№ 2 (48) 2017 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

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№ 2 (48) 2017

№ 2 (48) 2017
THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Rayanov F.M.
Main Methodological Problems of Contemporary National Legal Science7
Popova A.V.
Gorokhova S.S.
Some Aspects of Improving Law-Making Activities of Executive Authorities of the Russian Federation 14
Finogentova O.E.
Balance Between Right and Law in the Light of the Problem of the Rule-of-Law State 20
Kurkin B.A.
The Bureaucracy of the Welfare State: Some Problems, Trends, Directions of Transformation25
Petrov A.V.
Astashov D.S.
Legal Positivism in K. Bergbohm’s and G.F. Shershenevich’s Scientific Concepts32
Galikeeva I.G.
Civil Society and Problems of State Law Development38
Romanov A.A.
On the Concept "Ethnofragmentation" in the Dynamics of Globalization Processes43
Petrosyan L.K.
Ponomarev A.A.
Doctrine of Immanuel Kant on Individual Liberty as the Basis of Transcendental Theory of Philosophy and Law51
Stepanov G.I.
Stepanova A.A.
Legal Aspects of Physical Culture and Sport in Modern Russia58
Falchenko M.G.
To the Issue of the Existing of the Welfare Social State in the Countries of the Islamic system of law62
Ivanov I.V.
Organizational and Legal Regulation of the Development of Mass Sports in Russiain 1917–194569
Garipov A. A.
To the issue of the Human Rights Function of the Russian State 73
Arzhilovskiy D.E.
Legal Regulation of Tobacco Production and Trafficking in the USSR in 1930–194077
Shemarov V.A.
Legalization of Restrictive Syncretical Norms in Legislation of Ancient Rus 82
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Salnikov M.V.
Fomichev M.N.
Shavin V.A.
Transformation of Legal Regulation of Labor: from the USSR to Russia87
Usmanova R.M.
To the Issue of the Constitutional Right to Free Medical Care93
Abramova M.G.
Constitutional Justice of Russia and Multilevel Constitutionalism99
Kazamirov A.I.
The Concept, Content and Features of Constitutionalization of the Human Right to Freedom and Personal Security in Russia109
Sissakyan A.K.
To the Issue of the Formation of Constitutional Legal Consciousness of the Russian Society113
Temirova B.G.
Improvement of the Legislative Basis Regarding the Definition of the Principles of Local Budget in the Russian Federation117
Morozova A.S.
Vydrin I.V.
Legal Positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in Support of Unity of Judicial Practice123
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL
AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Amineva A. Y.
Galautdinova L.Y.
On Obligations of Parties in Neighborhood Legal Relationship132
Atnabaeva Y.V.
To the Question of a Risk Nature of the Annuity Agreement135
Semenova E.Y.
Information and Communication Technologies as a Tool to Implement the Principle of Access to Justice140
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Krivov A.V.
Criminal Law Description of Legalization of Illegally Obtained Money Resources  or Other Property143
Pudakov E.R.
Dynamics of Corruption-Related Offenses in 2012-2015 on the Basis of the Operating Results of Prosecution Agencies and the Investigative Committee (Part 2)150
Suleymanova I.E.
Features of Qualification of Threat or Violent Acts Due to the Implementation of Justice or Conduct of Preliminary Investigation153
Shagimuratova Z.A.
Demand for Forensic Knowledge Beyond Criminal Proceedings157
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Igbaeva G.R.
Shakirova Z.R.
Khafizov E.D.
Factors and Reasons Supporting Corruption in Internal Affairs Bodies163
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Vershilo N.D.
Legal Foundations  of Nature Protection168
Yusupova Z.A.
Mukhametgareeva N.M.
On Some Problems of the Development of International Environmental Law173
TO THE CENTENNIAL OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN 
Enikeev R.N.
Traits of the History of Formation and Development of the Federated State in Russia176
REVIEW OF CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Muratshin F.R.
Abbazova G.R.
Problems of the Implementation of the Constitutions And Statutes of the Constituent Entities of Federated States (Proceedings of the All-Russian Conference)181
REVIEWS
Aznagulova G.M.
A Strong State as a Determining Factor of Social Progress.
Review of the Monograth by A.D. kerimov and I.N. Kuksin. – Moscow, Norma, 2017. – 96 p.191
Galiev F.K.
The Right of Nations to Self-Determination Does Not Lose Its Actuality.
Review of the Monograph by A.Kh. Sultanov "The Right of Nations to Self-Determination: Theory And Practice": Monograph / A.Kh. Sultanov. – Ufa: Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2016. – 124 p. 
ISBN 978-5-7247-0897-5 194
TO THE AUTHORS
 
MAIN METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
OF CONTEMPORARY NATIONAL
LEGAL SCIENCE
RAYANOV Fanis Mansurovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
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For the first time in national theoretical legal science, the need for a more complete use of the genuine civilizational (social science) approach to the disclosure of nature and essence of state law phenomena is comprehensively grounded. The author of the paper reveals differences between ideological and scientific approaches to explaining the needs for the optimal organization of people's social activities. The patterns of the formation and development of the basic principles of social science are defined. The author shows fundamental differences between the organization of people's vital activity on the basis of essential principles and in accordance with Marxist doctrine. The author substantiates the necessity of the transition of the Russian Federation and Russians to the organization of social life on the basis of naturally-historically emerging basic principles of social science.
Key words: civilizational (social science) approach to the organization of public life; natural state in the history of mankind; humanity’s achievement of the values of civil society and the rule-of-law state; basic principles of social science; social contract; human values.
References
1. Natsional'naya ekonomika (National economy), uchebnik, pod obshch. red. R.M. Nureeva. M., INFRA-M, 2012. 
2. Vseobshchaya deklaratsiya prav cheloveka. 45-ya godovshchina – 1948–1993 gg. (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The 45th anniversary – 1948–1993.), per. na rus. yaz. vypolnen Sekretariatom YuNESKO. M., 1994. 
3. OON: Indeks chelovecheskogo razvitiya v stranakh mira v 2014 godu (UN: Human Development Index for the World in 2014) [Elektronnyi resurs]. Tsentr gumanitarnykh tekhnologii. 2014.07.24. URL: http./gtmarket/ru/news/2014/07/24/6843.
4. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new findings). M., Yurlitinform, 2017.
5. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i sootnoshe-niya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: problems of understanding and correlation). M., «Yurlitinform», 2015.
6. Bol'shoi entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (The Great Encyclopedic Dictionary). 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M., 1998.
7. Tokvil' A. Demokratiya v Amerike (Democracy in America), per. s frants. M., Izdatel'stvo «Ves' Mir», 2000. 
8. Khrestomatiya po istorii gosudarstva i prava zarubezhnykh stran (Novoe i Noveishee vremya) (Reader on the history of state and law of foreign countries (New and Newest time). M., Izdatel'stvo ZERTsALO, 2000.
Received: 15.05.2017
SOME ASPECTS OF IMPROVING LAW-MAKING ACTIVITIES OF EXECUTIVE AUTHORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
POPOVA Anna Vladislavovna
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities of the SEBI HE “Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation", Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the ANOO HE CU RF "Russian University of  Cooperation". Moscow, Russia.
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GOROKHOVA Svetlana Sergeevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activities of the SEBI HE “Financial University under the Government 
of the Russian Federation”, Moscow, Russia.
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At the present stage of the development of the Russian state, the value of legislative support and public recognition of ongoing transformations objectively increases as well as the value of effective social and legal regulation of public relations. The further development of the rule-of-law, social state is impossible without an adequate formation of the necessary legal framework for a new system of governance that, in its turn, is impossible without proper rules of writing normative acts. Based on the analysis of the Resolution of the RF Government dated 13 August 1997 No. 1009 "On the approval of the Rules of preparation of regulatory legal acts of Federal executive bodies and their state registration", the authors conclude that there is the need for further improvement of the regulatory framework of law-making of Federal executive bodies in order to create a unified system of Russian legislation.
Key words: normative legal acts, legal norms, executive authorities, Russian legislation.
References
1. Proekt Federal'nogo zakona «O normativnykh pravovykh aktakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (initsiativnyi zakonoproekt) (Draft Federal Law “On Regulatory Legal Acts in the Russian Federation” (initiative draft law)), Institut zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya pri Pravitel'stve Rossiiskoi Federatsii. М., 2013. // URL: http://www.izak.ru/theme/upload/24_10_2014_dab 17f1b030f13709e93ff9ebce642e6.pdf.
2. Vlasenko N.A., Zaloilo M.V. Razvitie pravotvorcheskoi nauchnoi shkoly (The development of law-making scientific school), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava. 2015. No. 9 // URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 14.03.2017).
3. O proekte Federal'nogo zakona «O normativnykh pravovykh aktakh v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (On the Draft Federal Law "On Regulatory Legal Acts in the Russian Federation"), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava, 2013, No. 3, pp. 84–99.
Received: 12.05.2017
BALANCE BETWEEN RIGHT AND LAW
IN THE LIGHT OF THE PROBLEM
OF THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
FINOGENTOVA Olga Evgenievna
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia.
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In this paper, the author investigates different approaches to the understanding of law in modern Russian jurisprudence. The ontological and axiological content of law is revealed. The author investigates the understanding of the rule-of-law state idea by the natural law school and the positivist law school. Analyzing the debate on this issue, the author concludes that in modern Russian jurisprudence the positivist approach continues to be the dominant approach to understand the law. According to the author within positivism framework, it is impossible to find the parameters of rightful law and solve the problem of the balance between right and law. In order to solve this problem the author identifies and analyzes the main conditions for the appearance of the rule-of-law state. The author, emphasizing the statement that only a state based on democratic principles can develop as a rule-of-law one, first connects this development with the notion of freedom, which in her opinion is one of the leading principles of legal consciousness. The author concludes that in contemporary society the question of lawful or unlawful nature of legislation plays a major role in social relations regulation.
Key words: types of legal consciousness, rule-of-law state, law, right, legal positivism, natural law theory, freedom.
References
1. Baitin M.I. Sushchnost' prava (Sovremennoe normativnoe pravoponimanie na grani dvukh vekov) (The essence of law (Modern normative legal consciousness on the verge of two centuries)). Saratov, SGAP, 2001.
2. Kant I. Ideya vseobshchei istorii vo vsemirno-grazhdanskom plane. Sochineniya. V 6 t. T. 6 (Idea of universal history in the world-civil plan. Compositions. In 6 vols. V. 6). M., Mysl', 1966.
3. Kant I. Sochineniya. V 6 t. T. 4. Ch. 2 (In 6 vols. V. 4. P. 2). M., Mysl'. 1965. 
4. Mal'tsev G.V. Ponimanie prava. Podkhody i problemy (Understanding the law. Approaches and problems). M., Prometei. 1999.
5. Martyshin O.V. O libertarnoi teorii prava i gosudarstvo (On the Libertarian Theory of Law and State), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2002, No. 10.
6. Marchenko M.N. Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava (Problems of theory of state and law). M., Yurist", 2001.
7. Mozolin V.P. Sistema rossiiskogo prava (The system of Russian law), Trudy MGYuA, 2002, No. 9.
8. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstvo, akademicheskii kurs, v 2 t. T. 1. Teoriya gosudarstva (General theory of law and state: academic course: in 2 vols. V. 1. Theory of state), otv. red. prof. M.N. Marchenko. M., Zertsalo, 1998.
9. Pravovoe gosudarstvo, lichnost', zakonnost' (The rule-of-law state, identity, legality). B.C. Nersesyants, G.V. Mal'tsev, E.A. Lukasheva i dr. M., 1997.
10. Syrykh V.M. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of State and Law). M., Bylina, 1998.
11. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava, uchebnik (Theory of State and Law: textbook), pod red. V.K. Babaeva. M., Yurist", 1999.
12. Trubetskoi E.N. Entsiklopediya prava (Encyclopedia of Law). SPb., Izd-vo «LUN''», 1999.
13. Tumanov V.A. Uchenie o prave (The doctrine of law), Obshchaya teoriya prava, kurs lektsii. N. Novgorod, Nizhegorodskaya VSh MVD RF, 1993.
14. Chetvernin V.A. Demokraticheskoe konstitutsionnoe gosudarstvo: vvedenie v teoriyu (Democratic constitutional state: introduction to theory). M., 1993.
Received: 10.05.2017
THE BUREAUCRACY OF THE WELFARE STATE: SOME PROBLEMS, TRENDS, DIRECTIONS OF TRANSFORMATION
KURKIN Boris Alexandrovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Faculty of Law of the PEIHE Modern Academy
 for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia.
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The object of this study is the bureaucracy as an institution of the welfare rule-of-law state. The author notes the following contradictory trends in the formation of modern Russian model of bureaucracy: smaller influence of paternalism traditions proper to the Russian civilization and statehood, strengthening of bureaucratization, growth of citizens’ distrust to officials, society stratification on the principle of property etc. The author of the paper formulates some ways of increasing the efficiency of state administration in the Russian Federation (introduction of indicators of effectiveness and efficiency of activities of state bodies and civil servants; fighting corruption, identifying and eliminating the causes and conditions of its emergence) that meet the goals of the development of the welfare rule-of-law state. The author outlines the spheres of interaction and cooperation of the bureaucracy and the civil society, acting as an active participant of the effective social policy, human capital saving and development.
Key words: welfare state, rule-of-law state, Constitution of the Russian Federation, political and legal theory, bureaucracy, public administration, administrative reform, criteria of efficiency of public administration, social relations, civil society, paternalism, legal consciousness.
References
1. Shtein L. fon. Uchenie ob upravlenii i pravo upravleniya s sravneniem literatury i zakonodatel'stv Frantsii, Anglii i Germanii (The doctrine of management and law of management with a comparison of the literature and legislation of France, England and Germany). SPb., izd. A.S. Gieroglifova, 1874.
2. Kurkin B.A. Problemy demokraticheskogo sotsial'no-pravovogo gosudarstva v sovremennoi gosu-darstvenno-pravovoi teorii: Na primere FRG (Problems of the democratic social and legal state in the modern state legal theory: On the example of Germany), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. M., 2002.
3. Kurkin B.A. Rozhnov S.N. Sotsial'noe gosudarstvo: kakim emu byt' (The social state: what should it be?), Pravo i obrazovanie. M., 2008, № 4, pp. 93–101.
4. Gosudarstvennyi byudzhet (State Budget), Press-vypusk ot 29.11.2016 g. Levada-tsentra [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.levada.ru/2016/12/12/vlast-i-obshhestvo/ (accessed date: 10.12.16).
5. Vlast' i Obshchestvo (Power and Society), Press-vypusk ot 12.12.2016 g. Levada-tsentra [Elektronnyi resurs].URL: http://www.levada.ru/2016/12/12/vlast-i-obshhestvo/ (accessed date: 12.12.16).
6. Masalkov I.K. Klinicheskii vzglyad na sotsial'nye neravenstva (Clinical view on social inequalities), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 18. Sotsiologiya i politologiya, 2014, № 3, pp. 43–53.
7. Raspredelenie obshchego ob"ema denezhnykh dokhodov i kharakteristiki differentsiatsii denezhnykh dokhodov naseleniya (Distribution of the total volume of monetary incomes and characteristics of differentiation of monetary incomes of the population) [Elektronnyi resurs] Rosstat. URL: http://www.gks.ru/ free_doc/new_site/population/ bednost/tabl/1-2-4.htm (accessed date: 10.12.2016).
8. Rumyantsev O.G. Kontsepty konstitutsionnoi reform (Concepts of the constitutional reform), Istoriya. Pravo. Politika, 2012, № 2, pp. 84–87.
9. Indeks korruptsii (The index of corruption). [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.transparency .org.ru/indeks-vospriiatiia-korruptcii/indeks-vospriiatiia-korruptcii-2015-rossiia (accessed date: 10.12.16). 
10. Karpova N.V. Regional'noe neravenstvo kak faktor razvitiya politicheskoi kul'tury rossiiskogo obshchestva: metodologicheskii aspect (Regional inequality as a factor in the development of political culture of the Russian society: methodological aspect), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 18. Sotsiologiya i politologiya, 2014, № 3, pp. 71–87.
11. Bol'she poloviny rossiyan sozhaleyut o raspade SSSR (More than a half of Russians regret the collapse of the USSR). Press-vypusk ot 09.04.2016 g. Levada-tsentra [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.levada.ru/2016/04/19/bolshe-poloviny-rossiyan-sozhaleyut-o-raspade-sssr/ (accessed date: 10.12.2016).
12. Federal'nyi zakon ot 21.07.2014 g. №212-FZ «Ob osnovakh obshchestvennogo kontrolya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Law of July 21, 2014 No. 212-FZ "On the Basics of Public Control in the Russian Federation"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 2014. № 30. St. 4213.
