№ 1 (47) 2017

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

№ 1 (47) 2017

№ 1 (47) 2017
Inside

  • To the Essence of Law by Means of a New Approach
  • The Idea of Sovereignty in the Concepts of the XIX Century 
  • "Strong State" - in Court Decisions 
  • To the 100th Anniversary of the Beginning of Federal Construction in Russia

Feature

To New Frontiers of Theory of State and Law

Rayanov F.M.
Modern General Theoretical Basis for the Further Development of Russian Agrarian Law 
Zakhartsev S.I.
Salnikov V.P.
Thinking of the Essence of Law: Comprehended Approach 
Karasev A.T.
Savoskin A.V.
Representative (Legislative) Authority: Issues of Concept and Content
Kuksin I.N.
Novopavlovskaya E.E.
Some Postulates of the “Strong State” in Judgments of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
Enikeev R.N.
Value Orientations of the Russian Statehood: History and Contemporaneity
Klimenko O.A.
The Idea of Sovereignty in Philosophical and Legal, Political and Legal Concepts of the XIX Century
Kozatskaya V.E.
Tolchenkin D.A.
Essential Globalization Processes in Law, As a Form of Objectification of Legal Freedom
Kolosov I.V.
On the Etymology of the Concept “Utilitarianism”
Sagindykov A.N.
Manifests as Legislative Acts of the XVII–XIX Centuries in the System of Russian Law: Concept and Multi-Predicates in "Form of Law"
Nazarova N.A.
Relevant Roles of the Social Contract As a Theory of Contemporary State and Legal Systems
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Gilmullin A.R.
On Legal Doctrine in the Executive Branch of Government
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL
AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Vilacheva M.N.
Savoskin A.V.
Features of Implementing the Guarantees to Freedom of Literary, Artistic, Scientific, Technical and Other Kinds of Creativity
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Pudakov E.R.
Dynamics of Corruption-Related Crimes in 2012-2015.  Analysis of Statistical Information of Subdivisions of the MIA of Russia (Part 1)
Fayzullina A.A.
Determination and Analysis of Negative Facts in the Course of Investigation of Arson of Property, Concealed by Framing-Up
Krivov A.V.
Criminal Aspects of Countermeasures to Combat Legalization (“Laundering”) of Illegally Obtained Money and Other Property in the Context of Provision of National and International Security
Galyautdinov R.F.
Issues of Improving the Information Security of the Internal Affairs Agencies of Russia in Modern Conditions
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Omelin V.N.
Gabzalilov V.F.
To the Issue of Legislative Regulation of Carrying out of Operational Search Measures «Premises Survey»
Voronin S.E.
Abramova A.A.
Situational Modeling in the Investigation of Crimes Related To Terrorism Financing
Polstovalov O.V.
Face-to-Face Interrogation: Non-Transparent Perspectives, Ineffective Tactics and Doubtful Advantage
Exarkhopulo A.A.
The Lawyer’s Analysis of Materials Related to Commissioning of Expert Reviews
Zaynullin R.I.
Some Issues of Performance of Summary Inquiry
Latypov V.S.
Modern Problems of Forensic Expert Activities in Russia
Noskov O.S.
Psychological Characteristics of the Juvenile Offender
Sabanov A.Y.
Explosive Ordnance As an Element of Forensic Category
Khaliullina A.F.
Forensic Characteristics of Sexual Violence Committed Against Juveniles and Minors
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW
Ayvazyan V.N.
The Principles of Constitutionalism in the Economic System
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY. 
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Timonin A.N.
On Ideological and Theoretical Grounds of Early British Colonization of North America
Sultanov A.K.
Is the Media Able to Determine the Future of the Nation? The Fate of One Political Campaign in the UK
TO THE 100 ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN 
Gazizova L.M.
The Republic of Bashkortostan and the Start of Construction of a Federal State in Russia
TO THE AUTHORS

MODERN GENERAL THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN AGRARIAN LAW 
RAYANOV Fanis Mansurovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
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Principles of society state legal development in modern conditions necessitate the further scientific development of theoretical foundations of agrarian law in the post-Soviet Russian Federation. It is due to the fact that the general theoretical part of agrarian law of the Russian Federation is still based on the conclusions drawn in the Soviet times. In such event, the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993 is used mainly formally, without careful thought of those provisions that are new and relevant to modern achievements of the world state legal science. In the article, modern general theoretical provisions are drawn and in the author’s opinion, today's agricultural law of the Russian Federation in its further development must be based on these provisions. In particular, agrarian law of modern Russia should be based on historically formed social science approach to the explanation of human development. Agrarian law of modern Russia, more deeply should be based on Articles 1, 2, 3 and, particularly, on the 18th Article of the current Constitution of our country.
Key words: agrarian law, agricultural law, legal science, agrarian and legal, Constitution, civil society.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Predmet i sistema sel'skokhozyaystvennogo prava: uchebnoye posobiye (Subject and system of agricultural law: a tutorial). Ufa. Izd. Bashkirsk. un-ta, 1980.
2. Rayanov F.M. Uchet spetsifiki sel'skogo khozyaystva v pravovom regulirovanii agrarnykh otnosheniy (Accounting for specifics of agriculture in legal regulation of agrarian relations), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1982, No. 4.
3. Rayanov F.M. Osnovy sel'skokhozyaystvennogo prava. Uchebnoye posobiye (Basics of agricultural law). Ufa, izdaniye Bashkirskogo universiteta, 1984.
4. Rayanov F.M. Razvitiye kontseptsii pravovogo regulirovaniya agrarnykh otnosheniy  (Development of the concept of legal regulation of agrarian relations), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1985, No. 4.
5. Agrarnoye pravo: uchebnik (Agrarian Law: Textbook), pod red. G.Ye. Bystrova, M.I. Kozyrya. M. Yurid.lit.,1996.
6. Bogolyubov S.A., Brinchuk M.M., Vedysheva N.O. Agrarnoye pravo. Uchebnik (Agrarian Law. Textbook), Pod red. M.I. Palladinoy, N.G., Zhavoronkovoy. M.: Izdatel'stvo «Prospekt», 2011.
8. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyy analiz i novyye vyvody (Philosophy of Law: discourse analysis and new findings), M. Yurlitinform, 2017. 
9. Rayanov M.F. Ocherki o sel'skokhozyaystvennom prave SSHA (Essays on agricultural law of the US), Pravovyye problemy okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy, agrarnogo i zemel'nogo prava, Mezhvuz. sb. nauch. tr.Yekaterinburg:Izd-voUrGYUA,1997.
10. Marchenko M.N. Umerennyy pozitivizm i verkhovenstvo prava v usloviyakh pravovogo gosudarstva  (Moderate positivism and the rule-of-law under the rule-of-law state), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1912, No. 4.
11. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoye obshchestvo i pravovoye gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i soot-nosheniya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: the problem of understanding and correlations). M. Yurlitinform, 2015.
Received: 20.01.2017
THINKING OF THE ESSENCE OF LAW: COMPREHENDED APPROACH 
ZAKHARTSEV Sergey Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy, Moscow, Russia.
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SALNIKOV Victor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the “Legal Science: History and Modernity” Journal, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Education of the Russian Federation. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
Though, there have long been debates on the concept of "law", the essence of law, discussions on this issue continue. Moreover, every period brings its approaches in deciding the question of what is law and how to cognize it, new theories of knowledge of law, various views to understanding of law appear. Considering currently available theories of knowledge of law and scientific approaches to understanding of law, the authors conclude that each of these theories considers only one aspect of law, but it does not evaluate law comprehensively as a complex and controversial social phenomenon. Based on the above the authors propose and formulate a new theory of knowledge of law, which they call "comprehended" (all-encompassing) theory.
Key words: philosophy, philosophy of law, law, theory of state and law.
References
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4. Galiev F.Kh. Vozdeistvie prava na obshchestvennye otnosheniya i sinkretizm pravovoi kul'tury (The impact of law to public relations and syncretism of legal culture), Vestnik Bashkirskogo un-ta. 2013. Tom 18. No. 4. Pp. 1352–1356.
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7. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm pravovoi kul'tury sovremennoi Rossii: teoretiko-metodologicheskoe i istori-ko-prikladnoe issledovanie (Syncretism of legal culture of modern Russia: theoretical and methodological, historical and applied research), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. M. Rossiiskaya akademiya narod-nogo khozyaistva i gosudarstvennoi sluzhby pri Prezidente Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2014.
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17. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost' v evropeiskikh pravovykh diskussiyakh pervoi treti ХХ veka (Law and Justice in European legal discussions of the first third of the twentieth century). Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 7.
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32. Pokrovskii I.F., Guk A.I. Kogda filosofiya i pravo snova vmeste. Retsenziya na monografiyu S.I. Zakhartseva «Nekotorye problemy teorii i filosofii prava» / pod red. V.P. Sal'nikova (When philosophy and law together again. Review of the monograph of S.I. Zakhartsev "Some problems of theory and philosophy of law" / ed. V.P. Salnikov). M.: Norma, 2014. – 208 s. Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 7. Pp. 184–190.
33. Pokrovskii I.F., Ismagilov R.F., Guk A.I. Deistvitel'no, filosofiya i pravo snova vmeste v issledovaniyakh sovremennykh nauchnykh myslitelei. Nekotorye idei po povodu retsenzii D.A. Kerimova i monografii S.I. Zakhartseva i V.P. Sal'nikova «Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka» (Indeed,  philosophy and law together again in studies of modern scientific thinkers. Some ideas on the review of D.A. Kerimov and monograph of S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov "Philosophy. Philosophy of Law. Jurisprudence "). M.: Yurlitinform, 2015. – 264 s. Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2015. No. 9. Pp. 196–200.
34. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of Law: discourse analysis and new findings). M. Yurlitinform, 2017.
35. Rayanov F.M. Fundamental'nye osnovy sovremennoi filosofii prava (The fundamentals of modern philosophy of law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2016. No. 8.
36. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvi-tel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and the Russian state-legal reality), Pravo i politika. 2004. No. 12 (60). Pp. 5–10.
37. Rayanov F.M. Yuridicheskoe pravo: vremya razbirat'sya po sushchestvu (Juridical Law: the time to understand essentially). Ufa. Izdanie BashGU, 2001.
38. Rayanov F.M. Pravovaya organizatsiya obshchestvennoi zhizni: teoriya i praktika (Legal organiza-tion of social life: Theory and Practice), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2004. No. 12. Pp. 5–9. 
39. Rozhkova A.K. Pravovaya real'nost' i pravovoi ideal: tochki soprikosnoveniya (Legal reality and legal ideal: contact points), Izvestiya IGEA. 2010. No. 6. Pp. 164–168.
40. Romashov R.A., Vetyutnev Yu.Yu., Tonkov E.N. Pravo – yazyk i masshtab svobody, monografiya (Law is a language in the scope of freedom, monograph). SPb. Aleteiya, 2015. (Tolkovanie istochnikov prava).
41. Rokhlin V.I., Zakhartsev S.I., Mironov M.A., Stukanov A.P. Institut reabilitatsii v rossiiskom za-konodatel'stve (Rehabilitation Institute in the Russian legislation), pod obshch. red. V.I. Rokhlina. SPb., 2007.
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45. Chashin A.N. Sovremennye pravovye ucheniya Rossii (Modern Russian legal doctrines), pod red. T.N. Rad'ko. M., 2014. 
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48. Ekimov A.I. Spravedlivost' i sotsialisticheskoe pravo (Justice and socialist law). L. LGU, 1980.
Received: 20.01.2017
REPRESENTATIVE (LEGISLATIVE) AUTHORITY: ISSUES OF CONCEPT AND CONTENT
KARASEV Anatoly Tikhanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Constitutional Law of the Ural State Law University. E-mail: a.t. karasev@ mail.ru.
SAVOSKIN Alexander Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Advisor to the Deputy Chairman of the Charter Court of the Sverdlovsk region.
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The article analyzes the terms «representative» and «legislative» authority related to the theory of separation of powers. The authors conclude that there is a close mutual connection, but these terms cannot be interchanged. The article reveals a representative nature of legislature and views the main properties, which allow clarifying its concept. As characteristics of representative authority are analyzed the following: electivity and representation of people’s interests; collegiality in composition and order of development and decision-making; special nature of relations between people's representatives and voters. As special characteristics of legislative authority are defined three of its functions: legislative, controlling and financial. The definition of representative (legislative) authority is made as combination of legislative, supervisory, financial and other powers delegated by the people or its part to their elected representatives, united in a special collegiate institution (Parliament) on a strictly fixed period.
Key words: principle of separation of powers, branch of the government, representative authority, legislative authority, electivity, collective activity.
References
1. Gorobec V.D. Doktrina razdelenija vlastej i prava cheloveka (The doctrine of separation of powers and human rights), Zhurnal rossijskogo prava, 1998, No. 4, pp. 153–167.
2. Montesk'e Sh.-L. Izbrannye proizvedenija (Selected works), M., 1955.
3. Lokk Dzh. Sochinenija (Writings), V 3 t., T. 1, M., 1988.
4. UsanovV.E. Razdelenie vlastej kak osnova konstitucionnogo stroja i ego rol' v formirovanii parlamentarizma v sovremennoj Rossii (Separation of powers as the basis of the constitutional system and its role in the formation of parliamentary in modern Russia), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2005, No. 12, pp. 13–18.
5. ChirkinV.E. Netipichnye formy pravlenija v sovremennom gosudarstve (Atypical forms of govern-ment in the modern state), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1994, No. 1, pp. 18- 22.
