 N 2-FKZ, ot 21.07.2014 N 11-FKZ) (The Constitution of the Russian Federation (Article 10, Part 1, Article 11 and Part 1, Article 118), adopted by popular vote on December 12, 1993 (taking into account the amendments introduced by the laws of the Russian Federation on amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation No. 6-FKZ of December 30, 2008, No. 7-FKZ of December 30, 2008, No. 2- FKZ, from July 21, 2014 N 11-FKZ)).
4. Mantiyu snyali (The mantle was put off), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 2017. 21 aprelya.  
5. Mezhdunarodnye akty o pravakh cheloveka (International acts on human rights). Sbornik dokumentov.  
6.  Rekomendatsiya № R(96)8 «Po politike bor'by s prestupnost'yu v izmenyayushcheisya Evro-pe», prinyataya Komitetom Ministrov Soveta Evropy 5 sentyabrya 1996 g. (Recommendation No. R (96)8 "On the policy to combat crime in a changing Europe", adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on September 5, 1996), Mezhdunarodnye akty po voprosam ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva, khrestomatiya. Tom III. 
7. Mezhdunarodnye akty po voprosam ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva: Khrestomatiya. Tom II (International acts on the issues of criminal proceedings: Reader. Volume II). 
8. Khismatullin R.S., Minibaeva D.F. Takticheskie osnovy sudebnogo rassmotreniya del o prestupleniyakh v sfere ekonomicheskoi deyatel'nosti, monografiya (Tactical bases of judicial review of cases of crimes in the sphere of economic activity: Monograph). Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2014.
9. Rossiiskaya gazeta (The Russian newspaper). 2013. 19 maya. P. 10.
10. Vseobshchaya Deklaratsiya prav cheloveka, prinyataya i provozglashennaya General'noi As-sambleei Organizatsii Ob"edinennykh Natsii 10 dekabrya 1948 g. (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948), Mezhdunarodnye akty o pravakh cheloveka, sbornik dokumentov. M. NORMA, 2000. Pp. 40–41.
11. Mezhdunarodnyi Pakt ob ekonomicheskikh, sotsial'nykh i kul'turnykh pravakh, prinyatyi General'noi Assambleei Organizatsii Ob"edinennykh Natsii i vstupivshii v silu 3 yanvarya 1976 g. (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations and entered into force on January 3, 1976), Mezhdunarodnye akty o pravakh cheloveka, sbornik dokumentov. M. NORMA, 2000. P. 49.
12. Mezhdunarodnyi Pakt o grazhdanskikh i politicheskikh pravakh, prinyatyi General'noi Assambleei Organizatsii Ob"edinennykh Natsii i vstupivshii v silu 23 marta 1976 g. (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations and entered into force on 23 March 1976), Mezhdunarodnye akty o pravakh cheloveka, sbornik dokumentov. M. NORMA, 2000. P. 60.
13. Deklaratsiya sotsial'nogo progressa i razvitiya, prinyataya General'noi Assambleei Organizatsii Ob"edinennykh Natsii 11 dekabrya 1969 g. (The Declaration on Social Progress and Development, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 11 December 1969), Mezhdunarodnye akty o pravakh cheloveka, sbornik dokumentov. M. NORMA. 2000. P. 325.
Received: 15.07.2017
FEATURES OF THE USE OF SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE AS A PART OF THE TECHNIQUE OF INVESTIGATION OF CRIMES, RELATED TO EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM
AMINEV Farit Gizarovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assiatant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Director of the Ural-Volga Association of Forensic Experts, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The relevance of the topic lies in the fact that in a difficult situation in the country, the growth of extremism and terrorism, the role of the use of special knowledge increases in investigation of crimes connected with terrorist and extremist activities. Therefore, the actual problems of using special knowledge in non-procedural and procedural forms are reviewed. The author analyses some features of the use of certain kinds of special knowledge in investigation of crimes related to terrorism and extremism. Forensic recommendations are developed for improving the quality of the use of special knowledge in conducting investigative actions and operational search activities. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of expert’s opinion by the investigator. The possibilities of increasing the level of forensic support for the process of formation of evidence base are shown. The author concludes that the study and consideration of the use of special knowledge will allow to improve existing means and to develop new ways of forensic and technical forensic ensurance of detection and investigation of crimes.
Key words: special knowledge, procedural actions, forensic examination, evidence, expert, investigation, methodology, extremism, terrorism.
References
1. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. O klassifikatsii yavlenii ekstremizma i terrorizma: edinstvo sushch-nosti i polivariantnost' otobrazheniya v sotsiume (On the classification of the phenomena of extremism and terrorism: the unity of essence and the polyvariance of mapping in society), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 31–35.
2. Chuganov E.G. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye normy protivodeistviya terrorizmu v zarubezhnykh stranakh: analiticheskii obzor (International legal norms for countering terrorism in foreign countries: an analytical review). Moskva. VNII MVD Rossii, 2004. 
3. Safonov I.I. Organizatsiya raskrytiya i rassledovaniya terrorizma, monografiya (Organization of detecting and investigating terrorism: monograph). Moskva, 2004.
4. Khlebushkin A.G. Ekstremizm ugolovno-pravovoi i ugolovno-politicheskii analiz, monografiya (Extremism. Criminal law and the criminal political analysis: monograph), otv. red. N.A. Lopashenko. Saratov, 2007.
5. Sergeev A.B. Sovershenstvovanie dosudebnogo proizvodstva po ugolovnym delam o prestupleniyakh, sovershennykh v chrezvychainykh usloviyakh, monografiya (Perfection of pre-trial proceedings in criminal cases on crimes committed in emergency conditions: monograph). Chelyabinsk, 2002.
6. Aminev F.G. Aktual'nye voprosy ispol'zovaniya spetsial'nykh znanii pri rassledovanii pre-stuplenii v sfere nezakonnogo oborota narkotikov (Topical issues of the use of special knowledge in the investigation of crimes in the sphere of illicit drug trafficking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2014. № 4 (38). Pp. 128–132.
