№ 4 (46) 2016 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

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№ 4 (46) 2016

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№ 4 (46) 2016
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Philosophical and Legal Comprehension of the State

THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Zakhartsev S.I.
Salnikov V.P.
Scientometrics and Citation Indices: Today and Tomorrow
Kuksin I.N.
Novopavlovskaya E.E.
The concept of Social Welfare State as an Element of Modern Russian Constitutionalism
Rakhimzoda R.K.
The Origin and Functioning of Search Activity in the Ancient World: Historical Background
Chashin A.N.
Doctrinal Forms of Law and Forms to Express a Legal Doctrine 
Galikeeva I.G.
The Problem of the Status of Notary in the Rule-of-Law State
Glushkova S.I.
Political and Legal Ideas of Pavel Novgorodtsev: From Public Ideals to Humanitarian Practices (to the 150 Anniversary of the Thinker)
Askarova A.R.
Some Questions of History of Appearance of Alcoholism and Effective Countermeasures (Historical and Legal Aspect)
Enikeev R.N.
Russian Statehood: Historical and Comparative Study
Derbysheva E.A.
The Relationship Between the Principle of Legal Certainty and Res Judicata
Abezgildin R.R.
Political Networks and Syncretism of Modern Legal Culture of Russian Society
Petrenko M.N.
On the Notion of Public Enforcement As a Form of Realization of State Authority
Akhverdiev E.E.
Comparative Analysis of Justice in Islam and Judaism
Erkeev I.H. 
Frolova N.A.
Civil Society as an Object of Economic Security
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Mamleeva D.R.
Problems of Improvement of Organizational Structure and Activity Forms of Railway and Water Transport Police
Morozova A.S.
Plakhtiy E.V.
Rule-of-Law Democratic State As the Basis of the Constitutional System in the Russian Federation: Implementation Problems in Modern Conditions
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL
AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Arutyunyan M.S.
Limitation for Action in the System of Civil Time Constraints 
Enikeev O.A.
Debatable Provisions of Chapter 45.1 of the Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation
Enikeeva Z.A.
Convergence of Public and Private Law As the Key Trend of Legal Regulation of Public Private Partnership in Healthcare
Zhemaletdinov R.M.
To the Issue of Competence Requirements to Litigation Guardians in Administrative and Civil Proceedings
Svetlichniy A.V.
The Right to Temporary Storage of Imported Goods in Recipient's Warehouses Without Application of Punitive Sanctions
Akhmatyanova V.A.
Surrogate Maternity in Russia: Analysis of Legislation and Practice 
Murzabulatov U.M.
Slepnev E.L.
Challenging Issues of Return of a Writ of Execution to the Recoverer after Initiating Enforcement Proceedings
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Korolev R.V.
Development of the Principle of Democracy in the Science of Criminal and Penal Law in the End of the XIX and Beginning of the XX Centuries
Mitskaya E.V.
Bail As a Condition to Exempt from Criminal Liability with the Establishment of Pledgery
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Zaynullin R.I.
To the Question of Conceptual Foundations of a Unified System of Forensic Institutions in the Russian Federation
Skripka A.A.
General Provisions on Victims and Witnesses Interrogation in the Investigation of Crimes Against Life and Health of Minors Committed on Grounds of Political, Ideological, Racial, National or Religious Hatred or Enmity or on Grounds of Hatred or Enmity Concerning Any Social Group
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW
Galyautdinov R.F.
Modern Problems of Legal Regulation of Non-Cash Payment by Plastic Bank Cards
Kondrat E.N.
Financial Security and Its Legal Regulation: Some New Problems
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 
Gizzatullin R.Kh.
The Implementation of the Principle of Prevention of Harm to the Environment in Environmental Law
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY. 
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Yelizarov M.V.
Towards the Question of the Exacerbation of the Crisis in the U.S.- Russian Relationship at the Current Stage
Krivov A.V.
International and Law Criminal Aspects of Detection, Arrest and Confiscation of Money and Property, Obtained by Criminal Means, Financing Terrorism and Expansion of Mass Destruction Weapons
TO THE AUTHORS
 
 
 
SCIENTOMETRICS AND CITATION INDICES: TODAY AND TOMORROW
ZAKHARTSEV Sergey Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy, Moscow, Russia.