6. Umerenkov N.E. Delegirovannoe zakonodatel'stvo: zarubezhnyj i rossijskij opyt (Delegated legislation: Russian and foreign experience), Konstitucionnoe i municipal'noe pravo, 2001, No. 2, pp. 2–9.
7. Russo Zh.-Zh. Traktaty (Treatises), M., 1969.
8. Kotelevskaja I.V. Sovremennyj parlament (Modern parliament), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1997, No. 3, pp. 8-12.
9. Lazarevskij N.I. Narodnoe predstavitel'stvo i ego mesto v sisteme gosudarstvennyh ustanovlenij (Na-tional representation and its place in the system of public service), Konstitucionnoe gosudarstvo, Sb. Statej, SPb., 1905, pp. 180–194.
10. Kirichenko P.N. Predstavitel'nyj harakter Soveta Federacii Federal'nogo Sobranija (The representative character of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly),dis. …kand.jurid. nauk. M., 2005.
Received: 15.01.2017
SOME POSTULATES OF THE “STRONG STATE” IN JUDGMENTS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
KUKSIN Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law Disciplines of the Law Institute of the SAEI HE «Moscow City Pedagogical
University» Moscow, Russia.
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NOVOPAVLOVSKAYA Elena Evgenyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of State Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE «Belgorod Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after I.D. Putilin», Belgorod, Russia. 
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Lately, the theme, connected with the problems of establishment of the “strong state”, preconditions of such a state with its basic characteristics, has become topical.  The strong state does not necessarily mean its autocracy or totalitarianism as some authors write. The top-priority function of modern Russia as a strong democratic, rule-of-law state lies in establishment of developed civil society. The strong state is, in the first place, the state that is able to control political and economic processes, and grounds its activity on definite basic principles (legality and legitimacy of power, justice, etc.).  The authors made an attempt to view certain postulates of the strong state through the prism of judgments of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. 
Key words: strong state, civil society, political system, constitutional proceedings, legal uncertainty.
References
1. Anokhin P.V. Kontseptsiya «sil'nogo gosudarstva»: Istoricheskiy opyt i problemy voploshcheniya v usloviyakh sovremennoy Rossii (The concept of a «strong state»: Historical experience and problems of realization in modern Russia), Dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk, SPb., 2002.
2. Bezkorovaynaya Yu.E. Krizis legal'nosti i legitimnosti gosudarstvennoy vlasti v kontekste formirovaniya «sil'nogo» gosudarstva (The crisis of legality and legitimacy of the government in the context of the formation of a «strong state»), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2011, No. 7, pp. 101–103. 
3. Bolgova V.V., Zherebtsova E.E. Formy i sredstva zhilishchnoy politiki v resheniyakh Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Forms and means of housing policy in the decisions of the Constitutional Court), Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie. Voprosy teorii i praktiki, Tambov: Gramota, 2014, No. 5 (43), Chast' II, pp. 24–29.
4. Bomba ko dnyu rozhdeniya vozhdya (The bomb to the leader’s birthday), URL: http:// www.gazeta.ru/army/2016/01/06/8010749.shtml (accessed date: 22.09.2016).
5. Gryaznova E.V. «Khrupkoe» gosudarstvo: kriterii opredeleniya («Fragile» state: definition criteria), Politika i obshchestvo, 2013, No. 1 (97), pp. 57–65.
6. Doronina N.G., Semilyutina N.G. Informatsionnye tekhnologii i ekonomicheskie otnosheniya: problemy mezhdunarodno-dogovornoy unifikatsii prava v EAES (Information technology and economic relations: problems of international treaty unification of law in the EAEC), Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2015, No. 11, pp. 69–81.
7. Zherebtsova E.E. Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie prava cheloveka i grazhdanina v postanovleniyakh Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Socio-economic human and civil rights in the decisions of the Constitutional Court), Pravo i politika, 2009, No. 9, pp. 1912–1919.
8. Zatonskiy V.A. Effektivnaya gosudarstvennost' (Efficient statehood), Pod red. A.V. Mal'ko, M. Yurist, 2006. 
9. Zatonskiy V.A. Effektivnaya gosudarstvennost' v lichnostno-pravovom izmerenii: Obshcheteoreticheskoe issledovanie (Efficient statehood in legal personal dimension: Theoretical study), Dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk, Saratov, 2008.
10. Il'in I.A. O sil'noy vlasti (On strong power), Sobranie sochineniy: v 10 t., Sost., vstup. st. i comment, Yu.T. Lisitsy, T. 2, Kn. 1, M. Russkaya kniga, 1993.
11. Kerimov A.D., Kuksin I.N. Kriterii sily gosudarstva (Criteria for state powers), Pravo i obrazovanie, 2016, No. 6, pp. 4–16.
12. Kto pravit bal na Ukraine? (Who reigns in Ukraine?), URL: http://www.bbc.com/russian/international/ 2014/04/140424_ugc_letters_lavrov (accessed date: 23.09.2016).
13. Kuksin I.N., Michulis E.F. Formirovanie ugolovno-pravovoy sistemy Soyuznogo gosudarstva Rossii i Belorussii (Formation of the criminal justice system of the Union State of Russia and Belarus), Vestnik Komi respublikanskoy akademii gosudarstvennoy sluzhby i upravleniya. Seriya: Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2015, No. 19, pp. 35–41.
14. Mal'tsev G.V. Sotsial'nye osnovaniya prava (Social grounds of law), M. Norma, 2007.
15. Marchenko M.N. Gosudarstvo i pravo v usloviyakh globalizatsii (State and law in the context of globalization), M. Prospekt, 2008.
16. Miroshnichenko O.I. Osnovaniya legitimnosti gosudarstvennoy vlasti v sovremennoy Rossii (Grounds for the legitimacy of state power in modern Russia), Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn', 2014, No. 1, pp. 57–61. 
17. Mey otvetila na vopros o gotovnosti ispol'zovat' yadernoe oruzhie protiv RF (Mei answered the question about the readiness to use nuclear weapons against Russia), URL: https://ria.ru/world/20160728/ 1473091742.html (accessed date: 22.09.2016).
18. Novaya filosofskaya entsiklopediya (The New Encyclopedia of Philosophy): V 4 t., T. III, In-t filosofii RAN, Nats. obshch.-nauch, Fond, M. Mysl', 2001.
19. Novopavlovskaya E.E. Zashchita osnovnykh prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v Rossiyskoy Federatsii posredstvom konstitutsionnogo sudoproizvodstva (The protection of fundamental rights and freedoms of man and citizen in the Russian Federation by means of constitutional proceedings): monografiya, Belgorod: Bel YuI MVD Rossii im. I.D. Putilina, 2015.
20. Ponkin I.V. Teoriya gosudarstvennogo upravleniya: gosudarstvo-dispotiya (The theory of government: Despotic state), Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2015, No. 4, pp. 11–14. 
21. Poslanie Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii Federal'nomu Sobraniyu, 5 noyabrya 2008 goda (The address of the President of the Russian President to the Federal Assembly), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/ 902126579 (accessed date: 28.09.2016).
22. Rayanov F.M. Problemy teorii praktiki pravovogo gosudarstvo (Problems of theory and practice of the rule-of-law state). Ufa, «Gilem», 2013.
23. Rayanov F.M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (Federation is not a goal in itself) Vlast'. 1996. № 3.
24. Statistika po resheniyam Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii, Ofitsial'nyy sayt Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Statistics on the decisions of the Constitutional Court of RF), URL: http://www.ksrf.ru/ru (accessed date: 30.09.2016).
25. Timofeev M.S. Idei I.A. Il'ina o sil'nom gosudarstve (Ideas of I.A. Ilyin on a strong state), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2013, No. 22, pp. 28–31.
26. Tikhomirov Yu.A. Optimizatsiya pravovykh regulyatorov v sotsial'noy sfere, Pravo i sotsial'noe razvitie: novaya gumanisticheskaya ierarkhiya tsennostey (Optimization of legal controls in the social sphere, Law and social development: the new humanistic value hierarchy): monografiya, M.M. Anosova, A.A. Ayurova, Yu.N. Belyaeva i dr.; otv. red. A.V. Gabov, N.V. Putilo, M. IZiSP, INFRA-M, 2015.
27. Fukuyama F. Sil'noe gosudarstvo, Upravlenie i mirovoy poryadok v XXI veke (perevod s angl. yaz.) (Strong state. Management and world order in the XXI century), M. ACT: KhRANITEL, 2006.
Received: 15.01.2017
VALUE ORIENTATIONS
OF THE RUSSIAN STATEHOOD:
HISTORY AND CONTEMPORANEITY
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.
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The author of the article thinks through the value orientations that underpin the Russian statehood in the past and at the relevant time. The author gives reasons for new fundamental ways of rethinking value bases of the organization of social activity of Russians in the modern Russian Federation. The author issues from the desire to see in the modern Russian Federation the legal statehood that is based on the current Constitution. The author views such institutions directly coming out of the current Constitution as the rule-of-law state, federal state, the provision that the person and his\her rights and freedoms are the supreme value. These institutions and values, not shifting to the theory of the special path of Russia's development, at the same time, they are among the human values.
Keywords: value-based approach, peculiarities of the Russian statehood, theory of the special path of Russia’s development, human values; rule-of-law state, federal state, human rights and freedoms - the supreme value.
References
1. Proekt Rossiya (The project Russia). M. Eksmo, 2007.
2. Nezavisimaya gazeta (Independent newspaper), 1998, 31 dekabrya.
3. Istoricheskaya sud'ba Rossii. K 1150-letiyu obrazovaniya gosudarstvennosti Rossii (862–2012 gg.) (The historical fate of Russia. To the 1150th anniversary of the formation of the statehood of Russia (862-2012)). Ekaterinburg, Izd-vo Ural. gos. ekon. un-ta, 2012.
4. Rayanov F.M. Gardanov A.Sh. Razmyshleniya o gosudarstve (Reflections on the state). Ufa, 1994. 
5. Rayanov F.M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (The federation is not a goal in itself), Vlast'. 1996. No. 3. 
6. Rayanov F.M. Trudnyi put' k pravovomu gosudarstvu (A difficult path to the rule-of-law state). Ufa, Izdatel'stvo «Bashkortostan», 1999.
7. Rayanov F.M. Pravovaya organizatsiya obshchestvennoi zhizni: teoriya i praktika (Legal organization of public life: theory and practice), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2004, No. 12. 
8. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz (State law "diseases": historical diagnosis). Ufa, NIIPP, 2005.
Received: 20.02.2017
THE IDEA OF SOVEREIGNTY IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND LEGAL,
POLITICAL AND LEGAL CONCEPTS
OF THE XIX CENTURY
KLIMENKO Oksana Alekseevna
Personnel of the Faculty of Investigators Training of the Orel Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after V.V. Lukyanov, Orel, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In modern conditions, complicated by developments in the international arena, there is a heightened interest to the views of the representatives of German classical philosophy and philosophers of the Postclassical period of the second half of the XIX century on the state sovereignty issue. At present, Immanuel Kant’s and G.W.F. Hegel’s views on sovereignty have become very actual due to globalization processes of the modern world, which along with positive changes for different countries often entail negative consequences. Therefore, today it is necessary to consider its classical interpretations as well as postclassical interpretations, which in the twentieth century mainstreamed the problems of axiological measurement of the concept of sovereignty, issues of its sources, and the problem of possible limits.
Key words: sovereignty, German classical philosophy, I. Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, postclassical philosophy, J. Habermas.
References
1. Bachinin V.A., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovaya real'nost' v kontekste tsivilizatsii i kul'tury. Metodologiya prichinnogo analiza, monografiya (The legal reality in the context of civilization and culture. The methodology of the causal analysis, monograph), pod red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb. Fond «Universitet», 2005. (Seriya «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
2. Boden Zh. Shest' knig o gosudarstve (Six books on the state), Antologiya mirovoi pravovoi mysli. V 5-ti tomakh. T. 2, Evropa. V–XVII vv. M., 1999.
3. Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofiya prava (Philosophy of law). M., 1990. 
4. Kant I. Osnovy metafiziki nravstvennosti. Kritika prakticheskogo razuma. Metafizika nravov (Fundamentals of metaphysics of morality. Critique of Practical Reason. Metaphysics of morals). SPb. Nauka, 1995. 
5. Kant I. Uchenie o prave (The doctrine of law), Soch. v 8 t. T. 6. M., 1994. 
6. Klimenko O.A. Stanovlenie ponimaniya gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta v epokhu Moderna (ot idei Zh. Bodena do pravovykh osnovanii Vestfal'skogo mira) (Formation of understanding of state sover-eignty in the era of modernity (from Jean Bodin’s ideas to the legal basis of the Peace of Westphalia)), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 6.
7. Luparev G.P. Myslitel'-buntar' Marsilii Paduanskii (Thinker-rebel Marsilius of Padua), Marsilii Paduanskii. Zashchitnik mira. Defensor pacis, per. s frants. B.U. Esenova, nauch. red., vstup. st., primech. G.P. Lupareva. M. Dashkov i Ko, 2014, pp. 11–63.
8. Marsilii Paduanskii. Zashchitnik mira (Marsilius of Padua. Peace Defender), Defensor pacis, per. s frants. B.U. Esenova; nauch. red., vstup. st., primech. G.P. Lupareva. M. Dashkov i Ko, 2014.
9. Mirzoev A.K. Suverenitet: genezis i kontseptual'naya evolyutsiya predstavlenii v politiko-pravovoi nauke (iskhodnye nachala – Nikkolo Makiavelli i Zhan Boden) (Sovereignty: the genesis and conceptual evolution of ideas in political and legal science (original source - Niccolo Machiavelli and Jean Bodin)), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. No. 11, pp. 149–157.
10. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and law-governed state - the essence of all modern theories of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. No. 1 (39). 
11. Rayanov F.M. Yuridicheskoe pravo: vremya razobrat'sya po sushchestvu (Juridical Law: time to deal essentially). Ufa, 2001.
12. Sal'nikov V.P., Ivashov L.G., Dzhegutanov B.K. Filosofiya globalizatsii (Metodologicheskie osnovy geopoliticheskoi doktriny Rossii), monografiya (Globalization Philosophy (Methodological bases of the Russian geopolitical doctrine): monograph), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb. Fond «Universitet», 2006. 
13. Khabermas Yu. Raskolotyi Zapad (Riven West), M. Ves' mir, 2008. 
14. Shopengauer A. Mir kak volya i predstavlenie (The World as Will and Representation), T. 2. M., 1900.
15. Kaufmann E. Die Gleichheit vor dem Gesetz im Sinne des Art. 109 der Reichsverfassung. B., 1927. 
16. Smend R. Verfassung und Verfassungsrecht. Hamburg, 1928. 
Received: 12.01.2017
ESSENTIAL GLOBALIZATION
PROCESSES IN LAW, AS A FORM OF OBJECTIFICATION OF LEGAL FREEDOM
KOZATSKAYA Varvara Eduardovna 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Head of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Department of Law of the Academy of Law and Administration of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan.
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TOLCHENKIN Dmitry Alexandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Head of the Chair of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Department of Law of the Academy of Law and Administration of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan.
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In this article, defining globalization processes, as a trend of state-legal processes of contemporary history, guided by the concept of strengthening international law and the rule of law at national and international levels, the authors examine the concept and content of legal globalization through characterizing essential processes of reception, unification, universalization, standardization and harmonization of law, as forms of its objectification in terms of finding the optimum of legal freedom, as a state of legal system under which legal entities shall exercise their powers, within the scope of legal regulation whereas satisfying their legitimate interests to the full. With a glance to the absence of unanimity of views on the essence and content of legal globalization in modern legal science, the idea of a single scientific approach to essential globalization processes in law is updated.
Key words: globalization of law, legal globalization, legal freedom, optimum of legal freedom, reception of law, unification of law, universalization of law, standardization law, harmonization of law, convergence of law, implementation of law, model law, infiltration of law, diffusion of law.
References
1. Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation), 07.05.2012. No. 19. St. 2342. 
2. Torosyan V. R. Pravovaja sistema Rossii v uslovijah globalizacii i mezhgosudarstvennoj unifikacii pravovyh standartov (Legal system of Russia in conditions of globalization and international harmonization of legal standards), dis. … kandidata jurid. nauk. Rostov-na-Donu, 2009, pp. 8–9. 
3. Shchetinin S. A. Pravovaja globalizacija: ponjatie i osnovnye formy: teoretiko-metodologicheskie aspekty (Legal globalization: the concept and main forms: theoretical and methodological aspects), avtoref. dis. … kandidata jurid. nauk. Rostov-na-Donu, 2009, p. 6. 
4. Tretyakova O. D. Juridicheskaja konvergencija (Legal convergence), dis. … d-ra jurid. nauk. Vladimir, 2012, 445 pp. 
5. Nersesyants V. S. Processy universalizacii prava i gosudarstva v globalizirujushhemsja mire (The Processes of universalization of law and state in the globalizing world), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2005, № 5, рр. 38-47.
6. Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation), 17.07.1995, No. 29, St. 2757.
7. Juridicheskaja tehnika: slovar'-spravochnik (Legal technique: the dictionary), pod red. A.V. Mal'ko. M., «Direkt-Media», 2013, p. 21. (http://gp.tti.sfe-du.ru/files/Litra/Slovar_yurid.technika.pdf). 
8. Iering R. Duh rimskogo prava na razlichnyh stupenjah ego razvitija (The Spirit of Roman law at the various stages of its development. Part I), St. Petersburg, 1875.
9. Shvecov G. V. Preemstvennost' v prave (Continuity in law), M., 1983, p. 17.
10. Kosarev A.I. Rimskoe chastnoe pravo (Roman private law), M., 1998, p. 206.
11. Golovistikova A.N., Dmitriev Y.A. Teorija gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), M., 2002, p. 127.
12. Cherdantsev A.F. Teorija gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), M., 1999, p. 410.
13. Chervonyuk V.I. Teorija gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), M., 2006, pp. 692–693.
14. Obshhaja teorija gosudarstva i prava. V 3 t. T. 2 (The General theory of state and law: In 3 volumes), pod red. M.N. Marchenko. M., 2002, Vol, 2. p. 293.
15. Rybakov V.A. Recepcija prava: obshheteoreticheskij aspekt  (Reception of law: theoretical aspect), Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Serija «pravo». 2007, No 4 (13), pp. 5–12.
16. Melnichenko T.A. Teoreticheskie i normativnye osnovanija pravovoj infil'tracii (Theoretical and normative foundations for legal infiltration): avtoref, dis. … kandidata jurid. nauk. Volgograd, 2006, p. 34.
17. Kochman, V.N. Pravovaja infil'tracija norm mezhdunarodnogo prava v ugolovno-ispolnitel'noe za-konodatel'stvo Rossijskoj Federacii (Legal infiltration of international law in criminal-executive legisla-tion of the Russian Federation): avtoref. dis. … kandidata jurid. nauk. Sankt-Peterburg, 2010, pp. 32. 
18. Doronina N.G. Diffuzija v prave kak napravlenie unifikacii mezhdunarodnogo chastnogo prava: k voprosu ob ob#ekte informacionnogo prava (Diffusion in law as a direction for unification of international private law: to the question of the object of information law), Zhurnal rossijskogo prava, 2015. No. 5, pp. 125–134.
Received: 11.01.2017
ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE CONCEPT "UTILITARIANISM"
KOLOSOV Igor Vladimirovich
Postgraduate Student of the Institute of Law and National Security of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Lawyer (RANEPA, 2015), Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The etymology of the concept "utilitarianism" goes back to the concept "utility". The contrastive-comparative analysis of Russian and English versions of the concept "utilitarianism" suggests that the etymology of the concept "utilitarianism" can be oversimplified through the following series of concepts "utility" - "benefit" - "relief" ("calm") - "tranquility" - "joy" - "pleasure" - "happiness". In close interrelation with the genesis of the concept "utilitarianism", it is possible to carry out a theoretical analysis of the use of law as a form of implementation of law, because every certain set of symbols conceals conceptions of a particular object of the material world, phenomenon or any other subject, thought, idea. In addition, the content of this concept is associated with the very concept. The link between them should be traced clearly, in order to simplify the process of communication, reduce transaction costs of information transfer. The author of the article believes that due to this link language usefulness as such increases.
Key words: utilitarianism, etymology, use of law, utility, Jeremy Bentham.
References
1. Frolova T.A. Ekonomicheskaya teoriya: konspekt lektsii (Economic theory: lecture notes). Taganrog. Izd-vo TTI YuFU, 2010.  
2. Antologiya mirovoi politicheskoi mysli. V 5 t. T. I. Zarubezhnaya politicheskaya mysl': istoki i evolyutsiya (Anthology of world political thought. In 5 vols. V.I. Foreign political thought: the origins and evolution), Nats. obshchestv.-nauch. fond. Akad. polit. nauki; Rukovoditel' proekta G.Yu. Semigin i dr., red.-nauch. sovet: pred. soveta G.Yu. Semigin i dr. M. Mysl', 1997. 
3. Vechkanov G.S. Mikroekonomika. Kratkii kurs (Microeconomics. Short Course). 2-e izd. SPb. Iz-datel'skii dom «Piter», 2008. 
4. Bentham J. The Principles of Morals and Legislation. Prometheus Books. 1988.   
5. Fasmer M. Etimologicheskii slovar' russkogo yazyka: v 4 t. T. 3 (Dictionary of Russian language. In 4 vols. V.3), per. s nem. 3-e izd., stereotip. M. Azbuka-Terra, 1996.   
6. Podvysotskii A.O. Slovar' oblastnogo arkhangel'skogo narechiya (Dictionary of Arkhangelsk regional dialect). M. Ob"edinennoe gumanitarnoe izdatel'stvo, 2009.   
7. Sreznevskii I.I. Materialy dlya slovarya drevnerusskogo yazyka po pis'mennym pamyatnikam. T. 2 (Materials for the dictionary of ancient Russian language of written monuments. V.2). Peterburg, 1893–1912. 
8. V dannom kontekste imeetsya v vidu «paradoks tsennosti» ili «paradoks vody i almazov» (In this context it is referred to "paradox of value" or "paradox of water and diamonds). 
9. Suprasl'skaya rukopis (Supraslskaya manuscript). Izd. S. Sever'yanov. Peterburg, 1904. Pamyatniki staroslavyanskogo yazyka. T. 2. № 1. 
10. Ushakov D.N. Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo yazyka (Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian language). M. Al'ta-Print, 2005. 
11. Kir'yakova O.I. Leksiko-semanticheskaya reprezentatsiya kontsepta «radost'» v angliiskom i russkom yazykakh (na materiale perevodov khudozhestvennykh tekstov XIX veka) (Lexico-semantic representation of the concept "joy" in English-Russian (based on translations of literary texts of the XIX century)), avtoref. diss. … kand. filol. nauk. Moskva, 2009. 
12. Serebryanskii D.S. Klassicheskii utilitarizm: osnovnye teoreticheskie problem (Classical utilitarianism: the main theoretical problems). Eticheskaya mysl'. 2011. Vyp. 11. 
13. Hoad T.F. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology / Oxford University Press. 1993. 
14. Mill J.S. Utilitarianism. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 2002. 
15. Galt J. Annals of the Parish: or, The chronicle of Dalmailing; during the ministry of the Rev. Micah Balwhidder, written by himself. Serenity Publishers, LLC. 
16. The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham: Volume 3: January 1781 to October 1788. Published 1971: Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. 
17. V tom chisle, potreblyat' blago (In particular, consume a benefit).
18. Dernburg G. Pandekty (Pandects). T. 1. M., 1906.
Received: 21.01.2017
MANIFESTS AS LEGISLATIVE ACTS OF THE XVII–XIX CENTURIES IN THE SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN LAW: CONCEPT AND MULTI-PREDICATES IN "FORM OF LAW"
SAGINDYKOV Ainibek Nurollauly
Postgraduate student of the Chair of History of State and Law of the Faculty of Law of the ANO HE "Liberal Arts University", Yekaterinburg, Russia.
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This paper is dedicated to the study of legislative acts of the XVII–XIX centuries in the system of Russian law in connection to the issues of the concept of a manifest as a legislative act and its multi-predicates in "form of law". Their definition is given, as well as "forms of law", "law" in the form: genus, species, variety. The author of the article uses general and special methods of knowledge proper to philosophical, legal, historical sciences. For the first time the author's position is expressed on scientists’ opinions on this issue and they are commented. The characteristics of similar qualities, properties, and their differences and peculiarities is given. The author’s suggestions will be interesting for constitutional law, theory of state and law, history of state and law. It is proposed to use the comprehensive approach in the study of legislative acts of the XVII–XIX centuries. The author poses the question whether it is relevant in the context of this study, to put into scientific use the category of "multi-predicates" which represents multiple features allowing to relegate an act to a given category in the following forms: "genus", ranking first in the author's classification; "species" ranking second; "variety" occupying the third place. The characteristics of the acts in question is shown as developing, specifying, detailing the categories of "genus", "species", "variety", which leads to narrowing them down to the notion of "form of law".
Key words: manifest; legislative act; form of law; genus; species; variety; source of law; multi-predicates.
References
1. Grinev V.A. Tipologizatsiya istochnikov prava v rossiiskoi istoriko-pravovoi istoriografii (Typology of sources of law in the Russian historical and legal historiography), Vestnik Vyatskogo gosudarstvennogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Pravo, 2011, No. 1, pp. 24–25.
2. Gegel' G.V. Entsiklopediya filosofskikh nauk (Encyclopedia of Philosophy). T. 1. M., 1974. 
3. Brezitskaya L.A. Institutsionalizatsiya grazhdanskoi gosudarstvennoi sluzhby v Rossii (pervaya polovina XIX v (The institutionalization of the civil state service in Russia (the first half of the XIX century). URL. http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/institutsionalizatsiya-grazhdanskoy-gosudarstvennoy-sluzhby-v-rossii-pervaya-polovina-xix-v#ixzz3S09DBn9P.
4. Svod zakonov Rossiiskoi imperii (Code of Laws of the Russian Empire). T. 3. SPb., 1832. 
5. Polozhenie o poryadke proizvodstva v chiny po grazhdanskoi sluzhbe (Regulation on the order of promotion in the Civil Service), PSZ-2. T. 9. No. 7224. 
6. Opis' tsarskogo arkhiva XVI v. i arkhiva Posol'skogo prikaza 28 1614 g. (Inventory of the royal ar-chive of the XVI century and the archive of Ambassador prikaz 28, 1614), pod red. S.O. Shmidta. M. Izd-vo vost. lit., 1960. 
7. Belyakov, A.V. «Sluzhashchie Posol'skogo prikaza vtoroi treti XVII veka» (Employees of the Ambassador  prikaz of the second third of the XVII century), avtoref. … kand. ist. nauk. M., 2002. URL. http://www.dissercat.com/content/sluzhashchie-posolskogo-prikaza-vtoroi-treti-xvii-veka#ixzz3bqJwBN4z.