7. Yablokov N.P., Golovin A.Yu. Kriminalistika: priroda, sistema, metodologicheskie osnovy (Forensic science: nature, system, methodological basis). Moskva. Norma, 2009.
8. Ozhegov S.I., Shvedova N.Yu. Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo yazyka (Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language). Moskva. AZ"", 1996. 
9. Tarasov A.A. Ekspert i spetsialist v ugolovnom protsesse Rossii: monografiya (Expert and specialist in criminal procedure of Russia: monograph). Ufa : RITs BashGU, 2014.
10. Aminev F.G. Teoriya i praktika ispol'zovaniya spetsial'nykh znanii v rassledovanii prestuplenii, monografiya (Theory and practice of using specialized knowledge in crime investigation: monograph). Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2015.
11. Dyablova Yu.L. Modelirovanie prestupnika s pomoshch'yu sredstv sudebnoi ekspertizyi (Modeling the criminal with the help of forensic tools), Vostok-Zapad: partnerstvo v sudebnoi ekspertize. Aktual'nye voprosy teorii i praktiki sudebnoi ekspertizy, materialy Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf., g. Almaty, 6 noyabrya 2014 g. Astana, 2014. Pp. 135–137.
12. Zhdanov S.P. Uchastie spetsialista v sudoproizvodstve i operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti: postanovka problem (Participation of a specialist in legal proceedings and operational search activity: statement of problems), preprint monografii. Moskva. Izd. dom Shumilovoi I.I., 2014.
13. Suslonov P.E. Vyyavlenie soderzhashchikhsya v audio-, video- i pechatnykh materialakh priznakov eks-tremizma: teoretiko-metodologicheskie i prakticheskie aspekty problem (Identification of the signs of extremism contained in audio, video and printed materials: theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the problem), Problemy protivodeistviya ekstremizmu, materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, 15 oktyabrya 2009 g. Belgorod. BelYuI MVD Rossii, 2009. Pp. 37–44.
Received: 21.08.2017
COOPERATION OF STATES ON COMBATING THE FINANCING OF TERRORISM IN THE FRAMEWORK OF DEVELOPING FINANCIAL ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING MEASURES
KARIMOV Rim Rimovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KARIMOVA Guzel Yurisovna
Candidate of  Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Actually, the current task of the world community is to suppress the financing of terrorism. States carry out this work at the level of international organizations. The coordinator of this work is the United Nations, under the aegis of which the basic international documents in the field of combating the financing of terrorism have been developed. Due to the fact that States have a variety of legal, administrative and operational frameworks and various financial systems, it is necessary to adopt universal measures to counter the financing of terrorism. These measures have been developed by the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF). To date, the FATF has developed special Recommendations on combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism, which are used by more than 30 countries of the world, including the Russian Federation.
Key words: cooperation of states, combating the financing of terrorism, the FATF, the UNO.
References
1. Bor'ba s mezhdunarodnym terrorizmom: sbornik dokumentov (The fight against international terrorism: collection of documents), sost. K.A. Bekjashev, M.R. Avjasov; nauch. red. V.V. Ustinov. Moscow, 2005. 
2. Karimov R.R. Genezis dogovorno-pravovogo mehanizma sotrudnichestva gosudarstv v sfere protivodejstvija terrorizmu v XX-XXI vv. (Genesis of the contractual and legal mechanism of cooperation of states in the sphere of counteraction to terrorism in the XX-XXI centuries), monografija. Ufa, UJuI MVD Rossii, 2010.
3. Nigmatullin R.V. Sotrudnichestvo gosudarstv v bor'be s prestuplenijami mezhdunarodnogo haraktera v XX veke i nachale XXI stoletija (istoriko-pravovoj aspekt) (Cooperation of states in combating crimes of an international character in the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century (the historical and legal aspect)), monografija. Moscow, Jurist, 2006.
4. Savel'ev V.A. Ob implementacii v rossijskom zakonodatel'stve mezhdunarodnyh dogovorov Rossijskoj Federacii po bor'be s terrorizmom (On the implementation in the Russian legislation of the international treaties of the Russian Federation on combating terrorism), Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2002, № 2, рр. 16–19.
5. Consolidated FATF strategy on combatting terrorist financing // http://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/FATF-Terrorist-Financing-Strategy.pdf.
Received: 15.07.2017
THE VICTIM’S IDENTITY AS AN ELEMENT OF CRIMINOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRAUD IN THE TURNOVER OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY
NIZAEVA Svetlana Ramilevna
Instructor of the Department of Forensics of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In this article, the author offers a classification of the identity of defrauded in the turnover of residential property, taking into account psychological, social and demographic features, and then reveals the contents of the developed classification. In addition, the author examines the conditions for carrying out of investigatory actions with victims in non-conflict and conflict situations, as well as explains those general and specific investigation objectives that the information on the victim’s identity helps to solve.
Key words: fraud, residential property, legal relations, classification, victim’s identity, investigative actions, forensic characteristics, signs, social, demographic, psychological, crime.
References
1. Abramov A.M. Moshennichestvo (kompleksnaya characteristika i metodika rassledovaniya) (Fraud (complex characteristics and methods of investigation)). Moskva, MPGU, 2005.
2. Vozgrin I.A. Nauchnie osnovi criminalistichescoi metodiki rassledovaniya prestupleniy (Scientific foundations of forensic methods of investigating crimes). Moskva, 1993.
3. Lushechkina M.A. O napravleniyah, zadachah i o ponyatii criminalistichescogo izucheniya lichnosti (On the directions, tasks and the concept of forensic study of personality), Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriya 11. Pravo. No. 3, 1999.
4. Kanevskiy L.L. Criminalistichesckie problemy rassledovaniya i profilaktiki prestuplenii nesovershennoletnih (Forensic problems of investigation and prevention of juvenile delinquency). Krasnoyarsk, Izdatelstvo Krasnoyarskogo university, 1991.