13. Chicherin B.N. Voprosy politiki (Policy issues). 2-e izd., dop. M., Izd. I.N. Kushnerev i Ko, 1904.
14. Federal'nyi zakon ot 7 maya 2013 g. N 77-FZ «O parlamentskom kontrole» (Federal Law of May 7, 2013 N 77-FZ "On parliamentary control"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 2013. № 19. St. 2304.
15. Ilyushin D. Bespomoshchnost' parlamentskogo kontrolya (The helplessness of parliamentary control). URL: http://smartpowerjournal.ru/ parlamentary-control/ (accessed date: 10.12.16).
16. Bendyurina S.V. Federal'nyi parlamentskii kontrol' (konstitutsionno-pravovoe issledovanie) (Federal parliamentary control (constitutional legal research)), dis… kand. yurid. nauk. Ekaterinburg, 2003. 
17. Vladimir Putin soglasen na komissiyu (Vladimir Putin agrees to the commission), Vedomosti, 2016, 22 aprelya.
18. Kontseptsiya administrativnoi reformy v Rossiiskoi Federatsii v 2006-2010 g. Utv. rasporyazheniem Pravitel'stva RF ot 25 oktyabrya 2005 g. № 1789-r. (The concept of administrative reform in the Russian Federation in 2006-2010. Approved. Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of October 25, 2005 No. 1789-р), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 14.11.2005. № 46. st. 4720.
19. Atamanchuk G.V. Teoriya gosudarstvennogo upravleniya (Theory of Public Administration). M.: Omega-L, 2010. 
20. Aznagulova G.M. Konstitutsionalizatsiya mezhdunarodnogo prava v svete sovremennykh mezhduna-rodnykh otnoshenii (Constitutionalization of international law in the light of contemporary international relations), Aktual'nye problemy mezhdunarodnogo prava i mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii, materialy I Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. V 2 ch. Ch. 1, otv. red. R.V. Nigma-tullin. Ufa, RITs BashGU, pp. 33–41.
Received: 10.05.2017
LEGAL POSITIVISM IN K. BERGBOHM’S
AND G.F. SHERSHENEVICH’S
SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS
PETROV Alexander Vasilievich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law of the South Ural State University, Russia, Chelyabinsk.
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ASTASHOV Dmitriy Sergeevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory of State and Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law of the South Ural State University, Russia, Chelyabinsk.
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Rapid development of industry, banking, trade and transport in the countries of Western Europe in the second half of the XIX century, intensified competition between individual producers, as a result of concentration of capital and monopolies formation. The state was interested in sustainable development, ensuring order, effective means against the growing labor movement. All this could be provided by legal positivism, since it understood law as a fact of social reality. A special role in this process is played by studies of positivist views of J. Bentham, J. Austin, K. Bergbohm, G.F. Shershenevich. The comparison of positivist ideas of the two latter outstanding scientists, analysis of their ideas on law in general, the role of legal norms and ratio of different types of legal consciousness allow us to understand the sources of legal positivism, reveal its philosophical and theoretical legal basis and carry out a deep and critical analysis of positivist philosophy of law.
Key words: legal positivism, natural law theory, law, yusnaturalism, law.
References
1. Lapaeva V.V. Tipy pravoponimanija: pravovaja teorija i praktika, monografija (Types of legal consciousness: Legal theory and practice, Monograph). M. Rossijskaja akademija pravosudija, 2012. 
2. Austin J. Lectures on Jurisprudence or the Philosophy of Positive Law. L., 1873. 
3. Gegel' G. Filosofija prava (Philosophy of law). M. Mysl', 1990. 
4. Gegel' G. Jenciklopedija filosofskih nauk (Encyclopedia of Philosophy). T.1. M.  Mysl', 1974.
5. Shapsugov D.Ju. Sootnoshenie nauki pozitivnogo prava i podlinnoj nauki o prave: eshhe odna gran' krizisa juridicheskoj nauki (The ratio of science of positive law and genuine science of law: one more facet of the crisis of legal science), Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava, 2016, No. 1, pp. 67–80. 
6. Istorija politicheskih i pravovyh uchenij (History of political and legal doctrines), otv. red. V.V. Lazarev. 2-e izd., ispr. i dop. M., 2008. 
7. Antologija mirovoj pravovoj mysli (Anthology of world legal thought), Tom 3. Evropa, Amerika XVII-XX vv., Ruk. nauch. proekta G.Ju. Semigin. M. Mysl', 1999.
8. Chistoe uchenie o prave Gansa Kel'zena (Pure Law Doctrine of Hans Kelsen). Vyp.1. M. AN SSSR INION, 1987.
9. Shershenevich G.F. Obshhaja teorija prava (General Theory of Law). Vyp. 1. M., 1910. 
10. Jurisprudenz und Rechtsphilosophie, Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot, 1892. 
11. Chernov S.N. Estestvennoe i pozitivnoe pravo o samoogranichenii vlasti (Natural and positive law on self-limitation of power), Uchenye zapiski Petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija: Obshhestvennye i guma-nitarnye nauki. Petrozavodsk, 2008, No. 1, pp. 91–100.
12. Uporov I.V. Vidy, soderzhanie i ierarhija istochnikov prava v kontekste estestvennogo i pozitivnogo prava (Types, content and hierarchy of sources of law in the context of natural and positive law), Teorija i praktika obshhestvennogo razvitija, 2015, No. 2, pp. 47–58. 
13. Bajtin M.I. Sushhnost' prava. Sovremennoe normativnoe pravoponimanie na grani dvuh vekov (The essence of law. Modern normative legal thinking on the verge of two centuries). M., 2005.
14. Rudkovskij V.A. Pozitivizm i estestvennoe pravo (filosofija prava) v kontekste sovremennogo pravoponimanija (Positivism and natural law (legal philosophy) in the context of modern legal thinking), Filosofija prava, 2008, No. 5, pp. 9–16.
15. Ikonnikova G.I., Ljashenko V.P. Filosofskij pozitivizm, juridicheskij pozitivizm i teorija pozitivnogo prava: obshhee i specifika (Philosophical positivism, legal positivism and the theory of positive law: the general and specific), Social'naja politika i sociologija, 2009, No. 2, pp. 54–66.
Received: 11.01.2017
CIVIL SOCIETY AND PROBLEMS 
OF STATE LAW DEVELOPMENT
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
State law features of any society assume the existence of means and methods of legal regulation of social relations incident to the corresponding stage of its development. In modern conditions, many moments in the socio-political and socio-economic life of the country are associated with the formation and improvement of civil society. This situation makes it necessary to strengthen the social activity of citizens in all areas of their life. The requirement of today is the unification of the efforts of the state and society in order to affirm in public consciousness the values of civil society as a good society that was hard-fought by all multinational people of our country. The modern specificity of self-organization of society and dynamics of social relations are characterized by those forms of social activity of people that are in demand by current needs of state law development of society.
Key words: state law development, civil society, public relations, regulation of public relations, self-organization of society, social activity of people
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestvennoi yuridi-cheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule- of-law state in domestic legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, po-svyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa, 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2-kh ch. Ch. 1. Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2015, рр. 3–11.
2. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i sootnosheniya: monografiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: problems of understanding and correlation). M., Yurlitinform, 2015. 
3. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i kul'turnye traditsii: sushchnostno-soderzhatel'noe vzaimodeistvie (Legal Culture and Cultural Traditions: Essential Content Interaction), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2009, No. 4 (18), рр. 8–9.
4. Chashin A.N. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), uchebnik. M., Izdatel'stvo «Delo i Servis», 2008. 
5. Matuzov N.I., Mal'ko A.V. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), uchebnik, 4-e izd., ispr. i dop. M., Izdatel'skii dom «Delo» RANKhiGS, 2015. 
6. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsiokul'turnom izme-renii (The concepts of "rule-of-law state" and "civil society" in the socio-cultural dimension), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2012, No. 4 (30), pp. 20–25.
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8. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstvo (Theory of the rule of law), monografiya. M., Yurlitinform, 2014. 
9. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law). Ufa, 1998.
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12. Matuzov N.I., Mal'ko A.V. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), uchebnik, 4-e izd., ispr. i dop. M., Izdatel'skii dom «Delo» RANKhiGS, 2015. 
13. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i traditsionnaya kartina mira (Legal culture and the traditional worldview), Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2009, № 8 (56), pp. 129–132.
14. Yasin E. Prizhivetsya li demokratiya v Rossii (Will democracy take root in Russia), 2-e izd., ispr. M.: Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2006. 
15. Rayanov F.M. Pravovaya organizatsiya obshchestvennoi zhizni: teoriya i praktika (Legal organization of public life: theory and practice), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2004. № 12, pp. 5–9.
16. Rayanov F.M. Razvitie sovremennykh predstavlenii o sushchnosti federativnogo gosudarstva (Development of modern ideas on the essence of a federated state), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 1999, № 1 (21).
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18. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvi-tel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and Russian state law reality), Pravo i politika, 2004, № 12 (60), pp. 5-10.
Received: 10.05.2017
ON THE CONCEPT "ETHNOFRAGMENTATION"
IN THE DYNAMICS OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES
ROMANOV Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Doctoral Candidate of the chair of Theory of State and Law named after G.V. Maltsev of the Department of Law named after M.M. Speranskiy of RANESS under the President
of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.
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Numerous researches show that throughout all history two mutually exclusive and complementary planetary tendencies are observed: globalization and fragmentations. Globalization processes wrap political and cultural barriers, but at the same time they direct onto confirmation of local identities and self-determination as the vector of globalization is aimed at deleting of ethnonational essence in general, delegitimation of traditional precepts of law and ethnic values, legal unification, abolition of original legal cultures and borders between legal systems. The author proves that in the course of social evolution equally there is not only unification and standardization of ethnic, but also there is natural counterposition. There is a phenomenal process of differentiation of various civilization structures and elements, relying mainly on ethnicity as one of "rigid" frameworks of self-identification. We observe the strengthening of centrifugal tendency of rejection between separate fragments and societies, dissociation of a number of systems and structures of different level of human activities which acts in the form of ethnofragmentation.
Key words: globalization, fragmentation, ethnicity, ethnonation.
References
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2. Kant I. K vechnomu miru (To perpetual peace), Soch. v 8 tt. T. 7. M., 1994.
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4. Dzaguto V. Evropa: razmnozhenie deleniem. Ischezayushchij britanskij narod: krupnym planom (Europe: fragmentation. Vanishing British people: close-up), Vremya novostej: pechatnoe SMI gazeta. 2007. 29 yanvarya.
5. Watson R. Most voters want Britain to quit EU, poll shows [Elektronnyj resurs], The Times. 2013. 25 yanvarya. URL: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/politics/article3667906.ece (accessed date: 18.07.2014); Nye Rich. 3 things we learned from David Cameron’s Europe speech [Elektronnyj resurs] Populus. 2013. 25 january. URL: http://www.populus.co.uk/item/3-things-we-learned-from-David-Cameron%E2%80%99s-Europe-speech/ (accessed date: 18.07.2014).
6. Katin V. Velikobritaniya mozhet vyjti iz Evrosoyuza (Britain may quit EU), Rossijskaya gazeta. Ezhednevnoe obshchenacional'noe izdanie. 16.01.2014 [Elektronnyj resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://www.rg.ru/2014/01/ 16/vihod-site.html (accessed date: 18.07.2014).
7. Islandiya otzovet zayavku na vstuplenie v Evrosoyuz (Iceland withdraws application for accession to the European Union), KOMMERSANT.RU: ezhedn. internet-izd. 2014. 22 fevralya. URL: http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2414614 (accessed date: 18.07.2014).
8. Bel'kov O.A. Antinomii nacionalizma (Antinomies of nationalism). NAVIGUT. 2005. No. 5.
9. Shabaev YU.P., Sadohin A.P. Etnopolitologiya: uchebnoe posobie (Ethnopolitology: Teaching Aid). M., 2005. 
10. Chilachava R.SH. Nacional'noe gosudarstvo i globalizaciya: nekotorye aspekty intellektual'noj i social'noj transformacii obshchestva v usloviyah mnogokul'turnosti (The nation-state and globalization: some aspects of intellectual and social transformation of society in multiculture), Chelovek: sootnoshenie nacional'nogo i obshchechelovecheskogo. Sb. materialov mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma (g. Zugdidi, Gruziya, 19–20 maya 2004 g.) Vypusk 2. Pod red. V.V. Parcvaniya. SPb.: Sankt-Peterburgskoe filosofskoe obshchestvo, 2004.
11. Fathi V.I. Pravovaya ehtnologiya: Konceptual'nye idei i principy (Legal Ethnology: Conceptual ideas and principles), Avtoref. dis. … k.yu.n. Rostov-na-Donu, 2007. 
12. Aktual'nye voprosy globalizacii. "Kruglyj stol" (Topical issues of globalization. "Round table"), Mirovaya ehkonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. M.: Nauka, 1999. No. 4.
13. Micklethwait John, Wooldridge Adrian. The Globalization Backlash (public opinion, reality and myths). Foreign Policy, Sept, 2001.
14. Misztal, Bronislaw and Shupe, Anson. Religion, Mobilization and Social Action. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers1998, p.5
15. Al'termatt U. Etnonacionalizm v Evrope (Ethno-nationalism in Europe), M., 2000.
16. Bel'kov O.A. Zhurnal «Vlast'» ("Vlast" magazine), 2006. 3 marta.
17. Kandel' P.E. Nacionalizm i problema modernizacii v posttotalitarnom mire (Nationalism and the problem of modernization in the post-totalitarian world), Polis. 1994. No. 6. 
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19. Prazauskas A.A. Etnonacionalizm, mnogonacional'noe gosudarstvo i processy globalizacii (Ethno-nationalism, multi-ethnic state and globalization), Polis. 1997. No. 2.
20. Bakunina T.S. Pravovoj status korennyh narodov pripolyarnyh gosudarstv: mirovoj opyt i polozhenie v Rossii (Legal status of the indigenous peoples of circumpolar countries: international experience and the situation in Russia), Materialy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii. Gosudarstvo i pravo. 1997. No. 9. Рр. 36–49.
21. Smit E. Nacionalizm i modernism (Nationalism and Modernism), M., 2004.
22. Glazer N., Moynihan D. P. (Eds.) Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
23. Barber B. R. Jihad vs. McWorld, Publisher: Ballantine Books. Publication Date: August 1996.
24. Kuvaldin V.B. Globalizaciya – svetloe budushchee chelovechestva? (Is Globalization the bright future of mankind?), (http://scenario.ng.ru/ printed/interview/2000-10-11/5_future.html).
25. Glazer N., Moynihan D. P. Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge: MIT Press & Harvard University Press, 1963.
26. Ryumin V.A. Globalizaciya i civilizacionnye perspektivy chelovechestva (Globalization and the prospects for human civilization), Globalizaciya v social'no-filosofskom izmerenii / Sbornik materialov konferencii. SPb.: Sankt-Peterburgskoe filosofskoe obshchestvo, 2003.
27. Pain E. Mezhdu imperiej i naciej. Modernistskij proekt i ego tradicionalistskaya al'ternativa v nacional'noj politike Rossii (Between empire and nation. The modernist project and its traditionalist alternative to the national policy of Russia), M.: Fond «Liberal'naya missiya», 2003. 164 s. [Elektronnyj resurs]. Rezhim dostupa. URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20111125010548/ http://club.fom.ru/books/ doc1104071407.pdf (accessed date: 18.02.2015).
Received: 20.012017
DOCTRINE OF IMMANUEL KANT
ON INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY AS THE BASIS OF TRANSCENDENTAL THEORY
OF PHILOSOPHY AND LAW
PETROSYAN Liana Kamoevna 
Assistant to the Deputy of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
PONOMAREV Andrei Aleksandrovich
Postgraduate Student of the Law Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
By analyzing the concept of freedom, Kant receives the notions of morality and higher moral law. The development of these concepts leads to the assertion of the concepts of legality and law. According to Kant, main theoretical issues ensue from the concept of law, they are to deduce and justify the freedom of every member of society as a human being, his\her equality with each other as a citizen, the independence of each member of society as a citizen. Theoretical elaborations of these issues define the main content of the Kantian concept of individual rights and duties. However, Kant's assertion that the concept of freedom itself can not be a subject of theoretical analysis, because it can not be an object of experience, leaves it to be essentially an abstract concept. Accordingly, the general principles of morality and law received by him also have a form of abstraction and it does not allow giving a convincing rationale for private legal principles.
Key words: Kant, law, morality, freedom, personality, legality, supreme moral law.