8. Eroshkin N.P. Istoriya gosudarstvennykh uchrezhdenii dorevolyutsionnoi Rossii (The history of public institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia). M. Vysshaya shkola, 1968.
9. PSZ I. T. XVII. No. 12444.
10. PSZ. T. XVII. No. 12801.
11. Ampleeva T.Yu. Istoriya ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva Rossii (IX–XIX vv.) (The history of Russian criminal proceedings (IX-XIX centuries)), avto-ref. … d-ra. yurid. nauk. M., 2009.
12. Amosova O.S. Pravovoi status meshchan Rossiiskoi Imperii (XVIII–XIX vv.) (The legal status of the lower middle class of the Russian Empire (XVIII-XIX centuries.)), avtoref. … kand. yurid. nauk. Vladimir., 2005. URL. http://lawtheses.com/pravovoy-status-meschan-rossiyskoy-imperii#ixzz3cJgBjf5y.
13. Danilov E.S. Administrativnaya politika rossiiskogo gosudarstva v pervoi polovine XIX veka (Administrative policy of the Russian government in the first half of the XIX century). URL. http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/administrativnaya-politika-rossiyskogo-gosudarstva-v-pervoy-po-lovine-xix-veka#ixzz3S09j2EfI.
14. Alekseev S.S. Osnovy pravovoi politiki Rossii, kurs lektsii (Fundamentals of the legal policy of Russia: Course of lectures). Ekaterinburg. 1995.
15. Alekseev S.S. Nauka prava. Izbrannoe (The science of law. Selection). M., 2003.
16. PSZ-1. T. XXVII. No. 20406.
17. PSZ-1. T. XXVIII. No. 21096.
18. PSZ-1. T. XXX. No. 23262. 
19. Ozhegov S.I. Slovar' russkogo yazyka. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo inostrannykh i natsional'nykh slovarei (Dictionary of Russian language. State Publishing House of foreign and national dictionaries.). M., 1953.
20. RGVIA. F. 1, op. 1, D. 687, l. 2–5, 103.
21. Fomin O.E. Korpus vnutrennei strazhi v pravookhranitel'noi sisteme Rossiiskoi imperii, 1811–1864 gg. (Internal Guard Corps in the judicial system of the Russian Empire, 1811-1864), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M. Yuridicheskii institut MVD, 1999, RGB, 2003.  
22. Rumyantseva M.F. Teoriya istorii: uchebnoe posobie (Theory of history: Tutorial). M., 2002.
23. Babkova G.O. Politika Ekateriny II v oblasti ugolovnogo prava (Catherine the Great policy in the field of criminal law), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2006. 
24. Baklashov A.I. Ekaterina II i obshchestvennoe mnenie (Catherine the Great and public opinion), avtoref. … kand. ist. nauk. M., 2009. URL. http://cheloveknauka.com/ekaterina-ii-i-obschestvennoe-mnenie#ixzz3cK4 YONfF.
25. Kuanchaleeva L.Sh., Skorobogatov A.V. Zakon o prestolonasledii 1797 g. kak istochnik gosudarstvennogo prava Rossii (Law of Succession in 1797 as a source of Russian state law). URL. http://pravmisl.ru/index.php?id=1810&option= com_content&task = view.
Received: 22.01.2017
RELEVANT ROLES OF THE SOCIAL CONTRACT AS A THEORY OF CONTEMPORARY STATEAND LEGAL SYSTEMS
NAZAROVA Natalia Anatolyevna 
Postgraduate student of the Maltsev Theory of State and Law Chair of the Speransky Law Department of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра..">Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра..
The social contract theory relevance increases in the twenty-first century as the basis for the practice of democratic principles, transformations of state and law systems, geopolitical alliances and domestic policy. The author exposes 26 relevant roles of the social contract from classical and modern contractualism theories. This method allows the author to group them by major objects, namely: statehood, citizen’s consciousness, public benefit, citizens’ rights, principles of state and society, state guarantor and state monopolies. The result is the social contract theory practical actualization and the verbalization of its specified ways of implementation as state legal reforms and evolutions tools.
Key words: social contract, contractualism evolution, contract roles, theory of state, theory of law, contemporary state, legal system. 
References
1. Gorokhov P.A., Vyalykh V.V. Sovremennye modifikatsii idei obshchestvennogo dogovora (Modern modifications of the idea of the social contract), Teoriya i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiya. 2013. No. 11.
2. The Economist Intelligence Unit [Elektronnyi resurs] (Electronic resource). URL: http://www.eiu.com/ public/topical_ report.aspx?campaignid=DemocracyIndex2016.,8
3. Mel'nik V.V. Vladimir Vladimirovich Demokratiya vs “le contrat social” (Vladimir Vladimirovich Democracy vs "le contrat social"), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i pravovye issledovaniya. 2012. No. 8.
4. Materialisty Drevnei Gretsii (Materialists of Ancient Greece), pod red. M.A. Dynnika. M. Gospolitizdat, 1955.
5. Piskunov V.V. Kontsept obshchestvennogo dogovora: klassicheskie i sovremennye formy (Concept of the social contract: classical and modern forms), avtoref. dis. … kand. filos. nauk. RGGU, Moskva, 2005.
6. Russo Zh.-Zh. Ob obshchestvennom dogovore, ili printsipy politicheskogo prava (On the social contract, or the principles of political law), per. s frants. L. Nemanova. M. Sotsekgiz, 1938.
7. Kant I. Metafizika nravov. Sochineniya v 6 t. T. 4. Ch. 2. Filosof. Nasledie (Metaphysics of morals. Works in 6 volumes. V. 4. Part 2. Philosophy heritage). M. Mysl', 1965. 
8. Gobbs T. Leviafan, ili materiya, forma i vlast' gosudarstva tserkovnogo i grazhdanskogo (Leviathan, or materiality, the form and authority of the church state and civil state). Sochineniya v 2 t. M., 1991.
9. Lokk Dzh. Dva traktata o pravlenii (Two treatises on the government). Sochineniya v 3 t. T. 3. M. Mysl', 1988.
10. Rolz Dzh. Spravedlivost' kak chestnost' (Justice as honesty), Logos. 2006. T. 52. No. 1.
11. B'yukenen Dzh., Tallok G. Raschet soglasiya: logicheskie osnovaniya konstitutsionnoi demokratii (Calculation of consent: logical foundations of constitutional democracy), Fond ekonomicheskoi initsiativy. M. Taurus Al'fa, 1997.
Received: 23.01.2017
ON LEGAL DOCTRINE IN THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT
GILMULLIN Ainur Razifovich
Leading legal counsel of the Law Division of the Legal Department at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
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Legal doctrine makes a universal component of ideological and theoretical impact in the area of law, as well as in the area of implementation of activities of the whole mechanism of the Russian state, including its most significant structural elements – branches of government. Considering the impact of legal doctrine in the context of the executive branch of government, we can point out its key role in developing, among others, such legal principles as responsibility, efficiency, consistency, productivity, predictiveness. These principles, in their turn, serve as landmarks both for lawmaking and enforcement activities. When implementing executive powers, legal doctrine helps to define the balance between different administrative and legal institutions, as well as boundaries of reasonable law enforcement, between centralization and decentralization of power, and also contributes toward applicable interpretation of law. Legal doctrine works out provisions, which assist in grounding the incumbent mode of the executive branch of government. There can be no doubt that without such scientifically grounded, regulative and applied component of the legal framework of the state as legal doctrine, executive branch authorities would not have been there in the shape they now exist in our state. 
Key words: legal doctrine, executive authority, law, consistency, responsibility, component, state, subject.
References
1. Kokovikhin А.L. Vzaimodejstvie organov ispolnitel'noj vlasti Rossijskoj Federatsii i organov ispolnitel'noj vlasti sub"ektov Rossijskoj federatsii (The interaction of Executive authorities of the Rus-sian Federation and Executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation), Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2003, T. 9, No 2, pp. 29–31.
2. Petrov M.P. Sistemnost i effektivnost pravovoy osnovy ispolnitelnoy vlasti kak usloviye innovatsionnogo razvitiya Rossiyskoy gosudarstvennosti, Sistemnost i effektivnost pravovykh aktov v sovremennoy Rossii: monografiya (Consistency and efficiency of the legal basis of executive authority as a condition of innovative development of the Russian statehood // Consistency and efficiency of legal acts in modern Russia: a monograph), pod red. A.V. Malko, R.V. Puzikova; M-vo obr. i nauki RF [i dr.]. Tambov: Izdatelskiy dom TGU im. G.R. Derzhavina, 2011.
3. Mironenko, M.B. Principy yuridicheskoj otvetstvennosti v sisteme principov prava (Principles of legal responsibility in the system of law principles), avtoref., dis... kand. yurid. nauk, Saratov, 2001.
4. Golovanova E.I. Pravovye osnovy bor'by s korrupciej v Rossii v XVI - XIX vv. (Istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie) (The legal framework of the fight against corruption in Russia in the XVI - XIX centuries), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, Moskva, 2002, 187 c.; Dul'nev M.V. Korrupciya i bor'ba s nej v Sovetskom gosudarstve v 1917–1991 gg.: istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie, dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 2008.
5. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 1 aprelya 2016 g. No 147 «O Natsionalnom plane pro-tivodeystviya korruptsii na 2016–2017 gody» (Presidential Decree of April 1, 2016 № 147 "On the Na-tional Anti-Corruption Plan for 2016-2017"), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2016, 13 apr. 
Received: 12.01.2017
FEATURES OF IMPLEMENTING THE GUARANTEES TO FREEDOM OF LITERARY, ARTISTIC, SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND OTHER KINDS OF CREATIVITY
VILACHEVA Maria Nikolaevna
Postgraduate Student of the Urals Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Yekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
SAVOSKIN Alexander Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Advisor to the Deputy Chairman of the Charter Court of the Sverdlovsk region, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
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The Constitution of the Russian Federation recognizes the priority of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen over all other values of the society and state. Article 2 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation establishes, that the recognition, observance and protection of human and civil rights and freedoms are the responsibility of the state. The authors give great importance to freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other kinds of creativity in the system of human and civil rights and freedoms. This freedom is reflected also in international legal acts such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966. The implementation of freedom of creativity is primarily based on the guarantees embodied in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Thus, freedom of creativity implies the inadmissibility of ideological uniformity, control and censorship by the state. The authors describe artistic freedom as man’s ability guaranteed by constitutional norms to create literary, artistic, scientific and other works.
Key words: human and civil rights and freedoms, legal status of an individual, freedom of creativity, creative activity, constitutional guarantees, protection of creativity.
References
1. The Universal Declaration of human rights (adopted by the UN General Assembly 10.12.1948). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 04.11.2016).
2. The International Covenant from 16.12.1966 "On economic, social and cultural rights". URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 04.11.2016).
3. The Constitution of the Russian Federation (adopted by popular vote 12.12.1993) (as amended, amended Laws of the Russian Federation on amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation from 30.12.2008 No. 6-FKZ, from 30.12.2008 No. 7-FCL from 05.02.2014 No. 2-FKZ, from 21.07.2014 No. 11-FCL). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 04.11.2016).
4. Bases of the legislation of the Russian Federation on culture (app. The armed forces 09.10.1992 No. 3612-1) (ed. by 28.11.2015) (Rev. and EXT., joined. in force from 01.01.2016). .URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 04.11.2016).
5. Federal law of 23.08.1996 No. 127-FZ (ed. from 23.05.2016) "On science and state scientific and technical policy" (Rev. and EXT., joined. in force 03.06.2016). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 04.11.2016).
6. Avdeev V.P. Problemy konstitucionno-pravovogo obespechenija svobody tvorchestva i ohrany in-tellektual'noj sobstvennosti v Rossijskoj Federacii (Problems of constitutional-legal support of freedom of creativity and protection of intellectual property in the Russian Federation), avtoref. dis. … kand. Yrid.nauk. Tyumen, 2009.
7. Barkhatova E.Yu. Kommentarij k Konstitucii Rossijskoj Federacii (Commentary to the Constitution of the Russian Federation). M., Prospect, 2010. URL: http://constitution.garant.ru/science-work/comment/5817497/ (accessed date: 05.11.2016).
Received: 20.09.2016
DYNAMICS OF CORRUPTION-RELATED CRIMES IN 2012-2015.
ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL INFORMATION OF SUBDIVISIONS
OF THE MIA OF RUSSIA (PART 1)
PUDAKOV Evgeniy Rustamovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the chair of Criminal Law, Procedure and Forensics of the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies (branch) of the AL and SR (Moscow), Head of the Institution FGI CC-13 of the FPS of Russia for the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia.
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The basis of criminological characteristics of corruption-related criminality is usually criminal statistics of its qualitative and quantitative properties. In practice, the most commonly used statistics are statistical reports on criminality; cards on the committed crime, on the crime committer, on the accused, the defendant; results of generalization of criminal cases and materials on crimes; data of socio-economic, socio-demographic and other statistics; results of criminological researches and study of public opinion on crime; information on various types of offenses. These sources of original criminological information serve as a starting point for exploring corruption-related criminality and knowledge of its essential characteristics.
Key words: corruption-related crimes, bribery, bribe-taking, mediation, fraud, embezzlement, forgery, amount of bribe, corruption counteraction.
References
1. Statisticheskie dannye MVD Rossii (Russian Interior Ministry statistics), URL: https://mvd.ru/reports/item/1609734/ (accessed date:  05.01.2017).