SALNIKOV Victor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the “Legal Science: History and Modernity” Journal, Honored Worker of Science of Russian Federation, Honored Worker of the Higher Education of the Russian Federation
Lately scientometrics as a new phenomenon in the world of science has become more attractive for scientists. In fact, orientation on revealing the demand for works of a definite scientist by stating the general number of citations f his/her works pose a topical problem, the solution of which is directly connected to increasing results and effectiveness of a science. However, it should be admitted, that the practice of quality assessment of scientific publications through the h-index and other citation indices, which are widely used today, is not free from serious criticism, including the factor of subjectivity. Thus, there is a necessity to study separate positive and negative sides of the h-index and Russian Science Citation Index Library. Science, philosophy of science and philosophy face a great scientific problem of elaborating an objective scale of assessment of scientific works.
Key words: science, scientometrics, science philosophy, h-index, index of scientific individuality.
References
1. Belkin R.S. Istoriya otechestvennoi kriminalistiki (History of domestic criminalistics). M., 1999. 
2. Guseva V.Yu. Ponyatie spravedlivosti v psikhologicheskoi teorii prava L.I. Petrazhitskogo (The concept of justice in psychological theory of law of L.I. Petrazhitsky), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 9.
3. Guseva V.Yu. Pravo kak isklyuchitel'no psikhologicheskoe yavlenie individual'noi psikhiki v teorii L.I. Petrazhitskogo (Law as solely a psychological phenomenon of the individual psyche in theory of L.I. Petrazhitsky), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 3, рp. 190–198.
4. Zakhartsev S.I. Nekotorye problemy teorii i filosofii prava (Some problems of theory and philosophy of law), pod red. V.P. Sal'nikova, M., 2014. 
5. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Indeksy tsitirovaniya i naukometriya: plyusy i minusy (Citation indices and scientometrics: pros and cons), Biblioteka ugolovnogo prava i kriminologii, 2016, No. 2 (14), рp. 180–185.
6. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. O pravovom progresse kak filosofsko-pravovoi probleme (On the Legal progress as a legal philosophical problem), Rossiiskii zhurnal pravovykh issledovanii, 2015, No. 2 (3), рp. 113–121.
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Ob"ektivnaya shkala otsenki nauchnogo truda: po silam li indeksu Khirsha? (An objective assessment of the scale of scientific work: whether the Hirsch index could afford it?), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 11, рp. 20–24.
8. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress – novaya filosofsko-pravovaya definitsiya (Legal progress - a new philosophical-legal definition) Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 171–188.
9. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress i tsennosti prava (Legal progress and law values), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 9, рp. 17–31.
10. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress kak aktual'naya filosofsko-pravovaya problema (Legal progress as an actual philosophical-legal problem), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 9.
11. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoi progress: filosofskii i filosofsko-pravovoi podkhody (Legal progress: philosophical and philosophical and legal approaches), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 1, рp. 13–30.
12. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka (Philosophy. Philosophy of Law. Jurisprudence), M., 2015.
13. Russkaya religiozno-nravstvennaya filosofiya prava (Russian religious and moral philosophy of law), (V.S. Solov'ev, B.N. Chicherin, E.N. Trubetskoi, P.I. Novgorodtsev, N.N. Alekseev, S.L. Frank, B.P. Vysheslavtsev, I.A. Il'in, A.S. Yashchenko, I.V. Mikhailovskii, E.V. Spektorskii), A.P. Al'bov, D.V. Maslennikov, M.B. Revnova, V.P. Sal'nikov. Glava V, Istoriya filosofii prava, Monografiya (History of Philosophy of Law, Monograph), Al'bov A.P., Baranov V.M., Idrisov Z.Sh., Maslennikov D.V., Peshkov A.I., Revnova M.B., Sal'nikov V.P., Sal'nikov M.V., Sotnikova N.N., Chegovadze L.A.; otvetstvennye redaktory: A.P. Al'bov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov. SPb., Yuridicheskii institut (Sankt-Peterburg), Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 1998, pp. 403–633.
14. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Fomichev M.N. Pravo i nauchno-tekhnicheskii progress: vmeste ili otdel'no (Law and scientific and technical progress: together or separately), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016, No. 2, pp. 175–193.
15. Shumilov A.Yu. Vvedenie v yuridicheskuyu naukometriyu (Introduction to legal scientometrics),. M., 2012. 
16. Shumilov A.Yu. Novyi indeks «nauchnoi individual'nosti» i nekotorye drugie indeksy tsitirovaniya v otechestvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke (The new index of "scientific personality" and some other citation indexes in domestic legal science), Operativnik (syshchik), 2015, No. 3 (44), рp. 58–64.
THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL WELFARE STATE AS AN ELEMENT OF MODERN RUSSIAN CONSTITUTIONALISM
KUKSIN Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Institute of the SAEI HE «Moscow City Pedagogical University», Moscow, Russia. 
NOVOPAVLOVSKAYA Elena Evgenyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of State Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE «Belgorod Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after I.D. Putilin», Belgorod, Russia. 
Under conditions of globalization and transformation of socio-political and socio-economic relations, the elaboration of the concept of a modern social welfare state and revealing the key directions of the social policy of the Russian Federation become topical. The study and analysis of the judgments of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the formulated legal positions over the period of 2008-2016 let the authors state system problems of legal regulation and realization of social human and citizen’s rights in Russia. The examined constitutional practice showed that these problems can be solved by applying various in contents levers, including the mechanisms of the constitutional court compliance control. 
Key words: social welfare state, social and economic rights, legal uncertainty, Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, constitutional proceedings, legal positions, principle of fairness.
References
1. Au T.I. Sotsial'nye i ekonomicheskie prava cheloveka i grazhdanina kak osnova sotsial'noy gosudarstvennosti (s uchetom zakonodatel'stva i praktiki Kazakhstana) (Social and economic human and civil rights as the basis of the social state (based on law and practice of Kazakhstan), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2015, No. 11, pp. 26–31.
2. Bolgova V.V., Novopavlovskaya E.E. Formirovanie osnov ekonomicheskoy pravovoy politiki v interpretatsionnoy praktike Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Formation of bases of economic policy in the legal interpretive practice of the Constitutional Court), Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn', 2016, No. 1, pp. 71–76.
3. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i regulirovanie obshchestvennykh otnoshenii (Legal culture and regulation of public relations), M. Mezhdunarodnyi izdatel'skii tsentr «Etnosotsium», 2009.
4. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovaya kul'tura (Social norms of civil society and legal culture), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2011, No. 5 (36), pp. 70–73.
5. Doklad Upolnomochennogo po pravam cheloveka v Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2015 god (Report of the Human Rights Ombudsman of the Russian Federation for 2015 year), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2016, 24 marta.
6. Zor'kin V.D. Konstitutsiya zhivet v zakonakh, Rezervy povysheniya kachestva rossiyskogo zakonodatel'stva (The Constitution is in laws. Provisions to improve the quality of the Russian legislation), Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya, 2015, No. 3 (45), pp. 1–5.
7. Zykova T. Soglasny na polovinu (They agree on half), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2016, 19 maya.
8. I snova o progressivnoy shkale nalogooblozheniya (And again on a progressive scale of taxation), URL: http://rusrand.ru/analytics/i-snova-o-progressivnoy-shkale-nalogooblojeniya/ (data obrashcheniya: 20.06.2016).
9. Kuksin I.N., Chechel'nitskiy I.V. Obespecheniya balansa publichnykh i chastnykh interesov kak sredstvo dostizheniya spravedlivosti v pravotvorchestve (Ensuring balance between public and private interests as a means of achieving justice in law-making), Prava i svobody cheloveka i grazhdanina: teoreticheskie aspekty i yuridicheskaya praktika: materialy ezhegodnoy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii pamyati professora Feliksa Mikhaylovicha Rudinskogo, 28 aprelya 2016 goda, pod obshch. red. D.A. Pashentseva, Ryazan', Izdatel'stvo «Kontseptsiya», 2016, pp. 420–428.
10. Kuksin I.N., Chechel'nitskiy I.V., Lipunov V.I. Printsip spravedlivosti kak kriteriy otsenki sovremennogo nalogovogo zakonodatel'stva Rossii [Tekst] (The principle of fairness as a criterion for evaluation of the current Russian tax legislation) / I.N. Kuksin I.N., I.V. Chechel'nitskiy, V.I. Lipunov , Nauchnye vedomosti Bel GU, Seriya Filosofiya. Sotsiologiya. Pravo, 2016, Vypusk 36, No. 10 (231), pp. 114–119.
11. Nevinskiy V.V., Grinchinko N.Ya. K voprosu o «dvoynykh» standartakh finansovo-pravovogo regulirovaniya realizatsii konstitutsionnykh norm v sotsial'noy sfere (On the issue of «double standards» of financial and legal regulation of realization of the constitutional norms in the social sphere), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2015, No. 4, pp. 15–18.