References
1. Galiev F.Kh. Vozdeistvie prava na obshchestvennye otnosheniya i sinkretizm pravovoi kul'tury (Influence of the right to social relations and syncretism of legal culture), Vestnik Bashkirskogo un-ta, 2013, Tom 18, No. 4, pp. 1352–1356.
2. Galiev F.Kh. O sinkretizme pravovoi kul'tury (On syncretism of legal culture), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 4 (34), pp 36–73.
3. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm pravovoi kul'tury i optimizatsiya obshchestvennykh otnoshenii (Syncretism of legal culture and optimization of public relations), Vestnik Bashkirskogo un-ta, 2014, Tom 19, No. 1, pp. 336–341.
4. Grafskii V.G. Pravo i moral' v istorii: problemy tsennostnogo podkhoda (Law and morality in history: problems of the value approach), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1998, No. 8, pp. 114–119. 
5. Zhdanov P.S., Romanovskaya V.B. O morali, nravstvennosti i zakone v rabotakh russkikh religioznykh filosofov kontsa XIX nachala XX vv. (On morals, morality and law in the works of Russian religious philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2013, No. 11, pp. 28–35.
6. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Ob integrativnom pravoponimanii v kontekste komprekhendnoi teorii prava (On integrative legal understanding in the context of comprehend theory of law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 2.
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Chto takoe pravo? Voprosy ontologii i gnoseologii (What is law? Ontology and epistemology issues), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 2 (40).
8. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoi filosofii prava (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law), Nauchnoe izdanie, R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyaeva. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2012.
9. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya I. Kanta i G.V.F. Gegelya: refleksiya nachal spravedlivosti i prava (Philosophy of I. Kant and G.V.F. Hegel: reflection of origins of justice and law), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 5, pp. 155–164.
10. Kalinina E.V., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Spetsifika gosudarstvennoi kontseptsii Fomy Akvinskogo (Specificity of the state concept of Thomas Aquinas), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 4, pp. 17–23.
11. Kant I. Osnovy metafiziki nravstvennosti. Kritika prakticheskogo razuma. Metafizika nravov (Fundamentals of metaphysics of morality. Criticism of practical reason. Metaphysics of morals), SPb, 1995.
12. Karpunin V.A., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i moral' (Law and moral), Liki morali. Vvedenie v etiku. SPb., 1996.
13. Kolotova N.V. Moral' i pravo: analiz traditsii i issledovaniya tsennostnykh aspektov problemy (Moral and law: the analysis of the tradition and study of value aspects of the problem), Problemy tsennostnogo podkhoda v prave: traditsii i obnovlenie: sb. nauch. tr., pod red. V.S. Nersesyantsa. M., IGP RAN, 1996. 
14. Lukasheva E.A. Pravo, moral', lichnost' (Law, morality, personality). M., 1986.
15. Maslennikov D.V.  Bogochelovek i ideya prava (The God-man and the idea of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 12, pp. 167–172.
16. Matuzov N.I. Pravo i moral' v ikh vzaimodeistvii (Law and morality in their interaction), Saratov, SGU, 1969.
17. Musaev M.A. Epokha antichnosti i nachalo stanovleniya idei o pravakh cheloveka: rol' pravovogo gumanizma (The era of antiquity and the beginning of the formation of the idea of human rights: the role of legal humanism), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 10, pp. 97–108.
18. Oigenzikht V.A. Moral' i pravo (Morality and law). Dushanbe, 1987.
19. Razvitie filosofii prava v Novoe vremya (Gugo Grotsii, Gobbs, Lokk, Spinoza, Pufendorf, Tomazii, Leibnits, Montesk'e, Russo) (The development of philosophy of law in modern times (Hugo Grotius, Hobbes, Locke, Spinoza, Pufendorf, Tomazi, Leibniz, Montesquieu, Russo)), V.M. Baranov, Z.Sh. Idrisov, D.V. Maslennikov, L.A. Chegovadze, V.P. Sal'nikov, A.P. Al'bov. Glava II, Istoriya filosofii prava (Chapter II, History of Philosophy of Law), otv. red. A.P. 58Al'bov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov. SPb., Yuridicheskii institut (Sankt-Peterburg), Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 1998, pp. 78–157.
20. Romanovskaya L.R., Verkhovodov E.V. Antichnye korni estestvenno-pravovoi teorii (Ancient roots of the natural-legal theory), Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo. Seriya: Pravo, 2002, No. 1, pp. 84–88.
21. Romashov R.A. Obshchestvo i gosudarstvo: kontseptsiya Dzh. Lokka (Society and state: the concept of J. Locke), dis… kand. yurid. nauk. SPb., 2005.
22. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V., Fedyushkina A.I. Khristian Tomazius nemetskii yurist i filosof, predstavitel' estestvennoi shkoly prava epokhi Prosveshcheniya (Christian Tomasius German lawyer and philosopher, representative of the natural law school of the Enlightenment), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 10, pp. 39–46.
23. Sal'nikov M.V., Fedyushkina A.I. Pravovye idei v rabotakh Khristiana Tomaziusa (Legal ideas in the works of Christian Tomasius), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2015, No. 36 (46), pp. 125–129.
24. Sal'nikov S.P., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Zhan-Zhak Russo i Dzhon Lokk: nekotorye idei o suverenitete i estestvennom prave (Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke: Some Ideas of Sovereignty and Natural Law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016. No. 5, pp. 173–179.
25. Fedyushkina A.I. Khristian Tomazius: novatsii yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya v Germanii (konets XVII nachalo XVIII vv.) (Christian Tomasius: innovations in legal education in Germany (late 17th and early 18th centuries)), Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo, 2014, № 3-2, pp. 245–248.
Received: 16.05.2017
LEGAL ASPECTS OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT IN MODERN RUSSIA
STEPANOV Gavril Ivanovich
 Candidate of Sciences (Pedagogy), Assistant Professor of the Department of Physical Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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STEPANOVA Aygul Akhmetzyamilevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Constitutional Law of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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The paper reviews state policy in the area of physical culture and sport in different periods of modern Russia. Negative consequences are exposed for physical culture and sport in health promotion and fight against different asocial displays. The authors define priority directions of state policy of the Russian Federation in the area of physical culture and sport on the modern stage and for further extension.
Кey words: physical culture and sport, priority directions of state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of physical culture and sport, asocial displays of citizens.
References
1. Federal'nyi zakon ot 29 dekabrya 2012 g. № 273-FZ «Ob obrazovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Law of December 29, 2012 No. 273-FZ "On Education in the Russian Federation"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2012. № 53 (ch. 1). St. 7598.
2. Rasporyazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 7 avgusta 2009 g. № 1101-r «Ob utverzhdenii Strategii razvitiya fizicheskoi kul'tury i sporta v Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2020 goda» (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 7, 2009 No. 1101-r "On the approval of the Strategy for the Development of Physical Culture and Sports in the Russian Federation for the Period to 2020"), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF». 2009. № 33. St. 4110.
3. Vystuplenie V.V. Putina na uchreditel'nom s"ezde Assotsiatsii studencheskikh sportivnykh klubov Rossii (Speech of V.V. Putin at the founding congress of the Association of Student Sports Clubs of Russia), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 2013 g № 6113 (137). 
4. Ofitsial'nyi sait Prezidenta Rossii (The official website of the President of Russia). URL: http://www. kremlin.ru.
5. Ofitsial'nyi sait Ministerstva vnutrennikh del Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The official website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation): http://www.mvd.ru.
6. Informatsionno-pravovaya sistema «Zakonodatel'stvo Rossii» (Information and legal system "Legislation of Russia"), [Elektronnyi resurs] URL: URL: //www.pravo.gov.ru/ips.
7. Nauchnaya elektronnaya biblioteka (Scientific electronic library), elibrary.ru [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: // http://elibrary.ru/.
8. Ofitsial'nyi sait kompanii «Konsul'tant Plyus» (Official site of the company "Consultant Plus"), [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: //: http://www.consultant .ru/.
Received: 12.05.2017
TO THE ISSUE OF THE EXISTING OF THE WELFARE SOCIAL STATE IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE ISLAMIC SYSTEM OF LAW
FALCHENKO Mikhail Gennadievich
Deputy Head of the Central Apparatus
of the Pensioners' Party, Moscow, Russia.
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In this paper, the author analyses social aspects of the constitutions and other fundamental laws of Islamic countries, including Saudi Arabia's Nizam in the sphere of state protection of citizens' rights to education, health care, housing and other basic social rights. In terms of the article, the author concludes that there is some special "Islamic socialism", ensuring social and economic rights of citizens in accordance with the Quran and Sunnah.
Key words: Sharia law, Nizam, Islamic law, welfare state, social and economic rights.
References
1. Konstitutsiya Egipta (Constitution of Egypt). Yanvar' 2014, URL: http://constitutions.ru/?p=9553.
2. Konstitutsiya Islamskoi respubliki Iran (The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran), URL: http://constitutions.ru/?p=140.
3. Osnovnoi nizam (polozhenie) Korolevstva Saudovskaya Araviya (The main Nizam (provision) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), URL: https://archive.is/2013041 7231746/worldconstitutions.ru/archives/86.
4. Ali M. Prava cheloveka na zemlyu v islame (Human right to land in Islam). Beirut, 2009 (na arabskom yazyke) (in Arabic).
5. Al'biani R. Prava cheloveka v konstitutsiyakh arabskikh stran (Human Rights in Constitutions of Arab Countries). Beirut, 2013 (na arabskom yazyke) (in Arabic).
6. Belikov, E.G. Stanovlenie Rossiiskoi Federatsii kak sotsial'nogo gosudarstva: finansovo-pravovye aspekty (Formation of the Russian Federation as a social state: financial and legal aspects). M.,Yurlitinform, 2015. 
7. Kul'turnye aspekty i pravoprimenitel'naya praktika v oblasti prav cheloveka v arabskom mire (Cultural aspects and law enforcement practice in the field of human rights in the Arab world): preprint M., Izd. dom Vysshei shkoly ekonomiki, 2011. 
8. Magomedova R.M., Nurmagomedov I.G. Nekotorye aspekty razvitiya musul'manskogo prava v stranakh Arabskogo Vostoka (Some Aspects of the Development of Muslim Law in the Countries of the Arab East), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2015, No. 10 (89), pp. 198–199.
9. Naser, Al' Ali. Zashchita prav i svobod cheloveka v arabskikh stranakh, monografiya (Protection of human rights and freedoms in Arab countries: Monograph). M., KNORUS, 2015.
10. Popova A.V. «Liberal'nyi sotsializm» kak sostavnaya chast' neoliberalisticheskikh politiko-pravovykh idei v Rossii na rubezhe XIX-XX vv ("Liberal Socialism" as an integral part of neoliberalistic political and legal ideas in Russia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries), Nauchnye trudy. Rossiiskaya akademiya yuridicheskikh nauk. Vyp. 8. V 3 t. T. 1. M., Izd. gr. «Yurist», 2009, pp. 532–538.
11. Popova A.V. Neoliberal'naya traktovka sotsial'nykh prav i ikh zakonodatel'noe zakreplenie v parlamentskoi deyatel'nosti partii Narodnoi Svobody v nachale XX v (Neo-liberal interpretation of social rights and their legislative consolidation in the parliamentary activity of the People's Freedom party in the early 20th century), Zhurnal Rossiiskogo prava, 2010, No. 4, pp. 131–139.
12. Fal'chenko M.G. Kollektivnye prava v stranakh Latinskoi Ameriki. (Collective rights in Latin America), Administrativnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2015, No. 12, pp. 1215–1224.
13. Fal'chenko M.G. Sravnitel'no-pravovoi analiz praktiki i teorii v zakonodatel'stve zarubezhnykh stran (Comparative legal analysis of practice and theory in the legislation of foreign countries), Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta kooperatsii, 2015, No 4 (22), pp. 138–141.
Received: 10.05.2017
ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT
OF MASS SPORTS IN RUSSIA IN 1917–1945
IVANOV Igor Vladimirovich
преподаватель кафедры специальной подготовки ФГКОУ ВО «Уфимский юридический институт Министерства внутренних дел Российской Федерации», г. Уфа, Россия. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Instructor of the Chair of Special Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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The article is devoted to the analysis of the history of organizational and legal development of mass sports in Russia in the post-revolutionary period and before the Great Patriotic War. The relevance of this issue is due to the fact that in recent years the development of mass sports in Russia remains one of the priorities of domestic policy. Some aspects of state policy in the field of mass sports in the post-revolutionary period can be useful in our days. It is revealed that the development of mass sports as a system was a complex process of differentiation and integration of public sports organizations. The stages of overcoming organizational fragmentation, forming club and territorial structure of circles of physical culture were historically determined in this process; as well as the transition to the production principle of the organization of sports movement, that is to the establishment of collectives of physical culture and their further incorporation in the system of voluntary sports societies.
Key words: sports movement, voluntary sports societies, forms of organization of sports movement, complex GTO, system of public sports organizations.
References
1. Izvestiya TsK RKP(b), 1925, 20 iyunya.
2. Enchenko I.V. Evolyutsiya kompleksa «gotov k trudu i oborone» (The evolution of the complex "Ready for labor and defense"), Nauka i sport: sovremennye tendentsii, 2014, No. 4, pp. 45–51. 
3. Stolbov V.V., Finogenova L.A., Mel'nikova N.Yu. Istoriya fizicheskoi kul'tury i sporta (History of Physical Culture and Sports), uchebnik, pod red. V.V. Stolbova. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M. FiS, 2001. 
4. Yunusova Yu. M. GTO – osnova sovetskoi sistemy fizicheskogo vospitaniya (GTO is the basis of the Soviet system of physical education). Tashkent. O-vo "Znanie" UzSSR, 1978. 
5. Alekseev S.V. Sportivnoe pravo Rossii (Sport Law of Russia) , pod red. P.V. Krashennikova. M. YUNITI-DANA, 2015.
6. Treskin A.V., Mel'nikova N.Yu. Istoriya fizicheskoi kul'tury i sporta (History of Physical Culture and Sports): uchebnik. M. Sovet-skii sport, 1913.
Received: 11.05.2017
TO THE ISSUE OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS FUNCTION OF THE RUSSIAN STATE 
GARIPOV Almaz Aidarovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.
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The state's exercise of its human rights function is one of the most acute and pressing problems of the theory and practice of the rule-of-law state. The comprehension of the experience of state legal development of modern Russia requires the introduction of certain adjustments in the theoretical basis of the study of the human rights function of the state. It is necessary to specify the conceptual apparatus, clarify the essence and content of human rights functions of the state as the subject vectors of its activity in the most important spheres of human and social life, expressing the essence of the state and public purpose. A condition for the successful implementation of the human rights function of the state is close interaction between the state and civil society. The state's obligation to protect human and citizen's rights and freedoms encompasses both standard setting and exercise of rights at all its stages and in any forms.
Key words: human rights and freedoms, duty, human being, citizen, state functions, rule-of-law state, protection, security, legal protection, the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
References
1. Alekseev S.S. Obshchaya teoriya prava (General theory of law). T. 1. M., 1981.
2. Vitruk N.V. Osnovnye teorii pravovogo polozheniya lichnosti v sotsialisticheskomobshchestve (Basic theories of legal position of the individual in a socialist society). M., 1979.
3. Vitruk N.V.Realizatsiyaprav i svobod lichnosti kak protsess (Realization of human rights and freedoms as a process), Realizatsiyapravgrazhdan v usloviyakhrazvitogosotsializma. M., 1983.
4. Markhgeim M.V. Konstitutsionnaya sistema zashchity prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v Ros-siiskoi Federatsii (Constitutional system for the protection of human rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. M., 2005.
5. Sharina L.A. Chelovek, ego prava i svobody kak vysshaya tsennost' (Man, his rights and freedoms as the supreme value), Konstitutsionnaya i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2009, № 11.
6. Bol'shoi Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar' (Large Collegiate Dictionary).URL: http://www.vedu. ru/big encdic/.
7. Shevchenko A.S. O zashchite grazhdanskikh prav (On the protection of civil rights).Tartu, 1989.
8. Makarova Z.V. Zashchita v rossiiskom ugolovnom protsesse. Ponyatie, vidy, predmet i predely (Protection in Russian criminal trial. Concept, types, subject and limits), Pravovedenie, 2000, №3.
9. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii: prinyatav vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12 dekabrya 1993g. (s uchetom popravok, vnesennykh zakonami Rossiiskoi Federatsii o popravkakh k Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 30dekabrya 2008 g. № 6-FKZ i ot 30 dekabrya 2008 g. № 7-FKZ) (Constitution of the Russian Federation: adopted by popular vote on December 12, 1993. (Taking into account the amendments introduced by the laws of the Russian Federation on amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation dated December 30, 2008 No. 6-FKZ and from December 30, 2008 No. 7-FKZ)), Ros. gaz. 1993. 25 dekabrya; 2009, 21 yanvarya.