2. Statisticheskie dannye CSI FKU «GIAC MVD Rossii» (Statistical data SRC FGI "MIAC of the MIA of Russia»), URL: http://10.5.0.16/csi/ (accessed date:   01.10.2017).
3. Statisticheskie dannye sudebnogo departamenta (Statistical data of the Judicial Department), URL: http: //www.cdep.ru/ (accessed date:  15.01.2017).
Received: 14.01.2017
DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS
OF NEGATIVE FACTS IN THE COURSE
OF INVESTIGATION OF ARSON
OF PROPERTY, CONCEALED BY FRAMING-UP
FAYZULLINA Alina Anisovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.
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The article dwells on the problems, which appear in the process of determination and analysis of negative facts in the course of investigation of intentional destruction of property by means of arson.  The article studies the most common in practice types of frame-ups of non-criminal arsons, made with the aim of non-disclosure of arson's evidence: intentional creation of conditions for arson, which imitate flame formation on technical grounds, spontaneous inflammation of materials, unintentional violation of fire safety rules, careless handling of fire.  The article suggests practical recommendations on determination of factual data, testifying artificial creation or changes in the scene of fire.
Key words: intentional destruction, damage to another’s property, arson, criminal identity, framing-up, negative circumstances, scene of action, cause of fire.
References
1. Umaev A.A. Ishodnye sledstvennye situacii po delam o pozharah: klassifikacija, ocenka i metody razreshenija (Initial investigation of the situation in cases of fire: classification, evaluation and solution methods), Ishodnye sledstvennye situacii i kriminalisticheskie metody iz razreshenija: sbornik nauchnyh trudov / otv. red. V.P. Lavrov. M., 1991, pp. 125–132.
2. Cheshko I.D. Osmotr mesta pozhara: metodicheskoe posobie (Inspection of the fire place: Manual), M.: VNIIPO, 2015. 
3. Ugolovnoe delo № 1-855/2014 (Criminal case № 1-855 / 2014),  Arhiv Leninskogo rajonnogo suda g. Ufy Respubliki Bashkortostan (Archive of the Leninsky District Court of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan).
4.  Ugolovnoe delo № 1-158 / 2015 (Criminal case № 1-158 / 2015), Arhiv Sovetskogo rajonnogo suda g. Ufy Respubliki Bashkortostan (Archive of the Soviet District Court of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan).
5. Ugolovnoe delo  № 1-921 / 2013 (Criminal case № 1-921 / 2013), Arhiv Demskogo rajonnogo suda g. Ufy Respubliki Bashkortostan (Archive of the Demskii District Court of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan).
6. Weingart A. O rassledovanii podzhogov. Rukovodstvo dlja juristov i agentov strahovyh obshhestv (On arson investigation. Guide for lawyers and insurance companies agents), Warsaw: Warsaw, 1906. 
7. Zernov S.I. Tehniko-kriminalisticheskoe obespechenie rassledovanija prestuplenij, soprjazhennyh s pozharami: uchebnoe posobie (Technical and forensic software in investigations of crimes involving fire: Tutorial), M.: JeKC MVD Rossii, 1996. 
8. Makhanek A.B. Znachenie faktorov vremeni pri vyjasnenii prichin pozharov (The value of the time factor in ascertaining the causes of fires), Vestnik kriminalistiki. 2005. Vyp. 2 (14). Pp. 101–104.
Received: 12.01.2017
CRIMINAL ASPECTS
OF COUNTERMEASURES TO COMBAT LEGALIZATION (“LAUNDERING”)
OF ILLEGALLY OBTAINED MONEY
AND OTHER PROPERTY IN THE CONTEXT
OF PROVISION OF NATIONAL
AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
KRIVOV Andrey Valerievich
Degree-Seeking Student of the Department of Training of Personals of Higher Qualification of the FSBEI HE "Russian State University of Justice", Judge of Stolbtsovski District of Minsk Region, Stolbtsy, Republic of Belarus.
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The given article is dedicated to the topical problems of countermeasures to combat legalization (“laundering”) of illegally obtained proceeds. The article researches international legal standards and statutes of criminal legislature of the Russian Federation with regard to detection, arrest and confiscation of criminally obtained money and other property. The author suggests scientifically grounded principles of legalization of illegally obtained proceeds, as well as the main ways of development of international cooperation in combating money laundering. Among the principles it is possible to name: acceleration of  alignment of national legislations among countries of the world community in the sphere of combating legalization of illegally obtained proceeds; providing active help in the course of operative investigation measures and court trials; due measures of “freezing” or arrest of illegally obtained property, which may become the object of confiscation  query; confiscation of illegally obtained proceeds without delays. 
Key words: legalization ("laundering") of money, international legal standards, criminal legislature of the Russian Federation, improvement of the mechanism of countermeasures.
References
1. Konventsiya Soveta Evropy №141 «Ob otmyvanii, vyyavlenii, iz"yatii i konfiskatsii dokhodov ot prestupnoi deyatel'nosti» ot 8 noyabrya 1990 g. Deistvuyushchee mezhdunarodnoe pravo (Convention of the CE №141 "On laundering, exposure, withdrawal and confiscation of  proceeds of crime" from November, 8 1990. Current international law), V 3 t. T. 3. Sost. Yu.M. Kolosov i E.S. Krivchikova. M. Izd-vo MNIMP, 1997.
2. Konventsiya Organizatsii Ob"edinennykh Natsii protiv transnatsional'noi organizovannoi prestupnosti. Rezolyutsiya 55/25 General'noi Assamblei ot 15 noyabrya 2000 g. (The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000), Doklad Spetsial'nogo komiteta po razrabotke Konventsii protiv transnatsional'noi organizovannoi prestupnosti. A/55/383, para. 121.
3. Directive 2005/60/ES of the European and of the Council of 26 October 2005 on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing (Text with EEA relevance). Official Journal. L. 309. 25.11.2005. P. 15–36. 
4. Kriminalistika (Forensics). Uchebnik dlya vuzov. T.V. Aver'yanova, R.S. Belkin, Yu.G. Korukhov, E.R. Rossinskaya, pod red. R.S. Belkina. M. Norma, 2015. 
5. Kerner Kh.-Kh. Dakh E. Otmyvanie deneg (Money laundering), M. Mezhdunar. otnosheniya, 1996.
Received: 12.10.2016
ISSUES OF IMPROVING
THE INFORMATION SECURITY
OF THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS AGENCIES OF RUSSIA IN MODERN CONDITIONS
GALYAUTDINOV Rustem Flyurovich
Police Major, Instructor of the Department of Special Training of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia.
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The article analyzes the effectiveness of the use of information resources in daily work of internal affairs agencies. The main reasons of insufficient information support and insufficient information interaction of law enforcement agencies are revealed. Significant attention is paid to the development of information security measures, as well as to issues of regulatory and resource support for the activities of internal affairs agencies. In this area, the author proposes the necessary set of activities. The author also considers the position of information resources of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in information resources of the country. The study outcome is the definition of basic functions of the state on the path of improvement and further development of information resources of internal affairs agencies and in general national security efforts.
Key words: information, informational support, information resources, information computer system, internal affairs agencies, information security.
References
1. Stepanov O.A. Pravovye osnovy obespechenia ochranitelnoi funksii gosudarstva v usloviah ispolzovania novyh informasionnyh techologi (Legal bases of maintenance enforcement functions of the state in the conditions of the use of new information technologies). M. Izd. Acad. MVD Russia, 2000.
2. Bolchoi uridisheski slovar (Big Law Dictionary), Pod red. A.V. Malko. M. Prospect, 2009.
3. Ob utvergdenii Konsepsii informatizasii organov vnutrennih del RF I vnutrennih voysk MVD Russia do 2012 goda. Prikaz MVD Russia ot 04.04.2009 №280 (Approval of the Concept of Informatization of the Russian law-enforcement bodies and internal troops of the Russian Interior Ministry until 2012. Russian Interior Ministry Order dated 04.04.2009 №280), Basa dannyh Normativno pravovye akty MVD Russia.
4. Ob utvergdenii novoi redaksii programmy MVD Russia Sozdanie edinoy informasionno-telekommunikasionnoy sistemy organov vnutrennih del. Prikaz MVD Russia ot 20.05.2008 №435 (Ap-proval of the amended program of the Russian Interior Ministry Creating a unified information - telecommunication system of law-enforcement bodies. Russian Interior Ministry Order dated 20.05.2008 №435), Basa dannyh Normativno pravovye akty MVD Russia.
5. Saitov I.A., Mironov A.E., Korolev A.V. Protivodeystvie vagneishay zadacha obespechenia informasionnou bezopasnosti. Vestnik nasionalnogo antiterroristicheskogo komiteta (Countering the most important task of information security. Herald of national anti-terrorism committee, 2002, No. 2, pp. 78–79.
Received: 12.01.2017
TO THE ISSUE OF LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF CARRYING OUT OF OPERATIONAL SEARCH MEASURES «PREMISES SURVEY»
OMELIN Victor Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Chief Research Worker of the Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: nii.fsin.ru
GABZALILOV Vadim Fanilevich
Deputy Head of the Department of Professional Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The given paper is devoted to the study of legislative regulation of conditions of carrying out of operational search measures «premises survey» as a type of operational search measures «premises, buildings, facilities, vantage grounds and vehicles survey». The urgency of the study is due to the fact that, in accordance with part 1 of art. 5 of the Federal Law «On operational search activities» bodies (officials), carrying out operational search activities, during surveys must ensure the human and civil right to inviolability of dwelling. The authors of the article also pay particular attention to the classification of conditions of operational search actions. The current problems are presented and discussed by the authors based on their scientific experience and practical activities in operational divisions of internal affairs agencies, including their personal participation in the preparation and carrying out of these operational search measures.
Key words: operational search measures, operational search activity, premises survey.
References
1. Bobrov V.G. Operativno-rozysknye meroprijatija. Osnovanija i uslovija provedenija operativno-rozysknyh meroprijatij: lekcija (Operational search measures. Grounds and conditions of operational search actions: Lecture). M., 2003.
2. Ignashchenko Yu. Yu. Pravovaja reglamentacija obsledovanija pomeshhenij, zdanij, sooruzhenij, uchastkov mestnosti, transportnyh sredstv v operativno-rozysknoj dejatel'nosti (Legal regulation of premises, buildings, terrain, vehicles survey in operational search activities), avtoref. dis. …kand. jurid. nauk. SPb, 2005.
3. Gorodilov A.A. Prava i svobody lichnosti v operativno-rozysknoj dejatel'nosti i mery prokurorskogo nadzora za ih sobljudeniem (The rights and freedoms of the individual in the operational search activities and measures of prosecutor's supervision), avtoref. dis. … kand. jurid. nauk. Kaliningrad, 2006. 
4. Igumenov A. S. Ob osobennostjah provedenija oprosa lic, v hode raboty po rozysku bez vesti propavshih, ischeznuvshih pri kriminal'nyh obstojatel'stvah (On peculiarities of persons’ interrogation in the course of tracing missing persons who disappeared under criminal circumstances), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2016, No. 2 (44), pp. 115–120.
5. Grinyova D.A. Rozysk bez vesti propavshih lic (pravovoj, operativno-rozysknoj i kriminalisticheskij aspekty) (The search for missing persons (legal, operational search and forensic aspects)), dis. …kand. jurid. nauk. Kaliningrad, 2006.
6. Ozhegov S.I., N.Y. Shvedov. Tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka (Dictionary of Russian language). М., 1992.
Received: 22.01.2017
SITUATIONAL MODELING IN THE INVESTIGATION OF CRIMES RELATED
TO TERRORISM FINANCING
VORONIN Sergei Eduardovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Holder of the Chair of Forensics of the Siberian Institute of Business, Management and Psychology, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
ABRAMOVA Alena Alekseevna
Postgraduate Student of the Siberian Institute of Business, Management and Psychology, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The relevance of this research topic is directly related to the current situation in the country and in the world. Since terrorism has acquired a global, international character, in order to counter terrorism, the international community has taken a number of measures to combat its financing. The article deals with some issues related to the term "terrorism financing". The possibilities of the method of situational modeling in the investigation of crimes related to terrorism financing are revealed. The authors view criminal psychological types and criminal behavior of persons who committed terrorism financing. Psychotypological approach in the system of forensic knowledge remains one of the most promising research areas in forensic science. The authors believe that the findings of this research can be used by practitioners in the investigation of criminal cases under Art. 205.1 of the Criminal Code of Russia.
Key words: situation, financing, terrorism, profile, terrorism financing, FATF, criminal identity, etymology, investigation, modeling.
References
1. Bykov V.M.  Criminalisticheskay haracteristica prestupnih grup (Forensic characterization of criminal groups), monografia, Tashkent, Izd-vo VSh MVD SSSR, 1986.
2. Voronin S. U., Ahmedshin R.L., Alekseeva T.A. Psihotipologicheski podhod v sisteme criminalisticheskogo znania aspekti (Psychotypological approach in the system of forensic knowledge aspects), Krasnoyarsk, Izd-vo Sibirskogo instituta biznesa, upravlenija i psihologii. 2015.
3. Voronin S.E., Voronina E.S., Zheleznyakov A.M. Organizacia prestupnogo soobchestva: ugolovno-pravovie i criminalisticheskie aspekti (Organization of a criminal community: criminal, legal and forensic aspects), Krasnoyarsk, Izd-vo Sibirskogo instituta biznesa, upravlenija i psihologii, 2015.
4. Voronin S.E. Ispol'zovanie poligrafa i metoda psihologicheskogo profilirovania v rassledovanii prestuplenii, svazannih s religioznim extremismom (Using a polygraph and psychological profiling method in the investigation of crimes related to religious extremism), Rossijskij sledovatel', 2016, No. 3. pp. 16–19.