12. Novopavlovskaya E.E. Zashchita osnovnykh prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v Rossiyskoy Federatsii posredstvom konstitutsionnogo sudoproizvodstva: monografiya (Protecting fundamental rights and freedoms of man and citizen in the Russian Federation by means of constitutional legal proceedings), Belgorod, Bel YuI MVD Rossii im. I.D. Putilina, 2015.
13. O sootnoshenii denezhnykh dokhodov naseleniya s velichinoi prozhitochnogo minimuma i chislennosti maloimushchego naseleniya v tselom po Rossiiskoi Federatsii (On the relation between cash income of population and subsistence level and the number of poor in the whole of the Russian Federation), Ofitsial'nyi sait Federal'noi sluzhby gosudarstvennoi statistiki. URL: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/ connect/rosstat_main/ rosstat/ru/ statistics/population/level/# (accessed date 05.07.2016).
14. Poslanie Prezidenta V.V. Putina Federal'nomu Sobraniyu Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Address of the President V.V. Putin to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2012, 13 dekabrya.
15. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz (State-legal "diseases": historical diagnosis), Nauchno-populyarnoe izdanie, Ufa, NIIPP, 2005.
16. Statistika po obrashcheniyam v Konstitutsionnyy Sud Rossiyskoy Federatsii, Ofitsial'nyy sayt Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Statistics on appeals to the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation), URL: http://www.ksrf.ru/ru/Petition/Pages/Statistic.aspx (accessed date 04.07.2016).
THE ORIGIN AND FUNCTIONING
OF SEARCH ACTIVITY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
RAKHIMZODA Ramazan Khamro
(Rakhimov Ramazon Khamroevich)
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Organization of Law Enforcement Activities of the Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Lieutenant-General of Police, Dushanbe, Tajikistan. 
Search work as a special kind of professional activity is rooted in the deep past. Special services, carrying out covert operations, secret collection of information, involved in supplying information activities began to take shape during the formation of the first civilizations. Today we know a number of ways to collect and transmit information, which were used in the ancient world. Even brief and fragmentary historical data provide clear evidence that investigative, detective, intelligence activities (intelligence and counterintelligence) contributed to the establishment and improvement of the state and as state-legal phenomena are inseparable from the history of mankind.
Key words: search activity; information; intelligence service; secret services.
References
1. Avdeev S.S. Aktual'nye voprosy operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti (Topical issues of operatively-search activity), Konspekt lektsii. Petrozavodsk, 2012. 
2. Amanatskii Yu.V., Gibov V.V., Glushachenko S.B., Frolov V.V. Sysknaya politsiya v gosudarstven-nom mekhanizme Rossiiskoi Imperii (Detective police in the state mechanism of the Russian Empire), monografiya, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 2006. 
3. Ananskikh I.A., Anashkina Yu.N., Reuf V.M. Politicheskii sysk v Rossiiskoi imperii v XIX–nachale XX veka (Political investigation in the Russian Empire in the XIX century, early XX century), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2014, No. 10, рр. 53–62.
4. Bol'shoi filatelisticheskii slovar' (Large Philatelic Dictionary). N.I. Vladinets, L.I. Il'ichev, I.Ya. Levitas, P.F. Mazur, I.N. Merkulov, I.A. Morosanov, Yu.K. Myakota, S.A. Panasyan, Yu.M. Rudnikov, M.B. Slutskii, V.A. Yakobs, pod obshch. red. N.I. Vladintsa i V.A. Yakobsa. M., Radio i svyaz', 1988. 
5. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i sotsial'nye normy (Legal culture and social norms), M., NOTA BENE, 2010.
6. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy i pravovaya kul'tura v prizme istoricheskogo razvitiya (Social norms and legal culture in the prism of historical development), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2010, No. 2, рр. 5–9.
7. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i traditsionnaya kartina mira (Legal culture and the traditional picture of the world) Pravo i gosudarstvo. 2009. No. 8 (56). Pp. 129–132.
8. Gindin L.A., Tsymburskii V.L. Gomer i istoriya Vostochnogo Sredizemnomor'ya (Homer and the history of the Eastern Mediterranean). M., Vostochnaya literatura, 1996.
9. Doronin A.M., Doronin M.P., Mushket I.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Zhandarmy i granitsa (Gendarmes and the border), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2003. 
10. Elinskii V.I. Istoriya ugolovnogo syska v Rossii (Х–nachalo ХХ v.) (The history of criminal investigation in Russia (Х–early ХХ c.)). M., 2004.