10. Kashperskii V.I. Otrazhenie i funktsii (Reflection and functions).Sverdlovsk, 1989.
11. Snezhko O.A. Zashchita prav grazhdan – osnovnay aobyazannost' Rossiiskogo gosudarstva (The protection of citizens' rights is the main duty of the Russian state), Pravo i politika, 2005, № 10.
12. Patyulina V.A. Gosudarstvo i lichnost' v SSSR (pravovye aspekty vzaimootnoshenii) (State and Personality in the USSR (Legal Aspects of Relations). M., 1974.
13. Utyashev M.M., Utyasheva L.M. Teoriya prav cheloveka (Human Rights Theory), monografiya. Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2016.
14. Ebzeeva B.S. Lichnost' i gosudarstvo v Rossii: Vzaimnayaotvetstvennost' i konstitutsionnyeobyazannost' (Personality and state in Russia: mutual responsibility and constitutional duty). M., Norma, 2007.
Received: 10.05.2017
LEGAL REGULATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTION AND TRAFFICKING
IN THE USSR IN 1930–1940
ARZHILOVSKIY Dmitry Evgenievich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory of State and Law and International law of the Institute of State and Law of the Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Legal regulation of distribution and consumption of tobacco products in Russia is a well-known and relevant phenomenon, going back to the late Middle Ages. From the standpoint of historical and legal analysis, this issue has been studied insufficiently for today: it was solved only in medicine, economics, sociology, psychology researches and so on. The article reveals the peculiarities of legal regulation of tobacco products trafficking in the USSR, based on the examples of resolutions and other acts of the Council of People's Commissars and decrees of the Supreme Council of national economy. This period is the most important in the context of the problem as a whole, because it covers the legal way of state formation with a new type of economy. The activities of executive authorities in this area are also mentioned. Changes of tobacco trafficking law in the prewar period in the USSR are also revealed; the comparative characteristic between modern and soviet law is also mentioned in the article.
Key words: legal regulation, tobacco products, legislation, Council of People's Commissars, USSR, resolution.
References
1. Bogdanov I. Dym otechestva, ili kratkaja istorija tabakokurenija (The smoke of the Fatherland, or a brief history of tobacco smoking). M., Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2007.
2. Bol'shaja Sovetskaja jenciklopedija (v 30 tomah) (Great Soviet encyclopedia (in 30 volumes)). Gl. red. A. M. Prohorov. Ed. 3. M., “Sovetskaja Jenciklopedija”, 1973. T. 13 Konda – Kun. 1973.
3. Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ot 30.11.1994 N 51-FZ (Civil Code of the Russian Federation of 30.11.1994 N 51-FL) (ed. 28.03.2017).
4. Maksimenko A.A., Pichugina E.G. Kontrmarketing tabakokurenija (Contamination of tobacco smoking). Kostroma, KGU im. N.A. Nekrasova, 2012. 
5. Svod zakonov Rossijskoj imperii, poveleniem gosudarja imperatora Nikolaja Pavlovicha sostavlennyj. T. 5. Ustavy o podatjah, o poshlinah, i o sborah s pitej, s sveklosaharnogo proizvodstva, i s tabaku. Rossija. Zakony i postanovlenija. (The code of laws of the Russian Empire, compiled by the command of the Emperor Nicholas. Vol. 5. Regulations on taxes, on fees, on fees from drinks, sugar beet production and tobacco. Russia. The laws and regulations). Sankt-Peterburg: V tipografii Vtorogo otdelenija Sobstvennoj Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva kanceljarii, 1857-1868.
6. Sobornoe Ulozhenie 1649 goda. (Council Code of 1649). L., Nauka, 1987.
7. Sobranie uzakonenij i rasporjazhenij Raboche-krest'janskogo pravitel'stva Sojuza Sovetskih Socialisticheskih Respublik za 1933 g.. Upravlenie delami Soveta ministrov SSSR. (The collection of legalizations and orders of the Worker-peasant government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1933. the Administration of the Affairs of the Council of Ministers of the USSR). M., 1948, pp. 106–111. 
8. Sobranie uzakonenij i rasporjazhenij Raboche-krest'janskogo pravitel'stva Sojuza Sovetskih Socialisticheskih Respublik za 1934 g.. Upravlenie delami Soveta ministrov SSSR. (The collection of legalizations and orders of the Worker-peasant government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1934. the Administration of the Affairs of the Council of Ministers of the USSR). M., 1948, pp. 107–112. 
Received: 12.05.2017
LEGALIZATION OF RESTRICTIVE SYNCRETICAL NORMS IN LEGISLATION OF ANCIENT RUS
SHEMAROV Valentin Aleksandrovich
Adjunct of the Faculty of Scientific and Teaching Staff of the Academy of the FPS of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article studies social norms as unanimous, integral norms of behavior, natural to a human being and containing germs of law, moral and religion. It researches the appearance of law as legalization of social and public norms of Ancient Rus in historical sense, as well as the positive effect of studying the conditions and reasons for appearance of restriction of law, determination of its place and role in the life of society and the political system. The article studies and analyzes points of view of A. I. Pershin on “mononorms” and G. V. Maltcev on “syncretical norms”. The conclusion is that the beginning of modern law is connected to the separation of these norms, a part of which found its reflection in written sources of law id est in statute law. The restrictive character lies behind these norms and it is provided by strict compulsion from behalf of the state and determination of the framework of people's freedom of action.
Key words: legal phenomena, mononorm, syncretical norm, restriction, legalization of norms, customs.
References
1. Jevoljucija idei prava i pravovye otnoshenija: voprosy teorii i praktiki (The evolution of the idea of law and legal relations: Issues of theory and practice), St-Petersburg, 2005.
2. Pershin A.I. Problemy normativnoj jetnografii (Issues of regulatory ethnography), Issledovanie po obshhej jetnografii. M., 1979.
3. Mal'cev G.V. Ocherki istorii rannego prava i gosudarstva: monografija (Essays on the history of early Law and State: Monograph), M.: Izd-vo RAGS, 2010.
4. Baytin M.I. Sushhnost' prava (sovremennoe normativnoe pravoponimanie na grani dvuh vekov) (The essence of law (contemporary normative legal thinking on the verge of two centuries)), M., 2005.
5. Vyatkina Y.Y. Istorija vozniknovenija i razvitija obychaja v rossijskom prave (The history of the emergence and development of a custom in Russian Law), Aktual'nye voprosy sovremennoj nauki. 2014. No. 33.
6. Rohmanin A.I. Pravovye normy drevnej Rusi IX-XIII vv (Rules of law in Ancient Rus IX-XIII centuries), Analitika kul'turologii. 2014. No. 30.
7. Giorgievskiy E.V. K voprosu ob obychnom prave i ego osnovnyh priznakah (On the issue of common law and its main features), Sibirskij juridicheskij vestnik . 2009. No. 3.
Received: 20.01.2017
TRANSFORMATION OF LEGAL REGULATION OF LABOR: FROM THE USSR TO RUSSIA
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Fund for the Support of Science and Education in the Field of Law Enforcement Activities "University", 
St. Petersburg, Russia.
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FOMICHEV Maksim Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law Disciplines of the Institute of Economics, Management and Law of the FSFEI HE “Volga State University of Water Transport”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
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SHAVIN Vasiliy Anatolievich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Lawyer, Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Second Nizhny Novgorod Bar Association "Advocate of Nizhny Novgorod ", Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Chamber of Advocates of the Nizhny Novgorod Region, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
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The article discusses the development of legal regulation of labor relations through the prism of changes of the Labor Code of the USSR in different years as well as other legal documents regulating labor relations in the country, since the revolutionary events of 1917, through the weakening of its value when in the second world war of 1941-1945 all the country was put on to the "military labor situation" and up to the creation of the new Labor Code of the Russian Federation in 2002.
Key words: Labor code, code of labor laws, periods of changes in the legal structure, history of development of legal regulation, labor relations, from the USSR to Russia.
References
1. Gadzhiev V.V. K voprosu o sotsial'nom kontrakte: Kant i Gobbs (To the question of the social contract: Kant and Hobbes), XI Kantovskie chteniya: materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii. Kaliningrad, 21-23 aprelya 2014 g. Rossiiskii gumanitarnyi nauchnyi fond, Baltiiskii federal'nyi universitet im. I. Kanta. Kaliningrad: Baltii-skii federal'nyi universitet im. I.Kanta, 2014.
2. Gobbs T. Leviafan ili Materiya, forma i vlast' gosudarstva tserkovnogo i grazhdanskogo. Sochineniya: v 2 t. T.2 (Leviathan or Matter, the form and authority of the ecclesiastic state and civil state. Works: in 2 v. V.2). M., 1991.
3. Dekret Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov RSFSR ot 17 iyunya 1920 goda «Obshchee polozhenie o tarife (pravila ob usloviyakh naima i oplaty truda rabochikh i sluzhashchikh vsekh predpriyatii, uchrezhdenii i khozyaistv v RSFSR)» (Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of June 17, 1920 "General Provisions on the Tariff (Rules on the Conditions of Employment and Remuneration of Labor of Workers and Employees of All Enterprises, Institutions and Farms in the RSFSR)"), Sobranie uzakonenii RSFSR. 1920. № 61–62. St. 276.
4. Zaripova Z.N., Shavin V.A. Sub"ekty trudovogo prava (Subjects of labor law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovre-mennost', 2015, No. 9, pp. 105–124.
5. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. O pravovom progresse kak filosofsko-pravovoi probleme (On legal progress as a philosophical and legal problem), Rossiiskii zhurnal pravovykh issledovanii, 2015, No. 2 (3), pp. 113–121.
6. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress – novaya filosofsko-pravovaya definitsiya (Legal progress is a new philosophical and legal definition), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 4, pp. 171–188.
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress i tsennosti prava (Legal progress and the values of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 9, pp. 17–31.
8. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress kak aktual'naya filosofsko-pravovaya problema (Legal progress as an actual philosophical and legal problem), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 9, pp. 175–192.
9. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress: filosofskii i filosofsko-pravovoi podkhody (Legal progress: philosophical and philosophical-legal approaches), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 1, pp. 13–30.
10. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov P.P., Ger O.E., Kaizer A.G., Reuf V.M. Sovetskuyu ideologiyu podvergli ostrakizmu. A chto vzamen? (politiko-pravovoi aspekt) (Soviet ideology was ostracized. And what in return? (politico-legal aspect)), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 7, pp. 57–75.
11. Kant I. K vechnomu miru. Sochineniya, v 6 t. T. 6 (To eternal peace. Works, in 6 v. Vol. 6). M., 1996.
12. Kiselev I.Ya. Trudovoe pravo Rossii. Istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie: ucheb. posobie (Labor law of Russia. Historical and legal study: Textbook). M., 2001. 
13. Krymov A.V. Russkii konservatizm i proekt obshchei zemskoi dumy A.I. Kosheleva (Russian conservatism and the draft of common zemstvo Duma by A.I. Koshelev), Sovremennoe pravo, 2014, No. 8, pp. 157–162 
14. Pervyi yubilei novogo Kodeksa Zakonov o Trude (The first anniversary of the new Labor Code), Voprosy truda, 1923, No. 12.
15. Postanovlenie TsK VKP (b) ot 20.10.1930 g. «O meropriyatiyakh po planovomu obespecheniyu narodnogo khozyaistva rabochei siloi i bor'be s tekuchest'yu» (Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (c) of 20.10.1930 "On measures for the planned provision of the national economy with manpower and the struggle against fluidity"), Pravda, 1930, № 292 (4737), 22 dekabrya.
16. Romanovskaya L.R., Fomichev M.N. Politiko-pravovaya aktivnost' Rossiiskikh musul'man v nachale XX v., monografiya (Political and legal activity of Russian Muslims in the beginning of the 20th century, Monograph). M., Yurlitinform, 2016. 
17. Sal'nikov V.P. Vozrozhdenie gosudarstvenno-pravovoi ideologii – klyuch k peremenam (The revival of state-legal ideology is the key to changes), Soyuz natsional'nostei, 2014, No. 2 (4), pp. 15–17.
18. Sal'nikov V.P. Ideologiya – klyuch k peremenam (Ideology is the key to changes), Biznes i nashe vremya, 2014, No. 2 (8), pp. 16–18.
19. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Fomichev M.N. Pravo i nauchno-tekhnicheskii progress: vme-ste ili otdel'no (Law and scientific and technological progress: together or separately), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 2, pp. 175–193.
20. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Fomichev M.N. Transformatsiya pravovykh tsennostei v epokhu nauchno-tekhnicheskogo progressa (Transformation of legal values in the era of scientific and technological progress), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 9, pp. 59–69.
21. Sal'nikov V.P., Stepashin S.V., Khabibulina N.G. Gosudarstvennaya ideologiya i yazyk zakona (State ideology and language of law), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2002. (Seriya: «Bezopasnost' cheloveka i obshchestva»).
22. Skurko E.V.Nekotorye voprosy proiskhozhdeniya genezisa prava kak elementa kul'tury (Some questions of the origin of the genesis of law as an element of culture), Pravovye kul'tury. Zhidkovskie chteniya : materialy Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii. Moskva, 25 marta 2011 g. M., RUND, 2012. pp. 69–75.
23. Fomichev M.N. Pravovoe razvitie v vek nauchno-tekhnicheskogo progressa (Legal development in the age of scientific and technological progress), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2016, No. 4 (95), pp. 91–92.
24. Khabibulin A.G. Politicheskaya sub"ektnost' i ideologiya kak tsennostnye svoistva gosudarstvo (Political subjectivity and ideology as value properties of the state), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2012, No. 8, pp. 7–13.
25. Chernenko A.G. Obshcherossiiskaya natsional'naya ideologiya i razvitie federalizma v Rossii (All-Russian National Ideology and the Development of Federalism in Russia), avt. vstup. st. V.P. Sal'nikov. SPb, Aleteiya, 1999.
Received: 10.05.2017
TO THE ISSUE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO FREE MEDICAL CARE
USMANOVA Rezida Miniyrovna
Doctor of Law, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Sterlitamak Branch of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir state University”, Sterlitamak, Russia.
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The article reveals the meaning of the constitutional right to free medical care, which is one of the most important legal aspects in the Russian legislation. This right is exercised in accordance with the Program of state guarantees of free medical care to citizens in state and municipal healthcare institutions. But it happens that in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, those regional programs are adopted that are contrary to the Federal program provisions as law-enforcement prosecution practice shows it. The author considers the possibility of receiving free treatment in private healthcare institutions. The analysis of the current legislation allows making a conclusion that free medical care is available in medical healthcare institutions that are included in the Program of state guarantees of free medical care to citizens as well as in the program of compulsory health insurance.
Key words: right, health protection, medical care, Constitution of RF, guarantees, law.
References
1. Federalʹnyj zakon ot 21.11.2011g.№ 323 -FZ «Ob osnovax ohrani zdorovʹyu grazhdan v RF» ( Federal law from 21.11.201` № 323-FZ «On the basis of health protection in the Russian Federation»), Sobranie zakonodatelʹstva RF. 2011. No. 48. St. 4213. 
2. Otstavnova E.A.Konstitucionnie osnovi zachiti prav cheloveka i grazhdanina na ohranu zdorovʹyu I medecinskyu pomoch v sovremennoi Rossii (The constitutional framework for the protection of the rights of man and of citizen to health and medical care in modern Russia), Saratov, 2010.
3. Pravo na besplatnyu medecinskyu pomoch i lekarstvennoe obespechenie (The right to free medical assistance and medicines) [Electronic resource]. URL: //http://lekpravo.ru/teoriya-prava/pravo-na-besplatnuyu-medicinskuyu-pomoshch-i-lekarstvennoe-obespechenie/. 
4. Federalʹnyj zakon ot 29.11.2010g. № 326 –FZ «Ob obyuzatelʹnom medezinskom strahovanii v RF» ( Federal Law of 29.11. 2010 № 326-FL "On Mandatory Medical Insurance in the Russian Federation"), Sobranie zakonodatelʹstva RF. 2010. № 49. St.6422.
5. Hairullina I.S. Problemi privlecheniyu chastnih proizvoditelei medicinskih uslug k realizacii program gosudarstvennih garantii okazaniyu besplatnyu medecinskyu pomochi (The problem of brining private health care providers to implement programs of state guarantees of rendering of free medical aid), Problemi sovremennoi ekonomiki. No. 4, 2009, pp.45–46.