5. Voronin S.E., Kuznetsova S.M. Psihologicheski portret organizatora prestupnogo soobchestva (Psychological portrait of the organizer of a criminal group), Vestnic Kazanskogo juridicheskogo instituta MVD RF. 2016, No. 1 (23), pp. 80–87.
6. Voronin S.E. Situazionnoe modelirovanie v sudebnoi expertise (Situational modeling in forensic expertise), Krasnoyarsk, Izd-vo Krasnojarskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta, 2013.
7. Voronin S.E. Teoria i practica rassledovania prestuplenii v sfere migracionnoi bezopasnosti (Theory and practice of the investigation of crimes in the sphere of migration security), Krasnoyarsk, Izd-vo Sibirskogo instituta biznesa, upravlenija i psihologii, 2015.
8. Gavlo V.K. Teoreticheskie problemi i practica primenenia metodici rassledovania otdelnih vidov prestuplenii (Theoretical problems and practice of the technique of investigation of certain types of crimes), Tomsk, Izd-vo Tomskogo universiteta, 1985.
9. Kanter D. Psihologicheski profil’ prestupnica (Psychological profile of the perpetrator), sbornik nauchnyh trudov «Problemy ispol'zovanija netradicionnyh psihofiziologicheskih metodov v raskrytii prestuplenij». Moskva: Izd-vo VNII MVD Rossii, 1995.
10. Kiryushina L.Y. Lichnost' dgenchini v mehanizme prestuplenia i ie znachenie dlai criminalisticheskoi metodici rassledovania prestuplenii otdel'nogo vida (Woman personality in the crime mechanism and its implications for forensic techniques of the investigation of certain types of crimes), dis. ... kand. jurid. nauk, Barnaul, 2007.
11. Hazelwood R.R., Buzgess A. Practical aspects of rape investigation: a multi-disciplinary approach, Amsterdam, 1987.
Received: 14.01.2017
FACE-TO-FACE INTERROGATION:
NON-TRANSPARENT PERSPECTIVES, INEFFECTIVE TACTICS AND DOUBTFUL ADVANTAGE
POLSTOVALOV Oleg Vladimirovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article views the main problems of face-to-face interrogation as a means of proving, disputes its necessity in its current form from the point of view of present topical practice of pretrial proceedings on a criminal case and requirements of international standards, brings up the problem of red tape reduction of criminal justice.   The author uses a comparative and historical method in the research of present legal tradition, pays attention to international legal standards of providing the accused with the right to interrogate the person who witnesses against him/her, in the context of statements of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, verdicts of the European Court of Human Rights, and comes to the conclusion that the vector of significance of face-to-face interrogation has been shifted from overcoming major contradictions in testimonies of previously interrogated people to provision of requirements of international legal norms and present practice of the European Court of Human Rights in regard to Russia. The article pays special attention to the factual side of legal relations that appear in the course of face-to-face interrogation. 
Key words: face-to-face interrogation, proving in a criminal case, international standards, practice of the European Court of Human Rights, criminal justice bureaucracy.
References
1. Luneev V.V. Problemy ugolovnogo prava i drugih nauk kriminal'nogo cikla (Issues of criminal law and other sciences of the criminal course), Ugolovnoe pravo. Aktual'nye problemy teorii i praktiki: sbornik ocherkov, pod red. V.V.Luneeva. M. Izdatel'stvo Jurajt, 2010, pp. 15–52. 
2. Prokof'eva S.M. Stanovlenie i razvitie instituta dokazatel'stv v Rossii (Formation and development of evidence institute in Russia), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2013, № 5 (58), pp. 102–107.
3. Rossijskoe zakonodatel'stvo X-XX vekov (Russian legislation in the X-XX centuries), V 9 t. Pod obshh. red. O.I. Chistjakova. T.1. Zakonodatel'stvo Drevnej Rusi. Otv. red. V.L.Janin. M. Jurid. lit., 1984. 
4. Pravda Russkaja. I. Teksty (Pravda Russkaia. I. Texts), Pod red. akademika B.D. Grekova. M.-Leningrad. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1940. 
5. Pravda Russkaja. II. Kommentarii (Pravda Russkaia. II. Comments), Pod red. B.D.Grekova. M.-Leningrad. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1947. 
6. Rossijskoe zakonodatel'stvo X-XX vekov (Russian legislation in the X-XX centuries), V 9 t. Pod obshh. red. O.I. Chistjakova. T. 2. Zakonodatel'stvo perioda obrazovanija i ukreplenija Russkogo centralizovannogo gosudarstva. Otv. red. toma A.D.Gorskij. M. Jurid. lit., 1985.
7. Ustav ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva ot 20 nojabrja 1864 g. (Charter of Criminal justice of November 20, 1864), Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj Imperii. Sobranie vtoroe. Tom XXXIX. Otdelenie vtoroe. 1864. SPb.: Tipografija II Otdelenija Sobstvennoj E.I.V. Kanceljarii, 1867. pp. 215–306.
8. Vladimirov L.E. Uchenie ob ugolovnyh dokazatel'stvah (The doctrine of criminal evidence), Chasti: obshhaja i osobennaja. Tret'e izdanie, izmenennoe i zakonchennoe. SPb.: Izdanie knizhnogo magazina «Zakonovedenie», 1910. 
9. Vyshinskij A.Ja. Delo trockistsko-zinov'evskogo terroristicheskogo centra (Case of the Trotsky-Zinoviev terrorist center), Sudebnye rechi. Chetvertoe izdanie. M.: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo juridicheskoj literatury, 1955, pp. 382–424.
10. Kozhuharik D.N., Kudrjavceva T.G. Ochnaja stavka i voprosy ee processual'nogo provedenija (Face-to-face interrogation and procedural issues of its realization), Rossijskij sledovatel', 2015, № 20. Dostup iz Sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
11. Konvencija o zashhite prav cheloveka i osnovnyh svobod (Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms), ETS № 005 (Rim, 4 nojabrja 1950 g.) (s izm. i dop. ot 21 sentjabrja 1970 g., 20 dekabrja 1971 g., 1 janvarja 1990 g., 6 nojabrja 1990 g., 11 maja 1994 g.). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii ot 8 janvarja 2001 g, № 2, st. 163.
12. Mezhdunarodnyj pakt o grazhdanskih i politicheskih pravah (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), (N'ju-Jork, 16 dekabrja 1966 g.). Dostup iz Sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Garant».
13. O primenenii mezhdunarodnyh standartov prav cheloveka pri podgotovke nacional'noj i mezhdu-narodnoj zashhity (na primere analiza situacii v svjazi s ugolovnym i administrativnym presledovaniem lic, prinimavshih uchastie v nesankcionirovannom mitinge 19 dekabrja 2010 goda v Minske, Respublika Belarus') (On the application of international human rights standards in the preparation of national and international protection (for example, analysis of the situation in connection with criminal and administrative prosecution of persons who took part in an unauthorized rally December 19, 2010 in Minsk, Republic of Belarus), Mezhdunarodnoe pravo dlja zashhity obshhestvennyh interesov. Sbornik materialov vypusknikov proekta «Distancionnoe obuchenie advokatov pravam cheloveka». M. Izd-vo OOO «Mikoprint», 2013, pp. 74–132.
14. Postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 17 fevralja 2011 g. Delo «Kononenko (Kononenko) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 33780/04) (Pervaja sekcija) (The European Court of Human Rights judgment of 17 February 2011. Case "Kononenko (Kononenko) vs the Russian Federation" (complaint № 33780/04) (First Section), Dostup iz Sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Garant».
15. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 23 nojabrja 2011 g. № 264-P11 (Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of November 23, 2011 № 264-P11), Dostup iz Sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Garant».
16. Shejfer S.A. Dokazatel'stva i dokazyvanie po ugolovnym delam: problemy teorii i pravovogo regulirovanija (Evidence and proving in criminal cases: problems of theory and legal regulation), M. Norma, Infra-M, 2010. 
17. Strogovich M.S. Kurs sovetskogo ugolovnogo processa. T. 2: Porjadok proizvodstva po ugolovnym delam po sovetskomu ugolovno-processual'nomu pravu (Course of Soviet criminal procedure. V. 2. The procedure in criminal cases under Soviet criminal procedure law), M. Izd-vo «Nauka», 1970. 
18. Zheltobrjuhov S. Ochnaja stavka ne opravdyvaet sebja kak sledstvennoe dejstvie (Face-to-face interrogation does not proves its value as an investigative action), Rossijskaja justicija, 2008, № 1, p. 56.
Received: 20.11.2016
THE LAWYER’S ANALYSIS
OF MATERIALS RELATED TO COMMISSIONING OF EXPERT REVIEWS
EXARKHOPULO Aleksei Alekseevich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Department of Law of the St. Petersburg Branch of  National Research University "Higher School of Economics", Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In modern conditions the issues of the lawyer’ assessments of reasonableness in commissioning and performing of expert examinations based on the analysis of procedural documents relating to the relevant decision, become particularly important. The proposed recommendations of assessing reasonableness in rendering the decision to commission expert examinations are stipulated by the foregoing as well as the criteria formulated by the author for assessing the quality of original materials submitted for analysis. While assessing the quality of comparative samples, the lawyer should remember that the initiator of the commissioned examination, who is not quite knowledgeable in the rules for their selection and gives unsatisfactory samples to the expert, inevitably lays down an error in the results of the upcoming examination. Therefore, the lawyer must timely discover shortcomings of the comparative material that is proposed to the expert for investigating and appropriately respond to it, claiming for complementing or replacing unsatisfactory samples. Alternatively, after the examination he\she must raise the question of exclusion of the expert opinion from the list of case evidences as inadmissible. In case of difficulties with exercise of judgment of samples quality, the lawyer should seek specialist’s advice.
Key words: lawyer, forensic examination, grounds for commissioning of expert reviews, materials under examination, comparative samples.
References
1. Instruktsiya o poryadke iz"yatiya, ucheta, khraneniya i peredachi veshchestvennykh dokazatel'stv po ugo-lovnym delam, tsennostei i inogo imushchestva organami predvaritel'nogo sledstviya, doznaniya, sudami (utverzhdena Prokuraturoi SSSR, MVD, KGB, Verkhovnym Sudom SSSR № 34/15 18.10.89 g. s iz-meneniyami, vnesennymi sovmestnym prikazom MVD Rossii, Minyusta Rossii, Minzdrava Rossii, Minekonomiki Rossii, GTK Rossii, FSB Rossii, FPS Rossii ot 9 noyabrya 1999 goda (Instruction on the procedure of withdrawal, registration, storage and transfer of evidence in criminal cases, items of value and other property by the investigating authorities, inquiry, courts (approved by the USSR Prosecutor's Office, the Interior Ministry, the KGB, the Supreme Court of the USSR № 34/15 18.10.89 as amended by the joint order of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Justice of Russia, Russian Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy of Russia, State Customs Committee of Russia, the Russian Federal Security Service, the Federal Border Service of Russia). NN 840, 320, 388, 472, 726, 530, 585. URL: http://www.garant.ru/products/ ipo/prime/doc/1205854/#ixzz4VoNWX5nx
2. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF «O sudebnoi ekspertize po ugolovnym delam» № 28 ot 21.12.2010 g. (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation "On forensic examination in criminal cases» № 28), Rossiiskaya gazeta. Federal'nyi vypusk № 5375 (296). 2010. 30 dekabrya. 
3. Brodskaya A.B. O vozmozhnosti ustanovleniya fakta vypolneniya rukopisi v usloviyakh nizkikh tempe-ratur (On the possibility of establishing the fact of making the manuscript at low temperatures), Kriminalistika i sudebnaya ekspertiza, Mezhvedomstvennyi nauchno-metodicheskii sbornik. Vyp.7. Kiev. Minyust Ukrainy, 1970. 
4. Makarenko I.A. Zashchitnik kak garant soblyudeniya prav i zakonnykh interesov nesovershennoletnego obvinyaemogo (Defender as a guarantor of the rights and legitimate interests of juvenile defendants), Zakon i pravo, 2006, No. 12, pp. 29–30. 
5. Nauchno-prakticheskii kommentarii k Ugolovno-protsessual'nomu kodeksu RSFSR (Scientific-practical commentary to the Criminal Procedure Code of the RSFSR). Izd. 2-e, pererab. i dop., pod obshch. red. Preds. Verkhovnogo Suda  RF V.M. Lebedeva,  nauch. red. zasl. deyat. nauki RF, prof. V.P. Bozh'ev. M. Izdatel'stvo «Spark», 1997.
6. Nauchno–prakticheskii kommentarii k UPK RF (Scientific-practical commentary to the Code of Criminal Procedure of RF). 4-e izd., pererab. i dop., pod obshch. red. Preds. Verkhovnogo Suda RF, zasl. yurista RF, d.yu.n., prof. V.M. Lebedeva, nauch. red. zasl. deyat. nauki RF, prof. V.P. Bozh'ev. M. Izdatel'stvo «Yurait», 2008. 
7. Nauchno-prakticheskii kommentarii k UPK RF (Scientific-practical commentary to the Code of Criminal Procedure of RF). 9-e izd., pererab. i dop., pod obshch. red. Preds. Ver-khovnogo Suda RF, zasl. yurista RF, d.yu.n., prof. V.M. Lebedeva, nauch. red. zasl. deyat. nauki RF, prof. V.P. Bozh'ev. M. Izdatel'stvo «Yurait», 2014.