11. Zavarzin P.P. Zhandarmy i revolyutsiya. Vospominaniya (Gendarmes and the revolution. Memories). Parizh, 1930.
12. Zakhartsev S.I., Ignashchenkov Yu.Yu., Sal'nikov V.P. Operativno-rozysknye meropriyatiya v XXI veke (Operative-search measures in the XXI century), monografiya. SPb., 2006. Seriya: «Teoriya i praktika operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti». MVD Rossii, S.-Peterb. un-t. 
13. Zemlyanov V.M. Svoya kontrrazvedka (Our counter-intelligence), prakticheskoe posobie. M., Kharvest, 2002.
14. Istoriya drevnego mira. Rastsvet drevnikh obshchestv (The history of the ancient world. The heyday of ancient societies), pod red. I.M D'yakonova, V.D. Neronova, I.S. Sventsitskoi. M., 1982.
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16. Kisin B.M. Strana Filateliya (Country of Philately). M., Prosveshchenie, 1969. 
17. Kurlov P. Konets russkogo tsarizma. Vospominaniya byvshego komandira korpusa zhandarmov. M., Pg., 1923.
18. Malyavkina A. G. Taktika Tanskogo gosudarstva v bor'be za gegemoniyu v vostochnoi chasti Tsen-tral'noi Azii (Tactics of the Tang state in the struggle for hegemony in the eastern part of the Central Asia), Dal'nii Vostok i sosednie territorii v srednie veka. Novosibirsk, Nauka, Sibirskoe otdelenie, 1980, рр. 7–10. 
19. Matienko T.L. Sysknaya politsiya v Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX –nachale XX vv. (Detective Police in Russia in the second half of the XIX century – in the beginning of the XX centuries), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 1999.
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21. Privezentsev A.V. Razvedka v voinakh Drevnego mira (Intelligence in wars of the Ancient World), Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo lingvisticheskogo universiteta, 2013, Vypusk No. 24 (684), рр. 190–199.
22. Rouan R. Ocherki sekretnoi sluzhby. Iz istorii razvedki (Essays on the Secret Service. From the history of intelligence), sokr. per. s angl. S. Zaimovskogo. M., Voenizdat, 1946. 
23. Ruud Ch., Stepanov S. Politicheskii sysk pri tsaryakh (Political investigation under tsars). M., Mysl', 1993.
24. S.-Peterburgskaya stolichnaya politsiya i gradonachal'stvo (1703–1903). Kratkii istoricheskii ocherk (St.-Petersburg metropolitan police and local authority (1703-1903). A brief historical overview). S.-Peterburg: Tovarishchestvo R. Golike i A. Vil'borg", 1903. Pereizdanie, otv. za vypusk A.L. Fishkov. SPb., KOSTA, 2013. 
25. Seton-Tompson E.. Malen'kie dikari (Little savages), per. s angl. N.Temchinoi. M., Detskaya literatura, 1988. 
26. Fedorov A.V., Shakhmatov A.V. Operativno-rozysknaya deyatel'nost' i grazhdane (Operatively-search activity and citizens): nauchnoe izdanie, pod red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2001.
27. Fedorov A.V., Shakhmatov A.V. Pravovoe regulirovanie sodeistviya grazhdan organam, osu-shchestvlyayushchim operativno-rozysknuyu deyatel'nost' (Legal regulation of citizens’ assistance to  bodies exercising operatively-search activity). SPb., Yuridicheskii Tsentr Press, 2005.
28. Frontin Sekst Yulii. Voennye khitrosti (Strategemy) (Military tricks (stratagems)). SPb., Aleteiya, 1996. 
29. Khazai Zia Khadzhi Abbas. Kriticheskoe otnoshenie k teorii despotizma v epokhu Sasanidov (Critical attitude to the theory of despotism in the era of the Sassanid), dis. … kand. filos. nauk. Dushanbe, 2014. 
30. Shakhmatov A.V. Agenturnaya rabota i rossiiskoe zakonodatel'stvo (Intelligence work and Russian legislation): monografiya, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova i A.V. Fedorova. SPb., Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 2004.
31. Shef sysknoi politsii Sankt-Peterburga Ivan Dmitrievich Putilin. Sochineniya. V 2-kh t. (Chief of detective police of St. Petersburg Ivan Dmitrievich Putilin. Works. In 2 Vols.), avt.-sost. D.K. Nechevin, L.I. Belyaeva. M., Olma-PRESS, 2011.