6. Prikaz Ministerstva zdravoohraneniyu i socialʹnogo razvitiyu RF ot 24/04/2008 g. № 194n «Ob utverzhdenii Medicinskih kriteriev opredeleniyu tyugesti vreda, prichinennogo zdorovʹyu cheloveka (Order of the Ministry of health and social development of the Russian Federation 24.04. 2008 No. 194n «On the establishment of Medical criteria of determination of severity of harm caused to human health»), Rossiiskayu gazeta. 2008, September 5. 
7. Prokuratura proverila kak mestnui vlasti obespechivaut lekarstvami onkobolnih (The Prosecutor's office checked how the local authorities provide cancer patients with medications) [Electronic resource]. URL: // https://rg.ru/2016/09/19/v-genprokurature-obiasnili-prichiny-nehvatki-lekarstv-dlia-onkobolnyh.html
8. V Amurskoi oblasti sudom udovletvoreno administrativnoe iskovoe zayuvlenie i.o prokurora Amurskoi oblasti o priznanii nedeistvyuuchei v chaste Territorialnoi programmi gosudarstvennih garantii besplatnogo okazaniyu naseleniu Amurskoi oblasti medecinskyu pomochi na 2016 god (In the Amur region the  court satisfied the administrative claim of the acting Prosecutor of the Amur region on invalidation of the Territorial program of state guarantees of free rendering to the population of the Amur region medical help for 2016) [Electronic resource] URL: // http://www.prokamur.ru/news_cont.php?idnews=6882.
9. Verhovnii Sud RF ostavil bez izmeneniyu reshenie o priznanii nedeistvyuuchimi otdelnih polozhenii Territorialnoi programmi gosudarstvennih garantii besplatnogo okazaniyu medecinskyu pomochi v EAO (Supreme court of the Russian Federation has left without changes the decision on the invalidation of certain provisions of the Territorial program of state guarantees of free medical assistance to citizens in the Jewish Autonomous region) [Electronic resource]. URL: / http://prokuror-eao.ru/verhovnyj-sud-rf-ostavil-bez-izmeneniya-reshenie-o-priznanii-nedejstvuyushhimi-otdelnyh-polozhenij-territorialnoj-programmy-gosudar stvennyh-garantij-besplatnogo-okazaniya-meditsinskoj-pomoshhi-grazhda/.
10. Volgogradskayu prokuratura oprotestovala territorialnuyu programmu o gosgarantiyuh okazanie besplatnoi medpomochi (The Volgograd Prosecutor's office filed a protest against the territorial program of state guarantees on provision of free medical care) [Electronic resource]. URL://http://www.ttfoms.tomsk.ru/news/ tfoms_09774_09_2P00UBT32. 
Received: 25.01.2017
CONSTITUTIONAL JUSTICE OF RUSSIA AND MULTILEVEL CONSTITUTIONALISM
ABRAMOVA Marianna Grigorievna 
Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Deputy Head of the Chair of State Policy, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: abramova-m@mail. ru
Constitutional justice as a kind of judicial activity is an essential feature of a rule-of-law state. Over the past 25 years of its activity, the Constitutional Court has formed legal positions in all areas of legal regulation, defining the criteria of the constitutionality of laws and bylaws. The paper reviews the establishment of Russia’s Constitutional Court in 1991 and its role in the October crisis of 1993. The Constitutional Court of Russia resisted the most serious constitutional socio-political crisis, similar in intensity to a small civil war. The author examines the Court’s structure and its powers, and analyzes the juridical nature of its decisions. The author also analyzes the collisions between decisions handed down by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and the Constitution of Russia from the point of view of the stand taken by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (RF). The author arrives at the conclusion that there is a need for a dialogue among European and national systems of justice with the help of filtration mechanisms and multilevel constitutionalism.
Key words: Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, decisions, constitution, European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), collisions, filtration, multilevel constitutionalism.
References
1. Anchugov and Gladkov v. Russia // Applications nos. 11157/04 and 15162/05, of 4 July 2013. 
2. Alekseev S.S. Gosudarstvo i pravo (State and Law). M., 1994. 
3. Baglai M.V. Pravovoe gosudarstvo: ot idei k praktike (The rule-of-law state: from idea to practice), Kommunist, 1989, No. 6. 
4. Bondar' S.N. Tsennostnye nachala sudebnoi implementatsni konventsionnykh trebovanii v rossiiskuyu pravovuyu sistemu (iz praktiki Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF) (Values of judicial implementation of the Convention requirements in the Russian legal system (from the practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation), Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya. 2016, No. 2 (50), pp. 2–8. 
5. Vitruk N.V. Konstitutsionnoe pravosudie v Rossii (1991–2001gg.) Ocherki teorii i praktika (Constitutional justice in Russia (1991-2001): Essays on theory and practice). M. Gorodets-izdat, 2001. 
6. Volkova N.S., Khabrieva T.Ya. Pravovye pozitsii Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii i parlament (Legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and Parliament). M. Norma, 2005. 
7. Glava KS RF Valerii Zor'kin protiv prestuplenii El'tsina (The head of the Constitutional Court Valery Zorkin is against Yeltsin crimes). URL: http://www. prezidentpress. ru/news/zakon/1622-glava-ks-rf-valeriy-zorkin-protiv-prestupleniy-elcina. html (accessed date: 28.02.2017).
8. Zor'kin V.D. Sovremennyi mir, pravo i Konstitutsiya (Modern world, law and the Constitution). M. Norma, 2010. 
9. Zor'kin V.D. Konstitutsionno-pravovoe razvitie Rossii (Constitutional and legal development of Russia). M. NORMA, 2011. 
10. Zor'kin V.D. Konstitutsionnaya yustitsiya na perekhodnom etape istoricheskogo razvitiya Rossii (Constitutional Justice at the Transitional Stage of Russia's Historical Development) 17.05.2016. URL: http://www. ksrf. ru/ru/News/Speech/Pages/ViewItem. aspx?ParamId=75 (accessed date: 28.02.2017).
11. Zor'kin V.D. Problemy realizatsii konventsii o pravakh cheloveka (The problems of implementing the convention on human rights). URL: http://www. ksrf. ru/ru/News/Speech/Pages/ViewItem. aspx?ParamId=72 (accessed date: 28.02.2017). 
12. Informatsionno-analiticheskii otchet ob ispolnenii reshenii Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii, prinyatykh v khode osushchestvleniya konstitutsionnogo sudoproizvodstva v 2015 godu (Information and analytical report on the implementation of the decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation adopted in the course of constitutional legal proceedings in 2015). URL: http://www. ksrf. ru/ru/Info/Maintenance/Informationks/Pages/ReportKS2015. aspxm (accessed date: 28.02.2017).
13. Kalinichenko P.A. K voprosu o kollizii mezhdu postanovleniyami ESPCh i Konstitutsiei Rossii v svete pozitsii Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF (On the issue of the conflict between the judgments of the ECHR and the Constitution of Russia in the light of the position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation), Aktual'nye problemy rossiiskogo prava, 2016. No. 2, pp. 42–48. 
14. Kolton Timoti. El'tsin (Eltcin). M.  Kolibri, 2013.
15. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii 1993 g. (Constitution of the Russian Federation, 1993). URL: http://base. garant. ru/10103000/7/#block_7000 (accessed date: 28.02.2017).
16. Konyukhova I.A. Tendentsii, problemy i perspektivy garmonizatsii konstitutsionnogo prava i mezhdunarodnogo publichnogo prava v usloviyakh sovremennogo razvitiya (Tendencies, problems and prospects of harmonization of constitutional law and international public law in the conditions of modern development), Konstitutsionnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnoe pravo: vzaimodeistvie i razvitie v sovremennuyu epokhu, sb. statei po materialam Vtorykh Konstitutsionnykh chtenii. M. RAP, 2010. 
17. Malyushin A.A. Konstitutsionno-sudebnoe pravotvorchestvo v Rossiiskoi Federatsii kak osobaya forma sovremennogo pravotvorchestva (Constitutional and judicial lawmaking in the Russian Federation as a special form of modern lawmaking), Rossiiskaya yustitsiya. 2015. No. 10. 
18. Marchenko M.N. Sudebnaya vlast': osnovnye priznaki i osobennosti (Judicial branch: main features and peculiarities), Rossiiskoe pravosudie.  2007. No. 5. 
19. Nersesyants V.S. Sud zakonodatel'stvuet i ne upravlyaet, a primenyaet pravo (The court legislates and does not administer, but applies the law), Sudebnaya praktika kak istochnik prava. M., 1997. 
20. OAO Neftyanaya kompaniya YUKOS v. Russia (OJSC Yukos Oil Company v. Russia) // Application N 14902/04, Judgment of 24 June 2014. 
21. Ostapovich I.Yu. Konstitutsionnyi Sud RF v normotvorcheskom protsesse (The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in the rule-making process), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 2010. No. 2. 
22. Ofitsial'nyi sait Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossii (The official website of the Constitutional Court of Russia). URL: http://www. ksrf. ru/ru/Info (accessed date: 28.02.2017).
23. Ocherki teorii i praktiki (Essays on theory and practice). M. : Gorodets-izdat, 2001. 
24. Solov'eva T.V. Postanovleniya Verkhovnogo Suda RF, Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF i Evropeiskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka v sfere grazhdanskogo sudoproizvodstva i poryadok ikh realizatsii (Decisions of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights in the field of civil proceedings and the procedure for their implementation), monografiya, pod red. O.V. Isaenkovoi. M. Statut, 2011. 
25. Strashun B.A. Resheniya Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii kak istochnik prava (Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation as a source of law), Izbiratel'noe pravo i izbiratel'nyi protsess v resheniyakh Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii (1992–1999), otv. red. A.A. Veshnyakov. M. Norma, 2000. 
26. Tanchev E. Konstitutsionnyi plyuralizm i mnogourovnevoe upravlenie v Evropeiskom Soyuze (Constitutional pluralism and multilevel governance in the European Union), Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya, 2014, No. 6 (49), pp. 1052–1062. 
27. Federal'nyi konstitutsionnyi zakon ot 21 iyulya 1994 g. N 1-FKZ «O Konstitutsionnom Sude Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (The Federal Constitutional Law of July 21, 1994 N 1-FCL "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation"). URL: http://base. garant. ru/10101207/ (accessed date: 28.02.2017).
28. Fedorov B.G. Desyat' bezumnykh let s Borisom El'tsinym (Ten crazy years with Boris Yeltsin). M. Algoritm, 2011.
Received: 10.05.2017
THE CONCEPT, CONTENT AND FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHT TO FREEDOM AND PERSONAL SECURITY IN RUSSIA
KAZAMIROV Anatoly Ivanovich. 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Constitutional Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia.
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The article discusses the concept and content of the right to freedom and personal security and its constitutionalization in the basic law of the Russian State at different stages of its development. The author having analyzed different points of view of Russian and foreign scientists on this issue comes to the conclusion that the right to freedom and personal security is one of the most important human rights, because without its realization it is impossible to speak of other human rights.
Key words: human rights, right to freedom and personal security, Russian Constitution, rules of international law.
References
1. Sharl' Montesk'e. O duhe zakonov. Izbrannye proizvedenija (On the spirit of laws. Selected works). M., 1955.
2. Dal' V.I. Slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo jazyka (Dictionary of living great Russian language). T. 4. M., 1980.
3. Tomas Gobbs. Leviafan, ili materija, formy i vlast' gosudarstva, cerkovnogo i grazhdanskogo. Izbrannye sochinenija (Leviathan, or matter, the form and power of the state, ecclesiastical and civil. Selected works). T. 2. M., 1964.
4. Francuzskaja deklaracija prav cheloveka i grazhdanina.(The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen), Sbornik dokumentov po pravam cheloveka. Ufa, 1997. 
5. Petruhin I.A. Nauchno-prakticheskij kommentarij Konstitucii RF (Scientific and practical comment to the Constitution of the Russian Federation). M., 1997. 
6. Konstitucija i zakony SSSR (Constitution and laws of the USSR). M., 1983.
7. Kuusimjaki R. O stat'jah pjatoj i shestoj Evropejskoj konvencii o zashhite prav cheloveka i osnovnyh svobod (On the Articles of the Fifth and Sixth European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms), Moskovskij zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava. 1997. № 4.
8. Korkunov N.M. Lekcii po obshhej teorii prava (Lectures on the general theory of law). SPb., 1914.
Received: 11.05.2017
TO THE ISSUE OF THE FORMATION
OF CONSTITUTIONAL LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY
SISSAKYAN Arus Kachperonovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Troitsk Branch of the FSBEI HE “Chelyabinsk State University”, Troitsk, Russia
 E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Over a long period, one of the most important tasks of the Russian state continues to be the creation of a highly efficient mechanism of legal regulation of social relations in the state, first off involving citizens’ ability to use legal means in their daily life in a civilized way. A prerequisite for the formation of this skill is the awareness of the creative potential of the Basic Law of the country and a full implementation of the basic legal tenets laid down in the text of the Constitution, that is, the fact that citizens have a highly developed constitutional legal consciousness. In this connection, special importance is attached to the questions of a strong influence of the Constitution on the formation of constitutional legal consciousness of the Russian people, the place and role of the Constitution of the Russian Federation in the process of the formation of the Russian state in current reality. The author focuses on the dominant role of constitutional legal consciousness that influences the process of legal thinking and interpretation of the Constitution and current Russian laws. The reasons impeding a high level of constitutional legal consciousness are analyzed. The need to study constitutional legal consciousness is explained. The idea of forming constitutional legal consciousness is to penetrate deeply into civil legal consciousness, to ensure it by scientific and theoretical, ideological, political and legal capacity of the Russian Constitution. In the process of the formation of a sufficient level of constitutional legal consciousness, it is necessary to be mindful of the need to popularize legal knowledge among the Russian population.
Key words: Constitution of RF, constitutional legal consciousness, constitutional provisions, legal thinking, interpretation of the Constitution, constitutional principles and ideas.
References
1. Basten A.V. Konstitucionnoe pravosoznanie kak pravovaya kategoriya (Сonstitutional legal consciousness as a legal category), Problems of law. 2009, No. 2 (18), pp. 27–30.
2. Barkhatova E.I. Kommentarii k Konstitucii Rossiskoi Federacii (Commentary on the Constitution of the Russian Federation). M., 2016.
3. Basten A.V. Konstitucionnoe pravosoznanie kak pravovaya kategoriya (Сonstitutional legal consciousness as a legal category), Problems of law, 2009, No. 2 (18), pp. 27–30.
4. Nikityaeva V.V. Konstitucionnoe pravosoznanie: voprosi teorii i praktiki (Constitutional legal consciousness: theory and practice questions), avtoreferat diss. ... кand. yurid. nauk. Volgograd, 2002.
Received: 12.05.2017
IMPROVEMENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE BASIS REGARDING THE DEFINITION
OF THE PRINCIPLES OF LOCAL BUDGET
IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
TEMIROVA Bariyata Gadjievna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Constitutional and International Law of the Ural Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and State Service, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
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The article attempts to analyze the normative-legal framework that determines the principles of local budget in the Russian Federation in comparison with the provisions of the European Charter of local self-government. The existence of local self-government and its role in the solution of national problems are inseparable from understanding the generally recognized principles of formation of local budget. The efficiency of local budget largely depends on the conceptual provisions regulating local self-government relations. At the present stage of local self-government reform, the application of the principles of local budget in full has not been achieved. The author proposes some principles of local budget, that fully reflect the contemporary nature of the reform of budgetary relations, as well as a number of additional legislative measures aimed at effective implementation of budgetary powers of local self-government bodies.
Key words: budget system, local budgets, self-government, municipality, legal regulation, principles of local budgets.
References
1. Doklad o sostoyanii mestnogo samoupravleniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: Sovremennye vyzovy i perspektivy razvitiya (Report on the state of local self-government in the Russian Federation: Modern challenges and development prospects), Under the editorship of E.S. Shugrina, Moskva, Prospect, 2016, p. 312.
2. Kruss V.I. Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii i otetcestvennaya nauka prava (The Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Russian science of law), Problemy prava, 2013, No. 4 (42), p. 26.
3. Nekrasov S.I., Nekrasova N.А. Filosofiya nauki i texniki: tematicheskiy slovar spravochnik (Philosophy of science and technology: thematic dictionary book), uchebnoe posobie, Oryol, OSU, 2010, p. 289.
4. Baranov V.M. Pravotvorcheskaya konkretizatsiya: negativnyi rakurs  (Law-making concretization: negative perspective), Nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nijegorodskoy academii MVD Rossii, 2014, No. 2 (26), p. 12.