8. Eksarkhopulo A.A. Spetsial'nye poznaniya i ikh primenenie v issledovanii materialov ugolovnogo dela (Special knowledge and its application in the study of materials in criminal cases). SPb. Izdatel'skii dom S.-Peterb. gos. un-ta, 2005.
Received: 23.01.2017
SOME ISSUES OF PERFORMANCE OF SUMMARY INQUIRY
ZAYNULLIN Ruslan Ildarovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
In the given article, the author analyzes the institute of summary inquiry, including some of its forensic aspects. Recognizing the need to introduce simplified criminal procedure forms for preliminary investigations in the aims of procedural economy, the author identifies and justifies the existence of many problems of implementing the introduction of this form of criminal proceedings. The author analyzes the issues related to procedural order of performance of summary inquiry as well as proving limits and facts in proof. The author concludes reasonably that the introduction of such an institute of simplified criminal procedure forms of preliminary investigations, as summary inquiry, is highly ineffectual because of its poor regulation and the lack of a truly unique and special procedure.
Key words: preliminary investigation, inquiry, summary inquiry, fact in proof, proving limit.
References
1. Aleksandrov A.S., Lapatnikov M.V. Sokrashhennoe doznanie: novelly UPK RF i slozhnosti ih primenenija (Summary inquiry: Novels of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the problems of their application), Ugolovnyj process, M, izd-vo «Aktion-MCFJeR», 2013, № 4, pp. 15
2. Aleksandrov A.S., Safin R.R., Junusov R.R. K voprosu o sozdanii sokrashhennoj formy dosudebnogo proizvodstva po ugolovnomu delu (On the issue of creating a summary form of pre-trial proceedings in a criminal case), Aktual'nye problemy jekonomiki i prava, 2012. № 4, pp. 264–265. 
3. Belavin A.A., Bochinin S.A. Problemy sokrashhennoj formy doznanija (Problems of summary form of inquiry), Rossijskij sledovatel’, M., izd-vo «IG Jurist», 2016, № 13, pp. 15. 
4. Kovtun N.N. Doznanie v sokrashhennoj forme: kollizii i lakuny normativnogo regulirovanija ((Summary inquiry: collisions and regulatory gaps), Rossijskaja justicija, M., izd-vo «IG Jurist», 2013, № 12, pp. 47.
5. Michurina O.V., Himicheva O.V. Predmet i predely dokazyvanija pri proizvodstve doznanija v sokrashhennoj forme: zamysel zakonodatelja i prakticheskij rezul’tat (Fact in proof and limits of proving while performing a summary inquiry: legislator’s idea and the bottom line), Rossijskij sledovatel’, M., izd-vo «IG Jurist», 2016, № 5, pp. 22.
Received: 24.01.2017
MODERN PROBLEMS OF FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA
LATYPOV Vadim Sagityanovich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Head of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The problem of the use of special knowledge while investigating and trying criminal cases constantly draws attention of scientists and practicians. At the same time, the current procedural legislation and normative base regulating forensic expert activities in Russia need additional scientific researches. The foregoing predetermined the necessity of legal analysis of forensic expert activities at the present stage of legislation development, recognition of the topical issues arising in this sphere and suggestions of further ways of improvement. Certain aspects, which are subject to improvement in the Draft Federal Law "On forensic expert activities in the Russian Federation», are revealed. The author initiates legislation in order to improve the current Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation, as well as the Draft Federal Law "On forensic expert activities in the Russian Federation" that will allow to solve a number of problems of  law enforcement officials arising in the course of implementation of forensic expert activities.
Key words: performance of expert examinations, expert opinion, expert research, proof, other document, non-state expert institution, forensic expert activities, experts, special knowledge.
References
1. Zaitseva E.A. Kontseptsiya razvitiya instituta sudebnoi ekspertizy v usloviyakh sostyazatel'nogo ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva (The concept of development of the institute of judicial examination in the conditions of competitive criminal legal proceedings), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk, Moskva, 2008.
2. Latypov V.S. Aktual'nye voprosy primeneniya instituta spetsial'nykh znanii v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve Rossii: ugolovno-protsessual'nyi aspect (Topical issues of application of the institute of special knowledge in criminal trial of Russia: criminal procedure aspect), monografiya. Moskva, Yurlitinform, 2016. 
3. Latypov V.S. K voprosu o «legalizatsii» negosudarstvennykh ekspertnykh uchrezhdenii (To the question of "legalization" of non-state expert institutions), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No 3, pp, 132–138. 
4. O sudebno-ekspertnoi deyatel'nosti v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (On forensic expert activities in Russia), proekt Federal'nogo zakona No 306504-6 (red., prinyataya GD FS RF v I chtenii 20.11.2013). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus», (accessed date 02 February 2017).
5. Opredelenie Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 19 iyulya 2006 g. No 87-o06-18 (Definition of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of July 19, 2006.). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus» (accessed date 02 February 2017).
6. Sostoyanie prestupnosti – yanvar'-dekabr' 2016 goda (Crime rate – January-December, 2016), Offi-cial site of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, URL:https://xn--b1aew.xn--p1ai/upload/site1/document_news/ 009/338/947/sb_1612.pdf (accessed date 02 February 2017).
Received: 17.02.2017
PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JUVENILE OFFENDER
NOSKOV Oleg Sergeevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Head of the Department of Fire and Special Tactical Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The study of the identity of the juvenile offender is among the leading and yet the most complex problems of criminology. The identity of the offender always is one of the main directions of criminological characteristics of learning any type of crime. Thus, it is possible to note that criminology as a science, essentially, investigates the identity of the offender, but such studies are particular, because they are in virtue of the nature of the learning object less general than studies of socio-economic and cultural values, due to the individuality of each person. In order to define the concept "juvenile offender" it is necessary to reveal the concepts "juvenile" and "offender".
Key words: criminal, juvenile, minor, crime, psychological characteristics, mood swings, juvenile’s psyche, cruelty.
References
1. Belskiy A.I., Yagodin R.S. Kriminologicheskaja harakteristika lichnosti nesovershennoletnego prestupnika (Criminological characteristics of the personality of juvenile offenders), Rossiyskiy sledovatel, 2015, No. 15, pp. 48–50.
2. Konventsiya o pravah rebenka (Convention on the Rights of the Child), Sbornik mezhdunarodnyih dogovorov SSSR, vyipusk XLVI, 1993.
3. Krutetskiy V. A. Psihologija:  uchebnik dlya uchaschihsya ped. uchilisch (Psychology: Textbook for students of ped. schools). M. Prosveschenie, 2004.
4. Muhina V.S. Vozrastnaja psihologija ( Age psychology). M. Akademiya, 2004.
5. Ugolovnyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ot 13.06.1996 № 63-FZ (Criminal code of the Russian Federation of 13.06.1996 No. 63-FL) (s izm. i dop. ot 25.07.2015), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 17.06.1996, No. 25, st. 2954.
6. Ob osnovah sistemyi profilaktiki beznadzornosti i pravonarusheniy nesovershennoletnih, Federalnyiy zakon ot 24.06.1999, No. 120-FZ  (On Principles of prevention of neglect and juvenile delinquency, Federal Law of 24.06.1999, No. 120-FL) (red. ot 26.04.2016), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 28.06.1999, No. 26, st. 3177.
Received: 17.02.2017
EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE AS AN ELEMENT OF FORENSIC CATEGORY
SABANOV Andrey Yuryevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Police Lieutenant Colonel, FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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The given paper reveals the importance of the forensic concept of explosive ordnance (ammunition, explosive devices, explosives, pyrotechnic products). As well, the author draws attention to the fact that these items are known to Russian criminal law, but at the legislative level, these concepts are not defined. The concept of these items, and legal regulation of their turnover is incomplete and irregular in nature. In this regard, these concepts must be defined at the legislative level and have a uniform understanding.
Key words: explosive ordnance, ammunition, explosives, explosive devices, object of explosion engineering, category of ammunition.
References
1. Samojlov A.S. Ponjatie vzryvnogo ustrojstva v Ugolovnom kodekse Rossijskoj Federacii ne raskryto (The concept of an explosive device in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation is not revealed), Bjulleten' UVS i VK VS RF. 1998. № 4.
2. Ob oruzhii: Federal'nyj zakon ot 13.12.1996 №150-FZ (red. ot 02.07.2013 № 185 FZ) (On Weapons: Federal Law № 150-FL of 13.12.1996 (Ed. 2.7.2013 №185 FL)).
3. Orlenko L.P. Fizika vzryva i udara (Explosion and shock physics). M., 2008.
4. Antonchenko V.V. Mnogoob#ektnost' prestuplenij, svjazannyh nezakonnym oborotom oruzhija v voinskih formirovanijah (A large scale of crimes involving illicit trafficking of arms in military for-mations), Voenno-juridicheskij zhurnal. 2009. № 2.
5. Mozhaev S.N. Vzryvnye ustrojstva, ispol'zuemye terroristami pri sovershenii terroristicheskih aktov (The explosive devices used by terrorists in committing terrorist acts). M., 2007. 
6. GOST V20313-74 «Boepripasy. Osnovnye ponjatija. Terminy i opredelenija» (GOST V20313-74 "Ammunition. Basic concepts. Terms and Definitions"). M., 1975; Izmenenie №1 GOST V20313-74. M., 1982.
7. O podpisanii Soglashenija o sotrudnichestve gosudarstv – uchastnikov Sodruzhestva Nezavisimyh Gosudarstv v bor'be s nezakonnym izgotovleniem i oborotom ognestrel'nogo oruzhija, boepripasov, vzryvchatyh veshhestv i vzryvnyh ustrojstv: Rasporjazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 13.11.2008 №1653-r; Ob utverzhdenii Pravil peremeshhenija cherez tamozhennuju granicu Rossijskoj Federacii tovarov otdel'nymi kategorijami inostrannyh lic: Prikaz GTK RF ot 10.10.2002 №1087 (red. ot 17.02.2004); O dopolnitel'nyh merah po preduprezhdeniju nezakonnogo oborota oruzhija, boepripasov, vzryvchatyh veshhestv i materialov (vmeste s «Polozheniem ob organizacii raboty po priemu ot grazhdan nezakonno hranjashhihsja u nih oruzhija, boepripasov, vzryvchatyh veshhestv i materialov na vozmezdnoj osnove»): Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva Moskvy ot 29.07.2003 №630-PP (red. ot 15.05.2007) (See: On the signing of the Covenant of  cooperation of states - participants of the Commonwealth of Independent States in the fight against illicit manufacturing and trafficking of firearms, ammunition, explosives and explosive devices: Directive of the RF Government of 13.11.2008 №1653-p; On approval of the Rules of goods transfer across the customs border of the Russian Federation by certain categories of foreign persons: Order of the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation from 10.10.2002 №1087 (ed. 17.02.2004); On additional measures to prevent illicit trafficking of weapons, ammunition, explosive items and materials (together with "Regulation on the organization of receiving from citizens illegally stored weapons, ammunition and explosives on a reimbursable basis"): Resolution of the Moscow Government dated 29.07 .2003 №630-PP (ed.  15.05.2007).
8. Kopylov D.G. Neobhodimost' ugolovno-pravovoj differenciacii predmetov prestuplenij, predusmo-trennyh stat'jami 222 i 223 UK RF (The need for criminal law differentiation of subjects of crimes stipulated by Articles 222 and 223 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), Kriminalisticheskie sredstva i metody v raskrytii i rassledovanii prestuplenij: Mater. IV Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf. M., 2009. P.39.
9. O sudebnoj praktike po delam o hishhenii, vymogatel'stve i nezakonnom oborote oruzhija, boepripasov, vzryvchatyh veshhestv i vzryvnyh ustrojstv: Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 12.03.2002 №5 (red. ot 06.02.2007 №7) (On judicial practice in cases of theft, extortion and trafficking of firearms, ammunition, explosives and explosive devices: Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of 12.03.2002 №5 (amended on 06.02.2007 №7).
10. Bagautdinov F.N., Shirkin A.I. Ugolovnaja otvetstvennost' za nezakonnoe hranenie i noshenie patronov (Criminal liability for illegal possession and carrying ammunition), Pravosudie v Tatarstane. 2007. № 2 (31). P.31.
11. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 14.02.2007 №549-P06 po ugolovnomu delu po nadzornoj zhalobe osuzhdennogo na prigovor Kaluzhskogo oblastnogo suda ot 04.12.2003 g. (Resolu-tion of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 14.02.2007 №549-P06 in a criminal case on the convict’s complaint over the verdict of the Kaluga Regional Court of 04.12.2003).
12. Kassacionnoe opredelenie sudebnoj kollegii po ugolovnym delam Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 29.06.2006 №88-O06-21 po kassacionnoj zhalobe osuzhdennogo na prigovor Tomskogo oblastnogo suda ot 11.11.2005 g. (The cassational ruling of the judicial board on criminal cases of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 29.06.2006 №88-O 06-21 on the convict’s cassation against the sentence of the Tomsk Regional Court of 11.11.2005).
13. Opredelenie sudebnoj kollegii po ugolovnym delam Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 09.03.2006 №41-O05-9 po kassacionnoj zhalobe osuzhdennogo i advokata na prigovor Rostovskogo oblastnogo suda ot 06.12.2004 g. (The definition of the judicial board on criminal cases of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation from 09.03.2006 №41-O05-9 on the convict and his lawyer’s cassation against the judgment of the Rostov Regional Court of 06.12.2004).
14. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 16.03.2005 №602p2004 po ugolovnomu delu po nadzornoj zhalobe osuzhdennogo na prigovor Krasnodarskogo kraevogo suda ot 12.11.2001 g. (Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of 16.03.2005 №602p 2004 in a criminal case on the convict’s complaint over the verdict of the Krasnodar Regional Court of 12.11.2001).