Received: 15.07.2017
THE USE OF SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE IN ORDER TO DETECT AND OVERCOME COUNTERING ACTIONS AGAINST INVESTIGATIONS OF CASES OVER COMMERCIAL BRIBERY
MURATSHINA Snezhana Nazirovna
3-year Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Recently, the role of special knowledge in the investigation of corruption-related crimes, including commercial bribery, is rapidly growing. This is largely due to the development and improvement of technologies, which allows criminals to realize their criminal intentions in increasingly sophisticated ways and to apply the most effective measures to counteract criminal prosecution. Persons assisting by their participation to prove and implement the appointment of criminal proceedings are specialists and experts. Their participation in the investigation of criminal cases raises the effectiveness of investigative actions, makes them more focused and complete. A specialist is able to introduce in a series of evidence those that could be missed by the investigator due to his lack of information on special issues. The expert is able to carry out an in-depth analysis of the information content of the tracks found on the scene as a collection of different information fields, which helps in exposing countermeasures that are aimed at distorting and preventing the traces of crime. The qualified and appropriate use of special knowledge and related scientific and technical means is one of the most effective directions in the forensic support of identifying and overcoming attempts to counteract the investigation.
Key words: special knowledge, specialist, expert, counteraction to investigation, forensic examination, polygraph, expert opinion, specialist’s testimony, investigator, counter-opposition.
References
1. Postanovlenie plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF ot 21 dekabrya 2010 g. №28 «O sudebnoi ekspertize po ugolovnym delam» (Resolution of the plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of December 21, 2010 № 28 "On forensic examination in criminal cases"), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 2010. No. 296. 30 dekabrya.
2. Akhmedshin R.L. Aktual'nye aspekty taktiki doprosa eksperta (Actual aspects of tactics of interrogation of an expert), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Pravo. 2014. No. 4 (14). Pp. 15–21.
3. Komissarova Ya.V., Soshnikov A.P. Poligraf v praktike rassledovaniya prestuplenii (Polygraph in the practice of investigating crimes). M., 2008. 
4. Kommentarii k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossiiskoi Federatsii (postateinyi) (Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (article-by-article)), pod red A.I. Chuchaeva. M., 2012. 
5. Korovin V.V., Soshnikov A.P. Sposoby vyyavleniya protivodeistviya poligrafnym proverkam (Methods of detecting counteraction to polygraph checks) [Elektronnyi resurs].URL: http://spfi.rf/publikatsii/v-v-korovin-a-p-soshnikov-sposoby-vyyavleniya-protivodejstviya-poligrafnym-proverkam (reference date: 01.03.2017). 
6. Orlov Yu.K., Kholodnyi Yu.I. Provedenie issledovanii s primeneniem poligrafa v forme sudebnoi psikhofiziologicheskoi ekspertizy (Carrying out studies using polygraph in the form of forensic psychophysiological expertise), Vestnik Akademii Sledstvennogo komiteta Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 2015. No. 1. Pp. 251–257.
7. Petrunina A.B. Protivodeistvie rassledovaniyu prestuplenii v sfere nezakonnogo oborota narkotikov i kriminalisticheskie metody ego vyyavleniya i preodoleniya (Counteraction to the investigation of crimes in the sphere of illicit drug trafficking and forensic methods for its detection and overcoming): dis. …kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2006. 
8. Polstovalov O.V., Shagimuratova Z.A. Primenenie poligrafa v kachestve elementa kriminalisticheskoi taktiki izoblicheniya (The use of polygraph as an element of forensic tactics of exposing), Rossiiskii sledovatel'. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 19–23.
9. Rossinskaya E.R., Galyashina E.I. Nastol'naya kniga sud'i: sudebnaya ekspertiza (Handbook of the judge: Forensic examination). M. Prospekt, 2017.
Received: 15.05.2017
DUALISTIC SYSTEM OF EUROPEAN STATES’ PRIVATE LAW AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISE LEGISLATION IN RUSSIA
DEMIYEVA Aynur Gabdulbarovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law of Kazan (Privolzhsk) Federal University, Kazan, Russia. Email: Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article is devoted to the analysis of private law of the European states relating to the Romano-German legal system - Germany, Poland, France, and Estonia. The author concludes that Commercial Codes of the considered states are the result of the public and private law principles interaction, because the rules contained therein govern relations with public and private legal nature. In connection with this, the author has identified the shortcomings of this dualistic system. The main drawback of it is that in each of the examples considered, the norms of the Commercial Codes, which regulate business relations, duplicate the norms of state’s civil law. Based on the foregoing, the author comes to conclusion that the perception of the foreign experience presented in the article seems to be inexpedient. Consequently, the dualism of private law in the considered understanding is unacceptable for national Russian legislation.
Key words: dualism, private law, convergence, enterprise law, economic law, commercial code, trade code.
References
1. Belykh V.S. Predprinimatel'skoe pravo v sisteme prava Rossii (Entrepreneurial law in the system of law of Russia) [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://law.edu.ru/script/cntSource. asp?cntID=100068002.
2. Zakhvataev V.N. Kommercheskii kodeks Frantsii, sbornik (Commercial Code of France: Collection). Predisl., per. s fr., dop., slov.-sprav. i komment. V.N. Zakhvataeva. M., Wolters Kluwer Russia, 2008.
3. Ioffe O.S. Izbrannye trudy po grazhdanskomu pravu: Iz istorii tsivilisticheskoi mysli. Grazhdanskoe pravootnoshenie. Kritika teorii «khozyaistvennogo prava» (Selected works on civil law: From the history of civil thought. Civil legal relationship. Criticism of the theory of "business law") [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://civil.consultant.ru/elib/books/3/page_25.html.
4. Kniper R. Skepticheskie zamechaniya po povodu neobkhodimosti razrabotki Khozyaistven-nogo kodeksa (Skeptical remarks on the need to develop the Economic Code), Predprinimatel'skii kodeks kak orudie razvala pravovoi sistemy Kazakhstana, cb. statei., otv. red. M.K. Suleimenov. Almaty, 2011. Pp. 59–65.
5. Kommercheskii kodeks Estonii (neofitsial'nyi perevod) prinyat 15 fevralya 1995 g. (Commercial Code of Estonia (unofficial translation) was adopted on February 15, 1995) [Elektronnyi resurs], PAE. – 1995. – 24-27, 355. URL: http://zakon24.ee/pravovyje-akty-estonii-na-russkom-jazyke/kommercheskij-kodeks/.