5. Kutafin O.E., Fadeev, E.I. Munitsipalnoe pravo Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Municipal law of the Russian Federation), uchebnik. 2e izdanie, pererabot. i dop, Moskva, Yurist, 2000, p. 239.
6. Shugrina E.S. Munitsipalnoe pravo (Municipal law), uchebnik, Moskva, Business, 1999, p. 218.
7. Vydrin I.V., Kokotov A.N. Munitsipalnoe pravo (Municipal law), uchebnik, Moskva, NORMA, 2000, p. 345.
8. Informatsiya o resultatach provedeniya monitoring ispolneniya mestnych budjetov i mejbudjetnych otnosheniy v subektach Rossiyskoy Federatsii na regionalnom i munitsipalnom urovnyach za 2015 god (Information on the results of monitoring execution of local budgets and interbudgetary relations in the subjects of the Russian Federation on regional and municipal levels for 2015), http://minfin.ru/common/upload/library (accessed date: 20.01.2017).
Received: 10.05.2017
LEGAL POSITIONS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN SUPPORT OF UNITY OF JUDICIAL PRACTICE
MOROZOVA Alexandera Sergeevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional and International Law of the Urals Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Yekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
VYDRIN Igor Vyacheslavovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Constitutional and International Law of the Urals Institute of  Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
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In our times, it is necessary to create effective legal mechanisms in order to settle various legal relations. The establishment of a uniform judicial practice has become one of the tasks that the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation as well as constitutional and statutory courts of the Russian Federation must solve. Legal positions of these courts are intended to ensure the uniformity of judicial practice of all courts of the Russian Federation.The unity of judicial practice must be aimed at establishing the rule of law. Ensuring the unity of judicial practice is implemented by the supervision over judicial activities or a kind of regulatory activity of the courts named supra.
Key words: The judicial system of the Russian Federation, positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, constitutionalism, rights, human freedoms, court's decision.
References
1. Arbitragni’ kodeks Rossi’skoi’ Federstsii (Arbitration Procedure Code of the Russian Federation) ot 24 iun 2002 No 95-FZ (c izmeneni;ami i  dopolneni’ami), Rossi’skai gazeta, 27 iun  2002, No. 137.
2. Bondar' N. S. Mesto konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya v sisteme razdeleniya vlastey (Place of constitutional justice in the system of separation of powers), Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii «Pravovoye gosudarstvo. Pravovaya politika. Pravovaya zhizn'», 2011, pp. 5–12.
3. Grazhdansko-protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation) ot 14 noyabrya 2002 g. No 138-FZ (s izmeneniyami i dopolneniyami), Rossiyskaya gazeta ot 20 noyabrya 2002, No. 220. 
4. Demidov V.N. Osobennosti vzaimodeystviya Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossii i Konstitutsionnykh (Ustavnykh) sudov sub"yektov federatsii (Features of interaction of the Russian Constitutional Court and  constitutional (statutory)  courts of the subjects of  the federation), Vestnik BGU, 2014, №2, URL: http:, cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osobennosti-vzaimodeystviya-konstitutsionnogo-suda-rossii-i-konstitutsionnyh-ustavnyh-sudov-subektov-federatsii (accessed date: 15.04.2015).
5. Zamotayeva Ye.K. Sudebnoye normotvorchestvo kak faktor dinamiki i stabil'nosti zakonodatel'stva (Judicial lawmaking as a factor of dynamics and stability of legislation), Zakon: stabil'nost' i dinamika: materialy zasedaniya Mezhdunarodnoy shkoly-praktikuma molodykh uchenykh-yuristov, M., Kontrakt, 2007, pp. 151–157.
6. Kalinovskiy K.B. Konstitutsionnyy Sud sledovatelyu ne ukaz?! (The Constitutional Court is not an order for the investigator?!), Ugolovnyy protsess, 2011, No. 10, pp. 11.
7. Nevinskiy V.V. Konstitutsionnyy sud Rossiyskoy Federatsii i pravotvorchestvo (The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the law-making), Vestnik Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1997, No. 3, pp. 68–78.
8. Nesmeyanova S.E. Osobennosti Konstitutsionnogo (Ustavnogo) sudebnogo protsessa v sub"yektakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii. (Features of constitutional (statutory) judicial process in the subjects of the Russian Federation), Monografiya, Izdatel'stvo «Yurlitinform», Moskva, 2012. 
9. O Verkhovnom Sude Rossiyskoy Federatsii (On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation) Federal'nyy konstitutsionnyy zakon ot 5 fevralya 2014 g. (Federal Constitutional Law of February 5, 2014) No 3-FKZ, Rossiyskaya gazeta, 7 fevralya 2014, No. 27.
10. O Konstitutsionnom Sude Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Federal'nyy (konstitutsionnyy zakon ot 21 iyulya 1994 g. No 1-FKZ (On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Constitutional Law of July 21, 1994)) (s izmeneniyami i dopolneniyami ot 4 iyunya 2014 g.),  SZ RF, 1994, No. 13, st. 1447.
11. O sudebnoy sisteme Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Federal'nyy (On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. Federal Constitutional Law) konstitutsionnyy zakon. Rassmotreniye del o sootvetstvii regional'nykh i munitsipal'nykh normativnykh pravovykh aktov konstitutsii (ustavu) sub"yekta Rossiyskoy Federatsii, a takzhe o tolkovanii konstitutsiy (ustavov) regionov otneseno k kompetentsii konstitutsionnogo (ustavnogo) suda, Rossiyskaya gazeta, 6 yanvarya 1997, No. 3.
12. Ob Ustavnom Sude Sverdlovskoy oblasti. (On the Charter Court of the Sverdlovsk region). Zakon Sverdlovskoy oblasti ot 6 maya 1997 g. No 29-OZ, Vedomosti Zakonodatel'nogo Sobraniya Sverdlovskoy oblasti, 1997, No. 14.
13. Opredeleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 6 marta 2003 No 103-O «Po zaprosam Gosudarstvennogo Sobraniya Respubliki Bashkortostan i Gosudarstvennogo Soveta Respubliki Tatarstan o proverke konstitutsionnosti chasti 1 stat'i 27 Federal'nogo konstitutsionnogo zakona «O sudebnoy sisteme Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (The Ruling of the Constitutional Court of RF on March 6, 2003 № 103-O "At the request of the National Assembly of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Tatarstan State Council on the constitutionality of part 1 of Article 27 of the Federal Constitutional Law), Rossiyskaya gazeta. No 82, 29 aprelya 2003.
14. Opredeleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 7 fevralya 2013 goda № 250-O «Po zhalobe grazhdanki Kostarevoy Lyudmily Ivanovny na narusheniye yeye konstitutsionnykh prav polozheniyami chasti devyatoy stat'i 115 i stat'i 154 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (The definition of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation dated February 7, 2013 № 250-O "On the complaint of the citizen Kostareva Lyudmila Ivanovna on infringement of her constitutional rights by the provisions of the ninth part of article 115 and article 154 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation"), SPS Pravo http,docs.pravo.ru/document,view/67159310 (accessed date: 04.04.2015).
15. Ostapovich I.YU. Organizatsiya gosudarstvennoy vlasti sub"yekta Rossiyskoy Federatsii: voprosy teorii i praktiki. (Organization of state power in an entity of the Russian Federation: theory and practice questions): Kollektivnaya monografiya, Pod red. V.YU. Panteleyeva i A.V. Savos'kina. Yekaterinburg, Izdatel'stvo Ural'skogo gumanitarnogo instituta, 2015, 273, pp. 162
16. Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 31 yanvarya 2011 g. No. 1-P gorod Sankt-Peterburg «Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti polozheniy chastey pervoy, tret'yey i devyatoy stat'i 115, punkta 2 chasti pervoy stat'i 208 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii i abzatsa devyatogo punkta 1 stat'i 126 Federal'nogo zakona «O nesostoyatel'nosti (bankrotstve)» v svyazi s zhalobami zakrytogo aktsionernogo obshchestva «Nedvizhimost'-M», obshchestva s ogranichennoy otvetstvennost'yu «Solomatinskoye khlebopriyemnoye predpriyatiye» i grazhdanki L.I. Kostarevoy» (The Ruling of the Constitutional Court of RF on January 31 “On the case of the constitutionality of the provisions of the first, third and ninth parts of article 115, paragraph 2 of the first part of article 208 of the Russian Federation Code of Criminal Procedure and the ninth paragraph of the first clause of article 126 of the Federal law "On insolvency (bankruptcy)" in response to complaints of closed joint-stock company "Real-M", limited liability company "Solomatinskiy grain-enterprise" and citizen L.I. Kostareva”), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 11 fevralya 2011, No. 5405.
17. Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 16 maya 2007 g. № 6-P po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti polozheniy statey 237, 413 i 418 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii v svyazi s zaprosom Prezidiuma Kurganskogo oblastnogo suda (The Ruling of the Constitutional Court of RF in the case concerning the constitutionality of the provisions of Articles 237, 413 and 418 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the request of the Presidium of the Kurgan Regional Court), Ros. Gaz, 2007, 12 maya.
18. Postanovleniye Prezidiuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF (Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of RF) ot 25.09.2013 № 128P13, BVS RF, 2014,  No 2, pp. 9.
19. Postanovleniye Prezidiuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF ot 25.12.2013 № 315-P13PR (Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of 12.25.2013 number 315-P13PR), BVS RF. http://docs.pravo.ru/document/view/21429655/2062637 1 (accessed date: 04.02.2017).
20. Postanovleniye Ustavnogo suda Sverdlovskoy oblasti ot 14 noyabrya 2011 g. No 9-5-11-2011 «Po delu o sootvetstvii Ustavu Sverdlovskoy oblasti punktov 1.1 i 2.1 Polozheniya o naznachenii i vyplate pensii za vyslugu let litsam, zameshchavshim munitsipal'nyye dolzhnosti gorodskogo okruga Verkhnyaya Pyshma i dolzhnosti munitsipal'noy sluzhby gorodskogo okruga Verkhnyaya Pyshma, utverzhdennogo Resheniyem Dumy gorodskogo okruga Verkhnyaya Pyshma ot 27 yanvarya 2011 goda N 30/5 «O novoy redaktsii Polozheniya o naznachenii i vyplate pensii za vyslugu let litsam, zameshchavshim munitsipal'nyye dolzhnosti gorodskogo okruga Verkhnyaya Pyshma i dolzhnosti munitsipal'noy sluzhby gorodskogo okruga Verkhnyaya Pyshma», v svyazi s zaprosom grazhdanki A.Ya. Obydennykh  (The Ruling of the Charter  Court of the Sverdlovsk region on 14 November 2011 ”On the case of compliance with the Charter of the Sverdlovsk region of points 1.1 and 2.1 of the Regulations on the appointment and payment of retirement pensions to persons occupying municipal offices of the urban district  Verkhnyaya Pyshma and offices of the municipal service of the urban district Verkhnyaya Pyshma, approved by the decision of the municipal Duma of the urban district Verkhnyaya Pyshma on January 27, 2011 No 30/5 “On the new edition of the Regulation on the appointment and payment of retirement pensions to persons occupying municipal offices of the urban district  Verkhnyaya Pyshma and offices of the municipal service of the urban district Verkhnyaya Pyshma”, in connection with the request of the citizen A.Ya. Obydennykh), SPS Pravo http://docs.pravo.ru/ document/view/21429655/2062637 1 (accessed date: 04.02.2017).
21. Reglament Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 01 marta 1995 goda prinyat Konstitutsionnym Sudom Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Rules of the Constitutional Court on 1 March 1995 adopted by the Constitutional Court) (redaktsiya dokumenta deystvovala s 01.03.1995 po 08.02.2011.), SPS Pravo http://docs.pravo.ru/ document/view/16241/20251/ (accessed date: 02.02.2017).
22. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation) ot 18 dekabrya 2001 g. No. 174-FZ (s izmeneniyami i dopolneniyami), Rossiyskaya gazeta ot 22 dekabrya 2001, No. 249.
Received: 10.05.2017
ON OBLIGATIONS OF PARTIES IN NEIGHBORHOOD LEGAL RELATIONSHIP
AMINEVA Aigul Yulaevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
GALAUTDINOVA Liliya Yurevna
Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
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Civil law obligation of neighbors is a measure of due behavior of the obliged person - the neighbor (owner of nearby real estate), exercised by him\her at his\her discretion within the freedom granted by the authorized person (the other neighbor) or (and) by civil laws, in order to meet the interests of this authorized person. Various features and elements are included in the definition of civil obligations of neighbors. Firstly, legal obligations of neighbors are subjective, that is, they belong to certain subjects – neighbors – owners of neighboring properties; secondly, subjective legal obligation is the need to coordinate his\her behavior to demands made to him\her; and thirdly, one of the signs of legal obligation is that it always has normative consolidation, however, the analysis of the sources of legislation leads to the conclusion that now there are only a few requirements for the behavior of neighbors.
Key words:  obligations of neighbors, signs of obligations of parties, subjective nature of obligations, normative consolidation of obligations, freedom and coercion in law of neighboring tenements 
References
1. SP 30-102-99. Planirovka i zastroika territorii maloetazhnogo zhilishchnogo stroitel'stva (Planning and development of low-rise housing construction) [Elektronnyi resurs], utv. Postanovleniem Gosstroya Rossii ot 30 dek. 1999 g. № 94. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
2. SP 54.13330.2011. Zdaniya zhilye mnogokvartirnye (Multi-apartment buildings) [Elektronnyi resurs] : utv. Prikazom Minregiona RF ot 24 dek. 2010 g. № 778. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tant-Plyus».
3. O soderzhanii i zashchite domashnikh zhivotnykh i merakh po obespecheniyu bezopasnosti nasele-niya (On the content and protection of domestic animals and measures to ensure the safety of the population) [Elektronnyi resurs], Zakon Voronezhskoi oblasti ot 30 iyunya 2010 g. № 67-OZ. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/ document/469709797 (accessed date: 14.04.2017).
4. Ob utverzhdenii Pravil pol'zovaniya zhilymi pomeshcheniyami (On approval of the Rules for the use of living quarters) [Elektronnyi resurs], utv. Postanovleniem Pravitel'stva RF ot 21 yanv. 2006 g. № 25 (s izm. ot 16 yanv. 2008 g.). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
5. Khokhlova E.M. Sub"ektivnoe pravo i obyazannost' kak yuridicheskoe soderzhanie pravootno-sheniya (Subjective law and duty as legal content of legal relationship), Vestnik Saratovskoi gosudarstvennoi akademii prava. 2008. No. 1. pp. 33–36. 
6. Shemchuk O.A. O nekotorykh osobennostyakh grazhdansko-pravovykh obyazannostei (On some features of civil law obligations), Zashchita chastnykh prav: problemy teorii i praktika, materialy mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. (g. Ir-kutsk, 20-21 apr. 2012 g.), otv. red. N.P. Aslanyan. Irkutsk, Izd-vo BGUEP, 2012, pp. 170–175.
Received: 13.05.2017
TO THE QUESTION OF A RISK NATURE
OF THE ANNUITY AGREEMENT
ATNABAEVA Yuliya Vilevna
Postgraduate of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
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In the conditions of the reforms of the late twentieth century and the transition to a market economy system there was an urgent need to produce additional institutions and norms of law, which would have been able to regulate new social relations. The annuity agreement could be accepted as a said institution. However, the annuity agreement is not widespread nowadays. The reasons for the lack of proper application of this contract are mainly determined by the existing problems of the institution of annuity itself. The aim of this scientific work is to reveal main characteristics of the annuity agreement, which determine it as a risky contract. The results of the study show that a risk nature of the annuity agreement is determined by the uncertainty of contractual relationship duration, when each party admits and accepts the probability of the fact that one of them will in fact receive less satisfaction than made by them. 
Key words: law of obligation, risk, annuity, contract of permanent annuity, contract of life annuity, risk nature.
References
1. Krasavchikov O.A. Sovetskoye grazhdanskoye pravo. V 2-kh tomakh. Tom 2 (Soviet civil law. In 2 volumes. Volume 2), Moscow, Vysshaya shkola, 1968. 
2. Sultonova T.I. Teoreticheskiye problemy aleatornykh dogovorov v grazhdanskom prave Tadzhikistana (Theoretical problems of aleatory contracts in civil law of Tajikistan), diss…. d-ra. yurid. nauk, Dushanbe, 2014. 
3. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Chast' vtoraya (Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Part two) ot 26 yanv. 1996 g. No. 14-FZ, prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 22 dek. 1995 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 26 yanv. 1996 g. vvod. Feder. zakonom Ros. Federatsii ot 26 yanv. 1996 g. No. 14-FZ, Ros. gaz. 1996. 10 fevr.; Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii, 1996, No. 5, st. 410. 