15. Bagautdinov F., Shirkin A. Ruchnaja granata: oruzhie, vzryvnoe ustrojstvo ili boepripas? (Hand Grenade: a weapon, an explosive device or an ammunition?), Zakonnost'. 2008. №1. P.12.
Received: 17.02.2017
FORENSIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE COMMITTED AGAINST JUVENILES AND MINORS
KHALIULLINA Aigul Faatovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
The article analyzes scientific concepts and views on one of the main structural elements of the methodology of investigation of certain types of crimes - forensic characteristics of crimes. The author points out the importance of considering the content of forensic characteristics and meaning of its elements for crimes investigation, in particular, to investigate sexual violence committed against juveniles and minors. The author reveals the content of the main elements of forensic characteristics of this category of crime: modus operandi, crime situation, characteristics of the victim and the perpetrator. The knowledge of typical forensic characteristics of sexual battery will help the investigator to get timely the right direction of the investigation, introduce his\her ideas of the identity of the offender, select a set of necessary initial investigative actions in order to raise effectiveness of the investigation.
Key words: forensic characteristics, sexual battery, juveniles, minors, modus operandi, crime situation, identity of the offender, victim's identity.
References
1. Kolesnichenko A.N. Nauchnye i pravovye osnovy rassledovaniya otdel'nykh vidov prestuplenii (Scientific and legal framework of the investigation of certain types of crimes), avtoref. dis. …d-ra yurid. nauk. Khar'kov, 1967. 
2. Sergeev L.A. Rassledovanie i preduprezhdenie khishchenii, sovershennykh pri proizvodstve stroitel'nykh rabot (Investigation and prevention of thefts committed in the production of construction works), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 1966.  
3. Yablokov N.P. Kriminalistika v voprosakh i otvetakh, uchebnoe posobie (Forensic science in questions and answers: Tutorial). M. Norma: INFRA-M, 2015. 
4. Boiko Yu.L. O soderzhatel'noi storone kriminalisticheskoi kharakteristiki prestuplenii (On the con-tent side of criminological characteristics of crimes). Vyp. 10. Barnaul. Izd-vo Altaiskogo universiteta, 2011. 
5. Florovskii M.Yu., Volynskii V.A. Mesto kriminalisticheskoi kharakteristiki v chastnoi metodike rassledovaniya otdel'nykh vidov prestupleniy (Place of criminological characteristics in a private method of investigation of certain types of crimes), Problemy predvaritel'nogo sledstviya i doznaniya, sb. nauch. tr. M. VNII MVD Rossii, 1996, pp. 68–74.
6. Kanevskii L.L. Kriminalisticheskie problemy rassledovaniya i profilaktiki prestuplenii nesovershen-noletnikh (Forensic problems of investigation and prevention of juvenile crimes). Krasnoyarsk. Izd-vo Krasnoyar. un-ta, 1991. 
7. Fedorov Yu.D. Prostranstvenno-vremennye faktory, svyazannye s soversheniem prestupleniya, i ikh mesto v metodike rassledovaniya (Spatio-temporal factors related to the commission of an offense and their role in the investigation procedure). Metodika rassledovaniya prestuplenii (Obshchie polozheniya). M., 1976.
8. Kriminalistika: uchebnik (Forensics: Textbook), otv. red. N.P. Yablokov. M. Yurist, 1999.
Received: 20.01.2017
THE PRINCIPLES OF CONSTITUTIONALISM IN THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM
AYVAZYAN Vardan Norayrovich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Constitutional Law of Yerevan State University, Head of Department of Legal Provision of the Special Investigation Service of Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia.
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The world economy is in a state of struggle with the crisis, the success of which depends directly on the quality of the existing functional arsenal of regulatory mechanisms to ensure the system balance and well-drafted «anti-crisis program», as at the country level and at the level of measures to synchronize and coordinate the administrating at the global level of world economic relations. The concept of self-rehabilitating features of the free market does not work unfortunately and recurrence of chronic economic crisis degenerate into a political and social problem, with the formation of the factors leading to the loss of controllabijulity and system conflicts. In this statement, the crisis can be seen as a failure of the control system for the prevention and resolution of systemic conflict. The article analyzes the "constitutionalism" as a complex methodological tool of construction and consolidation of the economic system, which is able to prevent and solve system conflicts.
Key words: economic system, constitutionalism, economic crisis, rule-of-law state, supremacy of law, public process. 
ON IDEOLOGICAL AND THEORETICAL GROUNDS OF EARLY BRITISH COLONIZATION OF NORTH AMERICA
TIMONIN Anatolii Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.
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Anglo-Saxon legal colonial thought is noticeably inferior to Spanish in humanistic perspective.  After studying special scientific literature, certain juridical documents of early art nouveau period and doctrinal works of Spanish and English lawyers of that period, the author comes to the conclusion that among Anglo-Saxon ideologists there was no their own B. Las Casas, who was a true humanist and a defender of Indians’ rights. There were no such ideologists as F. Vittoria, who found arguments in favor of the Spanish colonial expansion, blaming colonizers’ and conquistadors’ crimes. The primary aim of the British colonial expansion in America was not to export its own legal values, but to conquer foreign territories. That is why early ideologists made all efforts to dehumanize American aborigines, to justify ideologically their mass extermination, excluding compromises, especially interracial marriages. Realization of the British colonial ideology combining legal and religious principles, led to the longest genocide in the history.
Key words: British colonial expansion, British colonial ideas, genocide of American Indians.
Библиографические ссылки. References 
1. Hunter D. The Race to the New World: Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, and a Lost History of Discovery. New York, 2011 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source].URL: http://en.booksee>book/2235126 (дата обращения: 08.10.2016) (accessed date 08.10.2016). 
2. First letters patent granted by Henry VII to John Cabot and his sons // The Precursors of Jacques Cartier 1497-1584. A collection of documents relating to the early history of the dominion of Canada. Edited вy H.P. Biggar, B. Litt. Of the Archives Branch. Ottawa, 1911 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL: http://archive.org/details/precursorsofjacq00bigguoft (дата обращения: 22.11.2016) (accessed date 22.11.2016).
3. Williams R. A. Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest. New York, 1990 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL: http://bookre.org›Reader›?file=834538 (дата обращения: 12.09.2016) (accessed date 12.09.2016).
4. Francisco de Vitoria. De iure belli; trad., intr. e note a cura di C. Galli. Collana, 2005 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://en.booksee>book/1517979 (дата обращения: 20.09.2016) (accessed date 20.09.2016). 
5. The catholic conception of international law. Francisco de Vitoria, founder of the modern law of nations. Francisco Suarez, founder of the modern philosophy of law in general and in particular of the law of nations. A Critical Examination and a Justified Appreciation /By Scott J. B. New Jersey, 2007 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source].URL:http:// bookre.org›Reader›?file=1125060 (дата обращения: 26.09.2016) (accessed date 26.09.2016). 
6. Tosi G. La teoria della Guerra giusta in Fransisco de Vitoria e il dibattito sulla conquista //JURA GENTIUM. Rivista della filosofia del diritto internazionale e della politica globale. 2006 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source].URL:http://www.juragentium.org/topics/wlgo/it/tosi.htm. (дата обращения: 22.09.2016) (accessed date 22.09.2016). 
7. The Empire of Civilization: The Evolution of an Imperial Idea /Brett Bowden. Chicago and London, 2009 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookre.org›Reader›?file=1074628 (дата обращения: 1.04.2016) (accessed date 01.04.2016). 
8. The first Three English books on America. [?1511] — 1555 A.D. Being chiefly Translations, Compilations, &c., by Richard Eden. /Ed. by E. Arber. Birmingham, 22 June 1885 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://archive.org›stream/…/… Full text of "San Francisco Public Library monthly bulletin"_djvu.txt (дата обращения: 7.11.2016) (accessed date 07.11.2016).
9. The Voyages of the English Nation to America /Collected By Richard Hakluyt, preacher and edited By Edmund Goldsmid. F.R.H.S. Vol. II.Edinburgh, 1889 [Электронный ресурс]. [Electronic source] URL:http://archive.org›details (дата обращения: 26.11.2016) (accessed date 26.11.2016).
10. A Treaty of perpetual Peace and Alliance between Philip the III. King of Spain, and the Archduke and Albert and Isabella on the one , and James the I. King of England on the other fide. Made in the Year 1604 // A general collection of t r e a t y' s, manifesto's, contracts of marriage, renunciations, and other publick papers, from the year 1405, to the year 1712. London: Knapton [a. o.], 1732 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://books.google.ru (дата обращения: 29.09.2016) (accessed date 29.09.2016).
11. The Jamestown experiment : the remarkable story of the enterprising colony and the unexpected results that shaped America / Tony Williams. Naperville, 2011 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookre.org›Reader›?file=1454543 (дата обращения: 16.11.2016) (accessed date 16.11.2016).
12. Elliott J. H. Empires of the Atlantic world: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830 /J.H. Elliott. New Haven and London, 2006 [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookre.org›Reader›?file= 1396249 (дата обращения: 08.08.2016) (accessed date 08.08.2016).
13. Thornton R. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492 Civilization of the American Indian Series; V. 186. University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookre.org›Reader›?file=1188820 (дата обращения: 13.11.2016) (accessed date 13.11.2016).
14. The old dominion at war. Society, Politics, and Warfare in Late Colonial Virginia / James Titus. University of South Carolina Press, 1991. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookzz.org›book/ 2215382/892832 (дата обращения: 20.11.2016) (accessed date 20.11.2016).
15. Empire, Colony, Genocide Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History / Ed. by A. Dirk Moses. New York; Oxford, 2008. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookre.org› Reader›?file=1033857 (дата обращения: 20.09.2016) (accessed date 20.09.2016).
16. The First Way of War American War Making on the Frontier, 1607–1814 /Grenier J. New York, 2005. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://ru.bookzz.org›book/647744/641199 (дата обращения: 29.08.2016) (accessed date 29.08.2016).
17. The Origins of Genocide Raphael Lemkin as a historian of mass violence /Ed. by D. J. Schaller and J. Zimmerer. New York, 2009. [Электронный ресурс] [Electronic source]. URL:http://bookre.org›Reader›? file=1155666 (дата обращения: 06.10.2016) (accessed date 06.10.2016).
Received: 27.11.2016
IS THE MEDIA ABLE TO DETERMINE THE FUTURE OF THE NATION? THE FATE OF ONE POLITICAL CAMPAIGN IN THE UK
SULTANOV Akhsan Kharisovich
Candidate of Sciences (History), Head of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law of the FSGEI HE «Ufa Law Institute of the MIA 
of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
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In today's world, the impact of the media, including the press, on the development of political and social processes in the society is especially significant. It is naturally that authorities always seek to influence political behavior of the population, especially in the periods when the fate of the state directly depends on people voting. Herewith tools, which can be equally attributed to state and civil society institutions, are widely used. In any democratic community media`s destination is to demonstrate at times opposing positions in order to achieve certain results. In the same vein the British press acted, which played a significant role in summer and autumn events of 2014 in the United Kingdom.
Key words: newspapers and magazines, Scotland, nationalists, globalization, referendum.
Библиографические ссылки. References
1. The Guardian, 2014, 22 August.
2. The Guardian, 2014, 12 September.
3. The Observer, 2014, 30 August.
Received: 02.12.2016
REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN AND THE START OF CONSTRUCTION OF A FEDERAL STATE IN RUSSIA
GAZIZOVA Leisan Makhmutovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia.
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This paper aims to make the scientific community of the Republic of Bashkortostan as well as of all the Russian Federation address the urgent problems arising from the current state of federal construction in our country. Some theoretical problems caused by the practice of federal construction in the Russian Federation are revealed, the ways of their further settlement are suggested. The main challenges accumulated in the course of federal construction in our country are determined, the ways to overcome them are proposed.
Key words: 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Republic of Bashkortostan; scientific basis of federal construction; ratio of a federal and democratic state; ratio of a federal and rule-of-law state; purposes of modern federal construction in Russia. 
References
3. Rayanov F.M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (Federation - is not a goal in itself), Vlast', 1996, No. 3. 
4. Rayanov F.M. Razvitie sovremennykh predstavlenii o sushchnosti federativnogo gosudarstva (The development of modern ideas on the nature of a federal state), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 1999, No. 1 (21).
5. Rayanov F.M. Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan kak sub"ekta Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Legal system of the Republic of Bashkortostan as an entity of the Russian Federation), Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan: stanovlenie i dal'neishee razvitie, materialy respublikanskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii 27 fevralya 1996 g., g. Ufa. Akademiya nauk Respubliki Bashkortostan. Ufa, 1996.
6. Rayanov F.M. Yuridicheskoe pravo: vremya razobrat'sya po sushchestvu (Juridical law: time to deal essentially), preprint. Izdanie Bashkirskogo universiteta. Ufa, 2001.
7. Annenkov V.G. Pravovoe prostranstvo sovremennoi Rossii: ponyatie, struktura i mekhanizm obespecheniya edinstva (The legal space of modern Russia: concept, structure and the mechanism to ensure unity), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2005, No. 4.
8. Zhalinskii A., Rerikht A. Vvedenie v nemetskoe pravo (Introduction to German law). M. Spark, 2001.
9. Fridmen L. Vvedenie v amerikanskoe pravo (Introduction to American Law), per. s ang., pod red. M. Kalantarovoi. M., 1993.
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Received: 20.02.2017
 

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