6. Kontseptsiya proekta Predprinimatel'skogo kodeksa Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 17 iyulya 2014 g. (The concept of the draft of the Entrepreneurial Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 17, 2014) [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.adilet.gov.kz/ru/node/60634.
7. Laptev V.V. Predprinimatel'skoe (khozyaistvennoe) pravo i real'nyi sektor ekonomiki (Entrepreneurial (economic) law and the real sector of the economy). M., Infotropik Media, 2010.
8. Lunts L.A., Fleishits E.A. Eshche raz o predmete khozyaistvennogo prava (Once more on the subject of economic law), Pravovedenie. 1960. No. 4. Pp. 46–54. [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.law.edu.ru/article/article.asp? articleID=1128784.
9. Popondopulo V.F. O chastnom i publichnom prave (On private and public law), Pravovedenie. 1994. No. 5–6. Pp. 53–54.
10. Predprinimatel'skoe (khozyaistvennoe) pravo, uchebnik (Entrepreneurial (economic) law: Textbook). Voznesenskaya N.N. i dr.; pod red. V.V. Lapteva, S.S. Zankovskogo. M., VoltersKluver, 2006. 
11. Frantsuzskii grazhdanskii kodeks 1804 goda. S pozdneishimi izmeneniyami do 1939 goda (French Civil Code of 1804. With later changes until 1939), per. s fr. I.S. Pereterskogo. M., Yurid. izd-vo NKYu SSSR, 1941.
12. Khozyaistvennoe pravo. Pravovoe regulirovanie funktsional'nykh vidov deyatel'nosti v sotsialisticheskoi ekonomike (Economic law. Legal regulation of functional activities in the socialist economy), otv. red. V.V. Lapteva. M., Nauka, 1986.
13. Yakovlev V.F., Yakushev V.S. Pravovye osnovy regulirovaniya khozyaistvennoi deyatel'-nosti, uchebnoe posobie (Legal basis for the regulation of economic activity: Manual). Sverdlovsk, Izd-vo Ural. un-ta, 1979.
14. Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, BGB [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_bgb/.
15. Code de Commerce [C. Com.] Art L. 110-4 (2008) (Fr) (prerevision).
16. Handelsgezetzbuch, HGB [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/hgb/gesamt.pdf.
17. Jṹrgen G. Backhaus The German Civil Code of 1896: An Economic Interpretation. European Journal of Law and Economics. 1999. Jan. Vol. 7 (1). Pp. 5–15.
18. Kull I. Codification of Private Law in Estonia. Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice. 2013. 24 Dec. Vol. 32. Pp. 133–153. 
19. Sein K. The Development of Private International Law in Estonia // Yearbook of Private International Law. 2008. Vol. 10. P. 460.
20. Peter R. Senn Why has the German Civil Code Proven so Durable? European Journal of Law and Economics. 1999. Jan. Vol. 7 (1). Pp. 65–92.
21. Tsiviilseadustiku üldosa seadus (RT I 2002, 35, 216). Vastu võetud 27.03.2002 / General Part of the Civil Code Act. URL: http://www.acnc.eu/inf/ee_laws.
Received: 22.07.2017
WEAPON OF THE 21-ST CENTURY AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
This article reviews the issues of the change of arms race character after the dissolution of the USSR. In the author’s opinion, the cause of these changes is the fact, that the arms race of the 20-th century did not give the wanted result: the USSR disintegrated for internal reasons. With that in mind the enemies of Russia staked on the information war under advice of A. Dulles and the arms race has moved up to the sphere of radioelectronic technologies. These technologies, specifically navigation technologies, permit to perform subversive actions, which can be explained as malfunctions of equipment. The geophysical weapon represents a bigger danger, because the results of its use can be explained as harsh weather. It is the most dangerous weapon, as the results of its use can ruin the planet. So, the UNO has a top-priority task to forestall its usage.
Keywords: international security, national security, international treaties and agreements, UNO, conflicts, information wars, armaments, nuclear weapon, national interests, navigation technologies, information- and radio-electronic technologies, geophysical weapons.
References
1. Pervaya mirovaya informatsionnaya voina. Razval SSSR (The first world information war. The collapse of the USSR). http://www.nnre.ru/ politika/ pervaja _ mirovaja_informacionnaja_ voina_razval_sssr/p5.php (reference date: 5.05.2017).
4. Rezolyutsii General'noi Assamblei (Resolutions of the General Assembly). http://www.un. org/ru /development/ict/res.shtml.
6. http://www.itsec.ru/newstext.php?news_id=97749 (reference date: 6.05.2017).
7. http://tass.ru/politika/3754890 (reference date: 6.05.2017).
8. http://www.itsec.ru/newstext.php?news_id=108842 (reference date: 10.05.2017).
9. http://www.interfax.ru/world/460554 (reference date: 10.05.2017).
10. http://www.aggf.ru/pr.php?nn=100059 (reference date: 10.05.2017).
11. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPS po materialam Statement of Cmdr. A. E. Fiore, U.S. Na-vy. / Hearings on Military Posture and H.R. 3689, April 11, 1975. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Gov-ernment Printing Office, 1975. Pr. 5207-5212 (reference date: 15.05.2017).
12. Sputnikovaya supersistema sozdaetsya armiei SShA 18 noyabrya 2011 (The satellite super-system is being created by the US Army November 18, 2011) https://topwar.ru/8525-sputnikovaya-supersistema-armiey-ssha.html (reference date: 15.05.2017).
13. Tainy Chapman. Pochemu vret navigator? (Why is the navigator lying?) (2017). Opublikovano: 31.03.2017, 11:43 dok-film.net/13242-tayny-chapman-pochemu-vret-navigator. html (reference date: 30.05.2017).
16. Na chto sposobno klimaticheskoe oruzhie (What climate weapons are capable of) http://www.mirprognozov.ru/prognosis/science/na-chto-sposobno-klimaticheskoe-orujie/ (reference date: 3.06.2017).
18. http://red-odysseus.livejournal.com/20003.html (reference date: 30.05.2017).