4. Rayner G. Derivativy i pravo (Derivatives and law), Translated from German by YU.M. Alekseyev, O.M. Ivanov, Moscow, Volters Kluver, 2005. 
5. Resheniye arbitrazhnogo suda Moskovskoy oblasti po delu № A41-12686/09 ot 24.10.2012 (Decision of the Arbitration Court of the Moscow Region in case No. A41-12686/09 from 24.10.2012), URL: http://asmo.arbitr.ru (accessed date: 15.01.2017). 
6. Grazhdanskoye pravo. V 3 t. T. 2, uchebnik (Civil law. In 3 vol. V. 2: textbook), pod red. Sergeyeva A.P., Moscow, Prospekt (TK Velbi), RG-Press, 2010. 
7. Grazhdanskoye pravo, uchebnik, v 4 v. (Civil law: Textbook: In 4 volumes), Pod red. Sukhanova Ye.A. 3-ye izd., pererab. i dop. T. 3: Obyazatel'stvennoye pravo, Moscow, Volters Kluver, 2006. 
8. Nedorezov V.S. Grazhdansko-pravovoye regulirovaniye rentnykh otnosheniy (Civil law regulation of rental relations), аvtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. Nauk, Moscow, 2009. 
9. Sitdikova L.B., Tokareva K.G. Aleatornyy kharakter dogovora renty (The aleatory character of the rent contract), Yurist, 2009, No. 10, pp. 30–34. 
10. Ioffe O.S. Obyazatel'stvennoye pravo (Obligatory law), Moscow, Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1975. 
11. Solomina N.G. K voprosu o nedostatkakh pravovoy konstruktsii dogovora renty (On the issue of the shortcomings of the legal design of the rent contract), Pravo i ekonomika, 2013, No. 2, pp. 17–22. 
12. Yargina Ye.A. Sravnitel'no-pravovoy analiz dogovora renty i dogovora arendy (Comparative legal analysis of the rent contract and the lease agreement), Notarius, 2003, No. 2, pp. 8–12.
13. Braginskiy M.I., Vitryanskiy V.V. Dogovornoye pravo. Kniga vtoraya: Dogovory o peredache imushchestva. 2-ye izd. (Contract law. Book two, Agreements on the transfer of property. 2 nd ed), Moscow, Statut, 2011.
Received: 10.02.2017
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AS A TOOL 
TO IMPLEMENT THE PRINCIPLE OF ACCESS TO JUSTICE
SEMENOVA Elena Yurievna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Procedure
 of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE 
"Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.
 E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Since January 1, 2017, it is possible to file documents electronically with courts of general jurisdiction. This provision was introduced by Federal Law No. 220-FZ of June 23, 2016 "On Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation Regarding the Application of Electronic Documents to the Activities of the Judiciary Bodies." These changes serve as a means of legal protection of citizens. The article is meant to analyze these innovations through the prism of the principle of access to justice.
Key words: principle of access to justice, electronic documents, courts of general jurisdiction.
References
1. Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Povolzhskogo okruga ot 27 okt. 2015 g. № F06-1811/2015 po delu № A49-277/2015 (1. Decree of the Arbitration Court of the Volga District on October 27. 2015 No. F06-1811 / 2015 in case No. A49-277 / 2015). Dokument ofitsial'no opublikovan ne byl. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
2. Postanovlenie Pyatogo arbitrazhnogo apellyatsionnogo suda ot 16 iyulya 2014 g. № 05AP-7019/ 2014 po delu № A51-6081/2014 (Decree of the Fifth Arbitration Appeal Court of July 16, 2014 No. 05AP-7019/2014 in case No. A51-6081 / 2014). Dokument ofitsial'no opublikovan ne byl. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
3. Afanas'ev S.F., Borisova V.F. Pravovoe regulirovanie elektronnogo obrashcheniya v sud po grazhdanskim delam: sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy (Legal regulation of electronic appeal to the court in civil cases: current status and prospects), Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2016, No. 1 (30), pp. 23–30. 
4. Gavrilov, O.A. Osnovy pravovoi informatiki, ucheb. posobie (Fundamentals of legal informatics: Teaching aid). M., In-t gos. i prava RAN, 1998. 
5. Litvinovich M. Ispol'zovanie novykh sotsial'nykh kommunikatsionnykh tekhnologii v rabote pravozashchitnykh organizatsii (The use of new social communication technologies in the work of human rights organizations), Tekhnologii raboty pravozashchitnykh organizatsii : prakticheskoe posobie [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://sutyajnik.ru/documents/ 4208.pdf (accessed date: 02.03.2017).
6. Ryzhkova A.A. Problemy realizatsii printsipa dostupnosti pravosudiya (Problems in the implementation of the principle of access to justice), Leningradskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2016, No. 2, pp. 233–241.
Received: 10.05.2017
CRIMINAL LAW DESCRIPTION 
OF LEGALIZATION OF ILLEGALLY OBTAINED MONEY RESOURCES
 OR OTHER PROPERTY
KRIVOV Andrey Valerievich
Degree-Seeking Student of the Department of Training of Personals of Higher Qualification of the FSBEI HE "Russian State University of Justice", Judge of Stolbtsovski District of the Minsk Region, Stolbtsy, Republic of Belarus,
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The paper reveals the issues of criminal law regulation of counteraction of legalization of money resources and property illegally obtained in the Russian Federation. Basic criminal law characteristics of this type of crime are investigated. The author determines basic legal and organizational problems, impedimental to effective countermeasures to legalize illegally obtained money resources and property.
Key words: money laundering, criminal law aspects of combating money laundering, problems of qualification.
References
1. Bankovsky A.L., Mihailov V.I., Troshkin E.Z. Protivodeistvie legalizatsii griaznih dohodov, pravovie i ogganizatsionie formi (Counteraction to legalization of dirty income, legal and organizational forms), Minsk, Tesei, 2001.
2. Ugolovni kodeks Rossiyskoi Federatsii, 13.06.1996, No. 63-FZ (The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, June 13, 1996, No. 63-FL), red. 17.04.2017, http://www.pravo.gov.ru (accessed date: 30.04.2017).
3. Federalni zakon 07.09. 2001 No. 11-FZ, O protivodeistvii legalizatsii (otmivaniu) dohodov, polutchennih prestupnim putem, i finansirovaniu terrorisma (c ismeneniami I dopolneniami) (Federal Law of August 7, 2001, No. 115-FL "On Countering the Legalization (Laundering) of Proceeds from Crime and Financing of Terrorism" (as amended and supplemented)), Sistema garant, http://base.garant.ru/ (accessed date: 30.04.2017).
4. Ugolovnoe pravo Rossiyskoi Federatsi, Obchaia i osobennii chasti, uchebnik (Criminal law of the Russian Federation. General and Special parts: Textbook), M., KONTRACT, INFRA-M, 2013.
5. Kommentariy k statie 174 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossiyskoi Federatsii (Commentary on Article 174 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), http://www.consultant.ru/document/, (accessed date: 30.04.2017).
6. Grazdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoi Federatsi (GK RF) 30.11.1994, No.51-FZ  (red. 28.03.2017 No.39-FZ) (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Civil Code) of November 30, 1994 No. 51-FL (as amended on 28.03.2017 N 39-FL)), http://www.consultant.ru/document/, (accessed date: 30.04.2017).
7. Sbornik mezdunarodno-pravovih documentov i natsionalnih normativnih pravovih aktov po voprosam operativn-rozisknoi deiatel'nosti (Collection of international legal documents and national regulatory legal acts on operational search activities), Minsk, OOO IPA Registr, 2001, pp. 174–185.
8. Directiva Sovieta Europeiskogo soobchestva 10.06.1991 o predotvrachtchenii ispolzovania finansovoi sistemi dlia otmivania deneg (The Directive of the Council of the European Community on 10.06.1991 on the Prevention of the Use of the Financial System for Money Laundering), http://docs.cntd.ru/document/, (accessed date: 30.04.2017).
9. Konventsia Soveta Europi ob otmivanii, viavlenii, iz'atii i konfiskatsii dohodov ot prestupnoi deiatel'nosti, priniatoi v Strasbusge 8.11.1990 (Convention of the Council of Europe on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime, adopted in Strasbourg 8.11.1990), http://eurasiangroup.org/ru/restricted/ strasburg_conv.pdf, (accessed date: 01.05.2017).
10. Venskaia konvetsia OON o nezakonnoi torgovle narkoticheskimi I psihotropnimi veschestvami 20.12.1988 (The Vienna UN Convention on the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 20.12.1988), http://base.garant.ru/, (accessed date: 01.05.2017).
11. Konvetsia OON protiv transnatsional'noi organizovannoi prestupnosti ot 15.11.2001 (The UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 15.11.2001), http://www.un.org/ru/documents/, (accessed date: 01.05.2017).
12. Federalniy zakon o nekommertcheskih ogranizatsiah 12.01.1996 7-FZ (red, 19.12.2016) (The federal law on non-commercial organizations 12.01.1996 7-FZ (as amended December 19, 2016)), http://www.consultant.ru/document/, (accessed date: 01.05.2017).
13. Zalinskiy A.E. O sootnochenii ugolovnogo i grazdanskogo prava v cfere economici (On the correlation of criminal and civil law in the sphere of economy), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1999, No. 12, pp. 14–18.
Received: 25.06.2017
DYNAMICS OF CORRUPTION-RELATED OFFENSES IN 2012-2015 ON THE BASIS OF THE OPERATING RESULTS OF PROSECUTION AGENCIES AND THE INVESTIGATIVE COMMITTEE
(PART 2
PUDAKOV Evgeniy Rustamovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the chair of Criminal Law, Procedure and Forensics of the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies (branch) of the AL and SR (Moscow), Head of the Institution FGI CC-13 of the FPS of Russia for the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. 
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The results of anti-corruption activity, receive a special urgency after the analysis of performance indicators of prosecution agencies and the Investigative Committee of RF, for them this area is a priority. Based on the fact that Russia's participation in the ratified UN Conventions against Corruption and the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption of the Council of Europe requires the creation of  not only necessary legal, but also organizational prerequisites, back in August 2006, the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation Yu.Ya. Chaika approved the anti-corruption strategy for prosecution agencies. According to it, prosecutors are focused not only on the control over the exercise of state and municipal service laws, but also on the detection of corruption, as well as their causes and conditions.
Key words: corruption, anti-corruption, General Prosecutor's Office, Investigative committee, latency of corruption, prosecutorial response.
References
1. Ofitsial'nyi sait General'noi prokuratury Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Official site of the General Procuracy of the Russian Federation) URL:http://genproc.gov.ru/ anticor// (date 06.01.2017).
Received: 14.01.2017
FEATURES OF QUALIFICATION OF THREAT OR VIOLENT ACTS DUE TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JUSTICE OR CONDUCT OF PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
SULEYMANOVA Inna Evgenievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Administrative Law Disciplines of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia.
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The paper updates the problems of qualification of threats or acts of violence in connection with the administration of justice or conduct of preliminary investigation. The author proposes to broaden the types of threats that are listed in the set in question. The author concludes that it is worth combining parts 1 and 2 of Article 296 of the Criminal Code of RF in order to protect equally victims of threats or acts of violence in connection with the administration of justice or conduct of preliminary investigation. The presented findings are based on the research of investigative and judicial practice materials and results of the survey of authorities administering justice or preliminary investigation.
Key words: threat, acts of violence, justice, preliminary investigation.
References
1. Svodnye statisticheskie svedeniya Sudebnogo departamenta Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii o sostoyanii sudimosti v Rossii za 2011–2015 gg (Summary statistical information of the Judicial Department of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation on the state of criminal record in Russia for 2011-2015).
2. Brilliantov A.V., Kosevich N.R. Nastol'naya kniga sud'i: prestupleniya protiv pravosudiya (Handbook of the judge: crimes against justice). M.: TK Velbi, Izd-vo Prospekt, 2008. 
3. Gorelik A.S., Lobanova L.V. Prestupleniya protiv pravosudiya (Crimes against justice). SPb.: Izdatel'stvo R. Asla-nova «Yuridicheskii tsentr Press», 2005.
4. Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Obshchaya i Osobennaya chasti : uchebnik (General and Special parts: textbook), pod. red. V.K. Duyunova. M. : RIOR : INFRA-M, 2015.
5. Bazarov R.A. Prestupnost' nesovershennoletnikh: kriminal'noe nasilie, mery protivodeistviya (Crime of minors: criminal violence, countermeasures). Ekaterinburg, 1995.
6. Kostrov G.K. Ugolovno-pravovoe znachenie ugrozy (Criminal law value of the threat), avtoref. dis…. kand. yurid. nauk. M., 1970; Borisov V.I., Kuts V.N. Prestupleniya protiv zhizni i zdorov'ya: voprosy kvalifikatsii (Crimes against life and health: questions of qualification). Khar'kov, 1995. 
7. Gaukhman L.D. Bor'ba s nasil'stvennymi posyagatel'stvami (Combating violent attacks). M., 1969.
8. Byulleten' Verkhovnogo Suda RF (Bulletin of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation). № 2. 2015.
9. Kassatsionnoe opredelenie Verkhovnogo Suda RF. Delo № 66-o05-78sp (The cassation determination of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. Case number 66-о05-78sp).
10. Abazaliev R.K. K sovershenstvovaniyu ugolovno-pravovoi bor'by s ugrozami ili nasil'stvennymi deistviyami v svyazi s osushchestvleniem pravosudiya ili proizvodstvom predvaritel'nogo rassledovaniya (To the improvement of  criminal law struggle against threats or violent actions in connection with the implementation of justice or conduct of preliminary investigation), Rossiiskaya yustitsiya. № 11. 2007.
Received: 10.05.2017
DEMAND FOR FORENSIC KNOWLEDGE BEYOND CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
SHAGIMURATOVA Zaliya Albertovna 
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
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In border areas of justice and in any sphere of public law enforcement practice, when certain procedures to identify administrative, civil or any other offenses may precede criminal proceedings while detecting some indicia of a crime, preventive  tactics can exist as the basis of forensic supporting of everything connected with professional law enforcement and the ability to establish some indicia of a crime (activities of the Federal Antimonopoly Service, control and accounts chambers, etc.). Forensic potential is not fully achieved in those areas of law enforcement that are difficult to rationalize on the basis of known scientific approaches at the level of, for example, preventing crime at the earliest stages of precriminal activities.
Key words: forensics, criminal procedure, criminal proceedings, crime, forensic tactics, offense, demand, evidence.
References
1. Polstovalov O.V. Pervonachal'naya priroda real'nosti ugolovnogo pravosudiya kak ona yest' (The original nature of the reality of criminal justice as it is), Pravovoye gosudarstvo : teoriya i praktika, 2016, No. 3 (45), pp. 123–130.
2. Ugolovno-processual'nyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii. ot 18 dek. 2001 g. № 174-F3. prinjat Gos. Dumoj Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federacii 22 nojab. 2001 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federacii Fedor. Sobr. Ros. Federacii 5 dek. 2001 g. vvod. Feder. zakonom Ros. Federacii ot 18 dek. 2001 g. (The Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation. From 18 Dec. 2001 No. 174-F3. Adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of RF on 22 Nov. 2001: approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of RF on December 5. 2001 year), Parlament, gaz. 2001. 22 dek.; Ros. gaz. 2001. 22 dek.; Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federacii. 2001. № 52, ch. 1, st. 4921. 
3. Volchetskaya T.S. Perspektivy i puti razvitiya sovremennoy kriminalistiki (Prospects and ways of development of modern forensics), Sovremennoye sostoyaniye i razvitiye kriminalistiki: sb. nauch. trudov, pod red. N.P. Yablokova i V.YU. Shepit'ko. Khar'kov: Apostil', 2012, pp. 5–15.
4. Zhizhina M.V. O vozmozhnosti i neobkhodimosti primeneniya kriminalisticheskikh znaniy i sredstv v tsivilisticheskom protsesse (On the possibility and necessity of using forensic knowledge and tools in civilized process), Sovremennaya kriminalistika: problemy, tendentsii, perspektivy: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya Zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki RF, Zasluzhennogo yurista RSFSR, doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, professora Nikolaya Pavlovicha Yablokova. Moskva, 22 dekabrya 2015, Red.-sost. M.A. Lushechkina. Moskva, MAKS Press, 2015, pp. 41–45.
5. Zhizhina M.V., Ishchenko Ye.P. Istoriya razvitiya i sovremennyye predstavleniya ob ob"yekte i predmete kriminalistiki (The history of development and modern ideas on the object and subject of forensic science), Biblioteka kriminalista, Nauchnyy zhurnal. Moskva, Yurlitinform, 2012, No. (4), pp. 14–26.