20. http://www.kret.com/about/info/ (reference date: 1.06.2017).
22. http://red-odysseus.livejournal.com/20003.html (reference date: 1.06.2017).
24. http://moscomeco.livejournal.com/30741.html (reference date: 1.06.2017).
25. Vitalii Vasil'evich Adushkin. Stanislav Ivanovich Kozlov. Eto – mif… Ili vse-taki real'nost'? Kriticheskii vzglyad na geofizicheskoe oruzhie (It's a myth ... Or is it reality? A critical look at geophysical weapons), Nezavisimoe voennoe obozrenie, 2006-04-21; Oruzhie tret'ei mirovoi sozdano eshche v SSSR. https://surmasite.wordpress.com /2016/08/07/oruzhie-tret'ei-mirovoi-sozdano-eshche-v-s/; Klimaticheskoe oruzhie: SShA kak obez'yana s granatoi. http://www.kramola.info/vesti/ metody-genocida/klimaticheskoe-oruzhie-ssha-kak-obezjana-s-granatoj (reference date: 1.06.2017).
Received: 15.06.2017
LEX MERCATORIA AS A NON-STATE REGULATOR OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра. 
The increased adoption of a set of legal rules, procedures and practices without state intervention and its bodies is designed to facilitate interactions between participants of legal relations within specific scopes of activity. The law of Lex mercatoria is the right thing. It is largely voluntarily formed by international traders themselves with in conditions of relative autonomy from the state. The overarching principle here is that of shunning legal technicalities and deciding cases ex aequo et bono. The history of lex mercatoria goes back deep into the past: from an amorphous law of earlier times the new Lex Mercatoria has transformed into an established system of law with codified legal rules. Nowadays, lex mercatoria can be considered as an effective legal tool for settling commercial disputes with foreign elements. However, this new Lex Mercatoria is still widely separated and largely fragmentary. It seems apparent that the more precise formulation and systematization of Lex mercatoria rules will be produced in the coming years, but it is unlikely that the latter will ever reach the same levels of harmonization that can be provided by codifying national laws.
Key words: Lex mercatoria, commercial law, law merchant, commercial disputes with foreign elements, international commercial arbitration, the principles of UNIDROIT, INCOTERMS, contract law, new lex mercatoria.
References
1. Goldman B. The Applicable Law: General Principles of Law - The Lex Mercatoria, in J.D.M. Lew (Ed.), Contemporary Problems in International Arbitration, Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987, pp. 113–125.
2. Berman H., Kaufmann C. The Law of International Commercial Transactions (Lex Mercatoria) // Harvard International Law Journal, 221, 1978.
3. Julian D. M Lew, Applicable Law in International Commercial Arbitration: A Study in Commercial Arbitration Awards (Oceana transnational services), 1978.
4. Goode R. New Developments in International and Consumer Law, Ziegel, J.S. (ed.), Hart Publishing, Oxford, 1998, pp. 3–35.
5. Lowenfeld A.F. Lex Mercatoria: An Arbitrator's View. Arb. Int., 1990, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 133–150.
6. Schmitthoff Clive M. General Aspects of International Trade Law / in: Clive M. Schmitthoff's Select Essays on International Trade Law, ed. by Chia-Jui Cheng (Dordrecht/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff and Graham & Trotman Ltd.), 1988.
7. Goldman B. Contemporary Problems in International Commercial Arbitration, Julian D.M. Lew (ed.), 1986, pp. 113–125.
8. Berger K.P. The Creeping Codification of the Lex Mercatoria, Kluwer Law International, The Hague / London / Boston, 1999. 
9. Berman H.J., Dasser F.J. The "New" Law Merhant and the "Old": Sources, Content, and Legitimacy // Lex Mercatoria and Arbitration. A Discussion of the New Law Merchant, pp. 55–56. 
10. Dalhuisen J.H. Legal Orders and their Manifestations: The Operation of the International Commercial and Financial Legal Order and its Lex Mercatoria // Berkeley Journal of International Law, 2006, vol.24, 1, pp. 129–191. 
11. Goode R. Usage and its Reception in Transnational Commercial Law / International Comparative Law Quarterly, 46, 1997, pp. 1–36. 
12. Dezalay Y., Garth B.G. Dealing in virtue: international commercial arbitration and the construction of a transnational legal order / Yves Dezalay & Bryant G. Garth; foreword by Pierre Bourdieu, Chicago (University of Chicago Press), 1996, pp. 3–17. 
13. Lowenfeld A.F. Lex Mercatoria: An Arbitrator's View / in Lex Mercatoria and Arbitration. A Discussion of the New Law Merchant. Revised Edition. Carbonneau T. editor. Kluwer, 1998. 
14. Kassis А. L'arbitre, les conflits de lois et la lex mercatoria // Actes du premier colloque sur l'arbitrage commerial international / Antaki N. & Prujiner F., editors. 1986.  
15. Ralf  M. The True Lex Mercatoria: Law Beyond the State // Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies: Vol. 14: Iss. 2, 2007, pp. 447–469.
16. Kassis A. Théorie générale des usages du commerce (droit comparé, contrats et arbitrages internationaux, lex mercatoria). Paris: Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, 1984.
17. Mustill M. The new Lex Mercatoria: The first 25 years, in Liber Amicorum for Lord Wilberforce, Oxford, 1987, pp. 149–183. 
18. Goldman B. Lex Mercatoria // Forum Internationale, Vol. 3, 1983, pp. 3–24.
19. Clive M. Schmitthoff's Select Essays on International Trade Law / in C.J. Cheng, J.Cheng eds. Netherlands/London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers/Graham & Trotman Ltd., 1988.
20. Mitchell W. An Essay on the Early History of the Law Merchant: Being the Yorke Prize Essay for the Year 1903. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2006.
21. Мажорина М.В. Lex mercatoria: средневековый миф или феномен глобализации? // Научно-аналитический журнал. М.: ВШЭ, 2017. С. 4–19.
21. Mazhorina M.V. Lex mercatoria: srednevekovyi mif ili fenomen globalizatsii? (Lex mercatoria: a medieval myth or a phenomenon of globalization?), Nauchno-analiticheskii zhurnal. Moscow, VShE, 2017, Pp. 4–19.
22. Sealy L.S., Hooley R.J.A. Commercial Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Oxford University Press, 2003.
23. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.cisg.ru/.
24. Teubner G. Global Private Regimes: Neo-spontaneous Law and Dual Constitution of Autonomous Sectors? / in Karl-Heinz Ladeur (ed), Public Governance in the Age of Globalization, 2004, pp. 71–87. 
25. Fortier Y. New Trends in Governing Law: The New, New Lex Mercatoria, or, Back to the Future // ICSID Review, 16(1), 2001, pp. 10–19. 
26. Bonell M.J. UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts and Draft Common Frame of Reference: A Synoptical Table // Uniform Law Review, Vol. 14, Issue 3, 2009, pp. 437–554.
27. Вилкова Н.Г. От глобального контрактного права к глобальному применимому праву // Актуальные правовые аспекты современной практики международного коммерческого оборота: сборник статей / под ред. А.С. Комарова. М.: Статут, 2016. С. 43–55.
27. Vilkova N.G. Ot global'nogo kontraktnogo prava k global'nomu primenimomu pravu (From Global Contract Law to Global Applicable Law), Aktual'nye pravovye aspekty sovremennoi praktiki mezhdunarodnogo kommercheskogo oborota, sbornik statei, pod red. A.S. Komarova. Moscow, Statut, 2016, Pp. 43–55.
28. Bonell M.J. An International Restatement of Contract Law: The Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009, 691 p. 
Received: 15.05.2017
BAVARIAN CONSTITUTIONAL JUSTICE
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article reveals some peculiarities of organization and functioning of the regional constitutional justice in Germany and the Bavarian Constitutional Court in particular. The choice of this perspective is not accidental: firstly, the constitutional courts of Germany are considered as one of the most significant achievements of contemporary German constitutionalism. The German experience is of interest, as in the light of its rich traditions of organization of constitutional control organs, and their quite successful functioning. Secondly, the Bavarian Constitutional Court model is one of the oldest and original. The study addresses the history of constitutional justice in the Land. The author examines the composition, procedure and requirements for judges’ election. The peculiarities of formation of the judiciary are reviewed. The author analyzes in detail the powers of the Court on consideration of citizens’ appeals (constitutional complaints (Verfassungsbeschwerde) and popular claims (Popularklage) and preliminary constitutional control.
Key words: Constitutional Court, Bavaria, complaint, Germany, judge, land, constitution, solution, lawsuit.
References
1. Reutter Werner (Herausgeber). Landesverfassungsgerichte: Entwicklung - Aufbau - Funktionen. by Springer VS, Wiesbade. 2017. URL: https://books.google.ru/books?id=bIYJDg AAQBAJ&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=(Carl+Hannsj%C3%B6rg+Lacherbauer,CSU),+%C2%ABdie+Zitadelle+der+Demokratie+und+der+Freiheit%C2%BB-++(Thomas+Dehler, +FDP) &source=bl&ots=eV8S25neS2&sig=J0b7jhiugY-rUbdFXhD6s-yx8fk&hl=ru&sa=X&ved= 0ahUKEwiKipCsr_fVAhXGQJoKHSciBGsQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=(Carl%20Hannsj%C3%B6rg%20Lacherbauer%2CCSU)%2C%20%C2%ABdie%20Zitadelle%20der%20Demokratie%20und%20der%20Freiheit%C2%BB-%20%20(Thomas%20Dehler%2C%20FDP) &f=false (дата обращения : 27.08.2017) (accessed 27 August 2017).
Received: 15.05.2017
RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN LEGAL MODELS TO ENFORCE THE LEGITIMACY OF OPERATIONAL SEARCH ACTIVITIES BY PROSECUTION AUTHORITIES (COMPARATIVE LEGAL ANALYSIS)
DYTCHENKO Gennadiy Vladimirovich
Senior Instructor of the Department of  Prosecutor’s Supervision and the Participation of the Prosecutor in Criminal, Civil and Arbitration Cases, Counselor of Justice of the St. Petersburg Law Institute (branch) of the Academy of the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Russian Federation, Petersburg, Россия.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In modern conditions, the requirements for ensuring the legality of operational search activities are becoming increasingly strict in the Russian Federation, and this circumstance makes this topic up-to-date and urgent. The presence of this type of activity in legal systems of many states, including Germany, Spain, Italy, France, makes it possible to draw attention to the experience of law enforcement agencies of these states in this direction. Comparative analysis of national and foreign legal models of ensuring the legality of operational search activities by prosecution authorities makes it possible to formulate a conclusion about the inadmissibility of mechanical borrowing of international legal principles, institutions and norms, without their appropriate adaptation to the historically established Russian legal order. Due to the dependence of Russian and foreign legal models of ensuring the lawfulness of operational search activities by prosecution authorities from the prosecutor's procedural capacity in criminal proceedings, it is unpractical that the national legal system for combating crime has withdrawn from procurator's prosecution at pre-trial stages. The study of this topic also makes it possible to talk about the need to develop an independent procedural and legal mechanism for the prosecutor's influence on operational search process in order to improve the Russian legal model of ensuring prosecution supervision over operational search activities.
Key words: international experience, legal system, law enforcement, prosecutorial supervision, operational-search activities, criminal procedure.
References
1. Amirbekov K.I. Ob"ekt i predmet prokurorskoi deyatel'nosti: teoreticheskii podkhod (The object and the subject of prosecutorial activity: Theoretical approach), Rossiiskii sledovatel'. 2016. No. 24. Pp. 49–52.
2. Anaeva E.A, Lang I.P. Prokurorsko-nadzornyi protsess kak osobaya protsedura v yuridicheskom protsesse (Prosecutorial supervisory procedure as a special procedure in legal process), Voprosy ekonomiki i prava. 2016. No. 2. Pp. 25–30.