6. Ishchenko Ye.P. K voprosu o prirode i sisteme nauki kriminalistiki (To the question of the nature and system of forensic science), Kriminalist pervopechatnyy, 2013, No. 7, pp. 8–17.
7. Komissarov V.I. Nuzhny li kriminalistike dopolnitel'nyye vlivaniya? (Do we need additional injections for criminology?), Sovremennaya kriminalistika: problemy, tendentsii, imena (k 90-letiyu professora R.S. Belkina): Sb. mater. 53-kh kriminalisticheskikh chteniy: V 3-kh ch. Moskva, Akademiya upravleniya MVD Rossii, 2012, CH. 1, pp. 203–208.
8. O sudebnoy sisteme Rossiyskoy Federatsii: feder. konstitutsionnyy zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 31 dekabrya 1996, No.1-FKZ : prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 23 okt. 1996, odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 26 dekabrya 1996 (On the judicial system of the Russian Federation: Feder. Constitutional law of the Russian Federationof December 31, 1996 No. 1-FKZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of RF on October 23. 1996, approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of RF on December 26, 1996), Ros. gaz. 1997, No.3, 6 yanvarya.
9. Ladoshkin A.S. Prestupleniya, svyazannyye s dokazyvaniyem v grazhdanskom i arbitrazhnom sudoproizvodstve, kak ob"yekt kriminalisticheskogo issledovaniya (Crimes related to proving in civil and arbitration proceedings, as an object of forensic research), Sovremennaya kriminalistika: problemy, tendentsii, perspektivy: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya Zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki RF, Zasluzhennogo yurista RSFSR, doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, professora Nikolaya Pavlovicha Yablokova, Moskva, 22 dekabrya 2015, Red.-sost. M.A. Lushechkina. Moscow, MAKS Press, 2015, pp. 154–157.
10. Rossinskaya Ye.R. Kontseptsiya R.S. Belkina o predmete i prirode kriminalistiki s pozitsiy segodnyashnego dnya (The concept of R.S. Belkin on the subject and nature of forensics from the positions of the present day), Sovremennaya kriminalistika: problemy, tendentsii, imena (k 90-letiyu professora R.S. Belkina): Sb. mater. 53-kh kriminalisticheskikh chteniy : V 3-kh ch. Moskva, Akademiya upravleniya MVD Rossii, 2012, CH. 1, p. 71, pp. 69–75, yeye zhe Reviziya opredeleniya predmeta kriminalistiki : za i protiv (Revision of the definition of the subject of forensic science: for and against), Biblioteka kriminalista. Nauchnyy zhurnal, Moskva, Yurlitinform, 2012, No. 4 (5), pp. 328–335.
11. Ugolovnoye delo № 1-123/2011 po obvineniyu A.N. Cherepanova v sovershenii prestupleniya, predusmotrennogo ch. 2 st. 228 UK RF (Criminal case No. 1-123 / 2011 on charges of A.N. Cherepanov in committing of a crime under part 2 of Art. 228 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), Arkhiv Gusinoozerskogo gorodskogo suda Respubliki Buryatiya.
12. Shepit'ko V.YU. Kriminalistika v sisteme nauchnogo znaniya : zadachi i nekotoryye tendentsii v sovremennykh usloviyakh, (Criminalistics in the system of scientific knowledge: tasks and some trends in modern conditions), Biblioteka kriminalista, Nauchnyy zhurnal, Moskva, Yurlitinform, 2012, No. 3 (4), pp. 27–36.
13. Yablokov N.P. Nekotoryye vzglyady na kriminalistiku kak nauku i uchebnuyu distsiplinu XXI veka, (Some views on criminology as a science and educational discipline of the XXI century), Kriminalistika XX stolittya: materiali mizhnar. nauk.-prakt. konf., 25–26 listop. 2010, Kharkív: Pravo, 2010, pp. 68–73.
Received: 10.05.2017
FACTORS AND REASONS SUPPORTING CORRUPTION IN INTERNAL AFFAIRS BODIES
IGBAEVA Guzel Rimovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department 
of Civil Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE
“Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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SHAKIROVA Zulfia Rimovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), SeniorInstructor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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KHAFIZOV Engel Diniyarovich
Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In Russia, corruption is becoming systemic. Corruption is covering administration structures of the society, increasing dysfunction of government institutions. Corrupt practices are developing; the necessary socio-psychological background is created for forming and manifesting of new forms of corruption, their penetration in "security agencies", including internal affairs bodies. Corrupt paternalism is most pronounced in "security agencies" activities. The factors caused by specifics, goals, objectives and operating environment of internal affairs bodies support the forming of corruption acts and relations among law enforcement officers. The authors determine the reason of low implementation of anti-corruption measures, they cite examples of foreign experience in testing of institutional forms, methods and mechanisms for preventing, countering and combating corruption. The authors conclude that combating corruption and corruption prevention in internal affairs bodies is inextricably linked to the implementation of activities undertaken on social, institutional, organizational, and personal levels.
Key words: corruption, social phenomenon, opposition, internal affairs bodies, deformation of a personality, unlawful acts.
References
1. Bondarenko I.A. Korruptia: economicheski analys na regionalnom urovne (Corruption: economic analysis at the regional level). St.Petersburg, Petropolis, 2001. 
2. Kachkina T.B., Kachkin A. V. Korruptia I osnovniye strategii protivodeistvia (Corruption and basic strategies of response), uchebnoe posobie. Ulyanovsk, Pechatnyi dvor, 2010.
3. Kuznetsova O.A. Zarubeznyi opit borbi s Korruptziei: problem i effekivnost (The foreign experience of combating corruption: issues and efficiency), Bulletin of Tambov University. Humanities, 2014, No. 2, pp. 195–197.
4. Modnew I.S., Vasin E.S., Shinkarenko N.I., Shurygin P.A. Borba s korruptziei v policeiskih vedomstvah Europi i SSHA (Combating corruption in police departments of Europe and the United States), uchebnoe posobie. M., VNII MVD Rossii, 2005. 
5. Fadeev A.V. Antikorrupcionnoe zakonodatel'stvo Rossii i zarubezhnyh stran: kriminologicheskoe issledovanie (Anti-corruption legislation of Russia and foreign countries: criminological research), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid.  nauk, M., 2012.
Received: 20.09.2016
LEGAL FOUNDATIONS OF NATURE PROTECTION
VERSHILO Nikolai Dmitrievich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Land and Environmental Law, FSBEI HE "Russian State University of Justice", Moscow, Russia. 
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In modern general scientific ecological-legal literature, as well as in the environmental legislation of the Russian Federation, various definitions of the concept of nature protection are given. However, in different sources this concept is treated differently. In some works it is disclosed through such a legal category as "rational use of natural resources", in other works, its understanding is taken as the activity of the relevant subjects of environmental public relations aimed at preserving and restoring favorable environmental  conditions. In some cases, the concepts of "protection of nature" and "environmental protection" are used as equivalent concepts.
Key words: nature, nature protection, natural environment, environmental protection, interaction between society and nature, environmental law.
References
1. Petrov V.V. Ekologicheskoe pravo Rossii (Ecological Law of Russia). M., 1995.
2. Gizzatulin R.Kh. Ekologicheskaya funktsiya gosudarstva: teoriya i praktika realizatsii. monografiya (Ecological function of the state: theory and practice of implementation: monograph), pod red. d-ra yurid. nauk, prof., zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki RF M.M. Brinchuka. M. Yurlitinform, 2014. 
3. Vershilo N.D. Pravovoe regulirovanie finansirovaniya meropriyatii po okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy (Legal regulation of financing activities for environmental protection). Saratov. SGAP. 2000. 
4. Yuridicheskii entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (The legal encyclopaedic dictionary), pod obshch red. V.E. Krutskikh. M. INFRA-M. 2000.
5. Ozhegov S.I., Shvedova N.Yu. Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo yazyka (Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language). M. Azbukovnik. 1999.
6. Reimers N.F. Okhrana prirody i okruzhayushchei sredy cheloveka. slovar'-spravochnik (Protection of nature and environment of man: glossary). M. Prosveshchenie, 1992. 
7. Bogolyubov S.A. Ekologicheskoe pravo Rossii. Uchebnik (Ecological law of Russia: textbook). M. Norma-Infa, 1998. 
8. Problemy pravovoi okhrany okruzhayushchei sredy v SSSR (Problems of legal protection of the environment in the USSR), pod red. dots. N.T. Osipova. L. Izd. LGU. 1979. 
9. Makarevich N.S. Sotsialisticheskoe gosudarstvo i okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy (Socialist state and environmental protection). Saratov. 1982. 
10. Prirodoresursnoe pravo i pravovaya okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy. Uchebnik (Environmental law and legal protection of the environment: Textbook), pod red. V.V. Pet-rova. M. Yurid lit. 1988. 
11. Brinchuk M.M. Ekologicheskoe pravo (pravo okruzhayushchei sredy) (Ecological law (environmental law)). Uchebnik dlya vysshikh yuridicheskikh uchebnykh zavedenii. M. Yurist". 1998.
12. SZ RF (Code of laws of RF). 2002. No. 2. St. 133.
13. Golichenkov A.K. Okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy, obespechenie ekologicheskoi bezopasnosti, obes-pechenie ratsional'nogo ispol'zovaniya prirodnykh resursov: terminy, soderzhanie, sootnoshenie (Protection of the environment, ensuring environmental safety, ensuring the rational use of natural resources: terms, content, correlation), Ekologicheskoe pravo Rossii, sbornik materialov nauchno-prakticheskikh konferentsii. Yubileinyi vypusk. 1995–2004 gg. V 3 t. T. 1, sost. A.K. Golichenkov, I.A. Ignat'eva, A.O. Minyaev, pod red. A.K. Golichenkova. M. TISSO. 2004.
14. Kazannik A.I. Narodnaya okhrana prirody Sibiri (Istoriya. Sostoyanie. Perspektivy) (People's nature protection of Siberia (History, State, Prospects)). Omsk. GUIPP «Omskii dom pechati», 1999.
15. Ignat'eva I.A. Ekologicheskoe zakonodatel'stvo Rossii i problemy ego razvitiya (Ecological legislation of Russia and the problems of its development). M. Izd-vo MGU. 2001. 
16. Dubovik O.L., Kremer L., Lyubbe-Vol'f G. Ekologicheskoe pravo. Uchebnik (Ecological law: textbook), otv. red. O.L. Dubovik. M. Izd-vo Eksmo, 2005. 
17. Vershilo N.D. Ekologo-pravovye osnovy ustoichivogo razvitiya (Ecological and legal basis for sustainable development), pod red. M.M. Brinchuka. M. Formula prava, 2008.
18. Tsaregorodtsev G. I. Sotsial'no-gigienicheskie problemy nauchno-tekhnicheskogo progressa (Socio-hygienic problems of scientific and technical progress), Dialektika v naukakh o prirode i cheloveke. T. 4. M., 1983.
Received: 10.05.2017
ON SOME PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
YUSUPOVA Zilya Anasovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
MUKHAMETGAREEVA Natalia Mikhailovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. 
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The foundations of international environmental law were formed in the early 20th century, and currently, there are many significant international norms concerning various aspects of environmental protection. In the article, the authors consider some problems of the development of international environmental law at the present stage; possible ways of their solution are offered.
Key words: international environmental law, environmental protection, global environmental problems, covenants.
Библиографические ссылки. References
1. Weiss, Edith Brown “New Directions in International Environmental Law”, United Nations Congress on Public International Law, New York, 1995, reproduced in Donna Craig, Nicolas Robinson and Koh Kheng-Lian, Capacity Building for Environmental Law in the Asian and Pacific Region (Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2002), pp. 10– 11.
2. Rosenau, James “Governance in a New Global Order”, in David Held and Anthony McGrew (eds), The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate (Cambridge: Cambridge Polity Press, 2003), pp. 223–235. 
3. Charnovitz, Steve “A World Environmental Organization”, Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 27, no. 2 (2002), pp. 323–362.
Received: 01.06.2017
TRAITS OF THE HISTORY OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEDERATED STATE IN RUSSIA
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In connection with the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the article reveals the nature and essence of a federated state in general and the features of the formation and development of the Russian Federation in particular. Special attention is paid to the organic connection of a federated state with a democratic and rule-of-law state. Some problems are posed, caused by the centenary practice of federal construction in Russia, and ways are proposed for resolving them in modern conditions. It is emphasized that the main responsibility of both a federated and a unitary state is to ensure and protect natural human rights and freedoms. It is noted that in today's Russia there are still unsolved problems in the field of protecting human rights and freedoms. For more successful solution of problems in the sphere of protection of human rights and freedoms, the problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state are of a paramount importance.
Key words: federated state, Russian statehood, correlation of federated and rule-of-law state, main constitutional duty of a modern state, federated state and protection of human rights and freedoms.
References
3. Rayanov F.M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (The Federation is not an end in itself), Vlast', 1996, № 3. 
4. Rayanov F.M. Razvitie sovremennykh predstavlenii o sushchnosti federativnogo gosudarstvo (Development of Modern Ideas on the Essence of a Federal State), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 1999, № 1.
5. Rayanov F.M. Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan kak sub"ekta Rossiiskoi Federatsii (System of legislation of the Republic of Bashkortostan as a subject of the Russian Federation), Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan: stanovlenie i dal'neishee razvitie, Materialy respublikanskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii 27 fevralya 1996 g., g. Ufa. Akademiya nauk Respubliki Bashkortostan. Ufa, 1996.
6. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz (State-legal "diseases": historical diagnosis). Ufa, NIIPP, 2005. 
7. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of State and Law). Ufa, Izdanie Bashkirsk. un-ta, 1998.
Received: 10.05.2017
PROBLEMS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION 
OF THE CONSTITUTIONS AND STATUTES 
OF THE CONSTITUENT ENTITIES 
OF FEDERATED STATES
(PROCEEDINGS OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN CONFERENCE)
MURATSHIN Flarid Rashitovich
Doctor of Law, Judge-Secretary of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa. Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
ABBAZOVA Guzyal Ramilievna
Judge Assistant of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa. Russia. 
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Received: 15.05.2017
A STRONG STATE AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF SOCIAL PROGRESS
Review of the monograth by A.D. Kerimov and I.N. Kuksin. – Moscow, Norma, 2017. – 96 p. 
AZNAGULOVA Guzel Mukhametovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Principal Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Key words: jurisprudence, philosophy of law, political and legal thought, society, state, social interaction, powerful state, welfare state, state interest.
References
1. Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofiya istorii (Philosophy of History). Sochineniya. T.VIII., per. A.M. Vodena, pod red. i s predis. F.A. Gorokhova. M., Gos. sots.-ekonom. izd., 1935.
2. Platon. Gosudarstvo, ili O spravedlivosti (State, or On Justice). Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. M., Izdatel'stvo Al'-fa kniga, 2013.
3. Vernadskii V.I. Filosofskie mysli naturalista (Philosophical thoughts of the naturalist). 2 izd-e. M., Akademicheskii proekt, 2014.
4. Lipset Martin. Politicheskii chelovek: sotsial'nye osnovaniya politiki (Political man: social foundations of politics), per. s angl. E.G. Gendelya, V.P. Gaidamaka, A.V. Mateshuk. M., Mysl', 2016.
5. Fikhte I.G. Rechi k nemetskoi natsii (Speeches to the German Nation), per. s nem. A.A. Ivanenko. SPb., Nauka, 2009.
Received: 10.05.2017
THE RIGHT OF NATIONS TO SELF-DETERMINATION DOES NOT LOSE
ITS ACTUALITY
Review of the monograph by A.Kh. Sultanov "The Right of Nations to Self-Determination: Theory and Practice": monograph / A.Kh. Sultanov. – Ufa: Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2016. – 124 p. 
ISBN 978-5-7247-0897-5
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE «Bashkir State University», Ufa, Russia. 
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The monographic study of A.Kh. Sultanov "The right of Nations to Self-Determination: Theory and Practice" is devoted to the study of one of many controversial and, at the same time, topical theoretical and applied problems of theory and history of state and legal development related to the realization of the right of nations to self-determination. This book is the result of many years of work by A.Kh. Sultanov over the problems of history and theory of state and law. The author of the study found his own original approach to studying the process of implementing the slogan of the right of nations to self-determination from the very beginning of its appearance to the late 20th century's that was dramatic for our country. This slogan, appearing at the beginning of the twentieth century, attracted not only those who were interested in the theory of state building, but also attracted a huge mass of people. The question of the right of nations to self-determination does not lose its relevance nowadays.
Key words: right of nations to self-determination, state, problems of state and legal development, modern federal structure of Russia
Received: 20.05.2017
 
 

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