3. Golovko I.I. Prokuror v grazhdanskom sudoproizvodstve po delam o zashchite trudovykh prav i svobod rabotnikov v gosudarstvakh SNG (Prosecutor in civil legal proceedings on cases over protection of labor rights and freedoms of workers in the CIS states), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 2014. No. 9 (76). Pp. 35–39.
4. Zaloilo M.V., Malyutin N.S. Rossiiskaya pravovaya sistema v fokuse Soveta Evropy: konflikt ili dvizhenie k garmonizatsii (Russian legal system in the focus of the Council of Europe: the conflict or the movement towards harmonization), Aktual'nye problemy rossiiskogo prava. 2016. No. 2 (63). Pp. 92–101.
5. Integratsionnoe pravo v sovremennom mire: sravnitel'no-pravovoe issledovanie, monografiya (Integration law in the modern world: Comparative legal study: Monograph). S.Yu. Kashkin i dr. M. Prospekt, 2015 [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy "Konsul'tantPlyus" (reference date: 10.07.2017). 
6. Islamova E., Chubykin A. Realizatsiya polnomochii prokurora v stadii vozbuzhdeniya ugolovnogo dela (Realization of powers of the public prosecutor at the stage of initiation of a criminal case), Zakonnost'. 2011. No. 4. Pp. 28–29. 
7. Kasatkina A.A. Tsentralizovannaya (kontinental'naya) model' obespecheniya vnutrennei bezopasnosti gosudarstva (Centralized (continental) model of ensuring the internal security of the state), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2013.
8. Konstitutsii gosudarstv Evropy (Constitutions of the states of Europe). T. 2. Moskva. Norma, 2001.
9. Korshunova O.N. Ugolovno-protsessual'nye i kriminalisticheskie problemy ugolovnogo presledovaniya (Criminal procedural and forensic problems of criminal prosecution), dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2006
10. Kurs ugolovnogo protsessa (The course of criminal procedure), pod red. d.yu.n., prof. L.V. Golovko. Moskva. Statut, 2016. 
11. Lomovskii V.D. Prokurorsko-nadzornyi protsess, ucheb. posobie (Prosecutorial and supervisory procedure: Teaching aid). Tver'. Tverskoi gos. un-t, 1997.
Received: 15.05.2017
ONE OF THE MOMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE FORMATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The history of the development of the foundations of federalism in the Russian Federation is inconceivable without taking into account the activities of those people who stood at the source. One of such people was the first president of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan Irek Sharifovich Muksinov. This year he would have been 85 years old. In his destiny, all events that are connected with the development of federalism in our state were reflected.
Key words: constitution, constitutional court, constitutional and legal development, history of federalism, federation, subunit of federation.
References
1. Muksinov I.Sh. Nekotorye pravovye voprosy vzaimootnoshenii Soveta Ministrov avtonomnoi respubliki i soveta narodnogo khozyaistva (Some legal issues of the relationship between the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic and the Council of National Economy), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo. 1962. No. 7.
2. Muksinov I.Sh. O vzaimootnosheniyakh Soveta Ministrov soyuznoi respubliki s mini-sterstvami i inymi vedomstvami Soyuza SSR (On the relationship of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic with ministries and other departments of the USSR), Pravovoe problemy nauki upravleniya. M.,1966. 
3. Muksinov I.Sh. Sovet Ministrov soyuznoi respubliki (Council of Ministers of the Union Republic). M., 1969. 
4. Muksinov I.Sh. O pravovoi prirode Soveta Ministrov soyuznoi respubliki (On the legal nature of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic). Problemy upravleniya i grazhdanskogo prava. M., 1976. 
5. Muksinov I.Sh. Grazhdanin i apparat gosudarstvennogo upravleniya (Citizen and government administration). M.,1977. 
6. Muksinov I.Sh. Konstitutsiya SSSR i yuridicheskaya priroda aktov Soveta Ministrov soyuznoi respubliki (Constitution of the USSR and the legal nature of acts of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic), Formy gosudarstvennogo upravleniya. M., 1983. 
7. Muksinov I.Sh. Osobennosti opredeleniya kompetentsii Soveta Ministrov soyuznoi respubliki (Features of determining the competence of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic),  SSSR – GDR: kompetentsiya organov gosudarstvennogo upravleniya. M., 1984. 
8. Muksinov I.Sh. O pravovom polozhenii Predsedatelya Soveta Ministrov soyuznoi respubliki (On the legal status of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic),  SSSR – GDR: gosudarstvennaya sluzhba. M., 1986; 
9. Muksinov I.Sh. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie v SSSR v usloviyakh nauchno-tekhnicheskoi revolyutsii (State administration in the USSR in the conditions of scientific and technological revolution). M., 1997.
10. Konstitutsionnyi Sud Respubliki Bashkortostan. 20 let na strazhe Konstitutsii (The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan. 20 years on guard of the Constitution), pod red. Predsedatelya Konstitutsionnogo Suda Respubliki Bashkortostan Enikeeva Z.I. Ufa, 2016. Pp. 49–50.
11. Rayanov F.M., Gardanov A.Sh. Razmyshleniya o gosudarstve (Reflections on the state). Ufa, 1994.
12. Rayanov F.M. Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan kak sub"ekta Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The system of legislation of the Republic of Bashkortostan as a subunit of the Russian Federation), Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan: stanovlenie i dal'neishee razvitie, Materialy respublikanskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii 27 fevralya 1996 g., g. Ufa. Ufa, 1996. Pp. 16–24. 
13. Rayanov F.M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (Federation is not an end in itself), Vlast'. 1996. No. 3. Pp. 71–73.
14. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and the Russian state-legal reality), Pravo i politika. 2004. No. 12. Pp. 5–9.
15. Galiev F.Kh. Sochetanie traditsionnogo i pravovogo regulyatorov v pravovoi kul'ture federativnogo gosudarstva (The combination of traditional and legal regulators in legal culture of a federated state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo. 2009. No. 3 (17). Pp. 17–20.
Received: 15.05.2017
THE IDEA OF JUSTICE AND THE ESSENCE OF LAW. REVIEW OF THE MONOGRAPH BY R.F. ISMAGILOV, V.P.  SALNIKOV “LAW AND JUSTICE: HISTORICAL TRADITIONS AND MODERN MODELS (HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THEORETICAL STUDIES OF TOPICAL ISSUES OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE IDEA OF LAW AND JUSTICE IN THE XX-XXI CENTURIES)”. SPb.: Fund «University», 2017. 324 p.
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE «Bashkir State University», Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
POKROVSKII Ivan Fedorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Commercial Management and Law of  Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping, St. Petersburg,
Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
RAYANOV Fanis Mansurovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The current state of the study of problems associated with the idea of justice in law requires a new reading of the classical historical and legal heritage. Therefore, the new joint work of R.F. Ismagilov and V.P. Salnikov, dedicated to the problems of the relationship between the concepts of "law" and "justice", is relevant and in demand. Despite the fact that a lot has been written on this topic, the authors managed to find their own, original approach to the topic, which, firstly, is in the interpretation of justice as an ontological foundation of law and, secondly, in the study of the works of the classics of law from this angle. The position is far from indisputable, but of course, deserves its right to exist in modern legal discourse.
Key words: law; justice; moral and legal values; political and legal traditions; modern models.
References
1. Gusev O.V., Maslennikov D.V., Revnova M.B. Tserkov' i dukhovnyi smysl prava (Church and the spiritual meaning of law), Yuridicheskaya mysl'. 2017. No. 1. 
2. Zhdanov P.S., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov V.P. Dobro kak dolzhnoe i zlo kak real'nost' (o kategorii «zla» v russkoi filosofii prava) (Good as due and evil as realness (on the category of "evil" in the Russian philosophy of law)), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. No. 12. Pp. 186–191.
3. Ismagilov R.F. Pravo i spravedlivost' v kontekste istoricheskikh traditsii (Law and justice in the context of historical traditions), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 5. Pp. 87–92.
4. Ismagilov R.F. Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': aktual'nost' teoretiko-pravovoi kontseptsii (Law and justice: relevance of the theoretical and legal concept), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2016. No. 8. Pp. 168–172.
5. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Nravstvenno-pravovaya samoorganizatsiya lichnosti i intuitsiya (Moral and legal self-organization of personality and intuition), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 168–178.
6. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v ХХ-ХХI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of topical issues of the relationship between the idea of law and the idea of justice in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries)). SPb, 2017. 
7. Makov B.V., Maslennikov D.V. Istoriko-filosofskie osnovaniya idei razvitiya: ot antichnosti do sinergetiki (Historical and philosophical foundations of the idea of development: from antiquity to synergetics). SPb. NOIR, 2014.
8. Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i svoboda v kachestvennoi ierarkhii tsennostei lichnosti (Right and freedom in the qualitative hierarchy of personal values), Vestnik Baltiiskogo federal'nogo universiteta im. I. Kanta. 2006. No. 9. Pp. 6–15.
9. Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovaya kul'tura. Gl. XX (Legal culture. Ch. XX). Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava. Aka-demicheskii kurs v trekh tomakh, otv. red. M.N Marchenko. 4-e izd., pererab. i dop. Tom 3: Gosudarstvo, pravo, obshchestvo. Moscva. INFRA-M, 2013. Pp. 503–530.
Received: 15.05.2017
 
ADILOV Sanzhar Askenovich
Deputy Head of the Department of Internal Affairs of Astana City of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
AMINEV Farit Gizarovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assiatant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Director of the Ural-Volga Association of Forensic Experts, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
GALEEVA Galina Evgenievna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the  Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
GAPONOV Oleg Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of Administrative and Criminal Law of the RANEPA Bryansk branch, Bryansk, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
DEMIYEVA Aynur Gabdulbarovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law of Kazan (Privolzhsk) Federal University, Kazan, Russia. Email: Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
DYTCHENKO Gennadiy Vladimirovich
Senior Instructor of the Department of  Prosecutor’s Supervision and the Participation of the Prosecutor in Criminal, Civil and Arbitration Cases, Counselor of Justice of the St. Petersburg Law Institute (branch) of the Academy of the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Russian Federation, Petersburg, Россия.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KARIMOVA Guzel Yurisovna
Candidate of  Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KARIMOV Rim Rimovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KHAMITOV Ainur Rasimovich
Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KHISMATULLIN Rashit Sagitovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.  E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KONDRAT Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Department of Legal Support of Management of MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
KULESHOVA Galina Petrovna
Doctor of Sciences (Sociology), Head of the Department of Law Enforcement and Executive Proceedings of the Mid-Volga Branch of the FSBEI HE "All-Russian State University of Justice (RLA of the Ministry of Justice  of Russia)", Saransk, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
MINIBAEVA Diana Farkhatovna
Assistant to the Chairperson of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
MURATSHINA Snezhana Nazirovna
3-year Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
NAZAROVA Nadezhda Leontievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Deputy Dean of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
NIZAEVA Svetlana Ramilevna
Instructor of the Department of Forensics of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
NUGUMANOV Azat Rimovich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Head of the Department of Administrative Law Disciplines of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
RAYANOV Fanis Mansurovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.  Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
PONOMAREV Bulat Askarovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law of the Faculty of law of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kazan (Volga region) Federal University», Kazan, Russia.E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
REPETEVA Olesya Evgenievna
Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Entrepreneurial and Labor Law of the Togliatti StateUniversity. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
ROMANOVSKAYA Lyubava Rostislavovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Municipal Law of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра. 
POKROVSKII Ivan Fedorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Commercial Management and Law of  Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
PUDAKOV Evgeniy Rustamovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Сhair of Criminal Law, Procedure and Forensics of the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies (branch) of the AL and SR  (Moscow), Head of the Institution FGI CC-13 of the FPS of Russia for the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia Е-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
SLEPNEV Evgenii Leonidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI  HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
STANKIN Alexey Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
TLEPINA Sholpan Valerevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of International Law of the Faculty of Law of  L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
TRETIYAKOV Dmitry Vladimirovich
Senior Military Prosecutor of the 3 Department of Personnel Administration of the Chief Military Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
TSYGANOV Viktor Ivanovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
VASILIEV Alexander Viktorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 

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