32. Rowan Richard Wilmer. The Story of Secret Service. New York, Literary Guild of America, 1937.
DOCTRINAL FORMS OF LAW AND FORMS TO EXPRESS A LEGAL DOCTRINE 
CHASHIN Alexander Nikolaevich
Candidate of Science (Law), Assistant professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the FSBEI HE "North-eastern State University», Magadan, Russia
In this article, the author attempts to understand the forms of external expression of legal doctrine. The teaching of doctrinal forms of law is subjected to criticism. The author concludes that, the forms of legal doctrine should be understood as specifics of their objectification in the surrounding reality, as designed results of its output beyond thinking of a single subject. The forms of legal doctrine may include written and oral forms as major forms and a mnemonic form as an optional and original form. It should be recognized as a mistake to assign legal technique elements to the forms of legal doctrine.
Key words: legal doctrine; sources (forms) of law; expertise; legal principle; legal conscience.
References
1. Boshno S.V. Forma prava: teoretiko-pravovoe issledovanie (The form of law: theoretical and legal research), dis. … d-ra. yurid. nauk. M. RAGS pri Prezidente RF, 2005.
2. Voplenko N.N. Istochniki i formy prava (Sources and forms of law). Volgograd. Izd-vo VolGU, 2004.
3. Gurova T.V. Aktual'nye problemy teorii istochnikov prava (Actual problems of theory of sources of law), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Samara: Samarskaya gosudarstvennaya ekonomicheskaya akademiya, 2000.
4. Sadokhina N.E. Razvitie istochnikov rossiiskogo prava v sovetskii i postsovetskii period (Development of Russian sources of law in the Soviet and post-Soviet period), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Tambov: TGU im. G.R. Derzhavina, 2005.
5. Khramov D.V. Netraditsionnye istochniki rossiiskogo chastnogo prava: obshcheteoreticheskii aspekt (Unconventional sources of Russian private law: general-theoretical aspect), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Saratov: SGAP, 2010 g.
THE PROBLEM OF THE STATUS OF NOTARY IN THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia
Notary as a legal phenomenon appears at a definite stage of a state's formation and as a specific institution begins to contribute to non-conflict and harmonious development of social relations. In the process of state and legal formation of a country, the legal status of notary as an institute is confirmed; notary is authorized to commit an action of sui generis, aimed at regulation of relations among people, society and state. 
Key words: status, notary, notary services, certificate, right to private property, rights and interests of citizens.
References
1. Bol'shaya yuridicheskaya entsiklopediya (Great Legal Encyclopedia), Moskva. Izd-vo Eksmo, 2007. 
2. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i regulirovanie obshchestvennykh otnoshenii (Legal culture and regulation of public relations), Moskva. Mezhdunarod-nyi izdatel'skii tsentr «Etnosotsium», 2009.
3. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i sotsial'nye normy (Legal culture and social norms), Moskva. NOTA BENE, 2010. 
4. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm sovremennoi pravovoi kul'tury: monografiya (Syncretism of modern legal culture: Monograph), Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2011. 
5. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovaya kul'tura (Social norms of civil society and legal culture), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 2011. No. 5 (36). Pp. 70–73. 
6. Galikeeva I.G. Iz istorii vozniknoveniya notariata v Rossii (From the history of notaries in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2016. No. 1 (43). Pp. 60–65.
7. Gutsenko K.F. Pravookhranitel'nye organy: uchebnik (Law enforcement agencies: Textbook), 3-e izd., ispr. i pererab. M.: KNORUS, 2014. 
8. Ivanov A.A. Spravochnik po teorii gosudarstva i prava: osnovnye kategorii i ponyatiya (Handbook of Theory of State and Law: Main categories and concepts), Moskva. Ekzamen, 2006. 
9. Komarov S.A. Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava: uchebnik (The General Theory of State and Law: Textbook), 8-izd., ispr. i dop. SPb. Izdatel'-stvo Yuridicheskogo instituta, 2012. 
10. Osnovy zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii o notariate ot 11 fevralya 1993 g. N 4462-1 (Fundamentals of RF legislation on notaries on February 11, 1993 N 4462-1), Vedomosti S"ezda narodnykh deputatov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 1993. N 10. St. 357. Rossiiskaya gazeta. 1993. 13 marta.
11. Pravookhranitel'nye organy: uchebnik (Law enforcement agencies: Textbook). V.G. Bessarabov, L.A. Voskobitova, T.S. Dvoryankina [i dr.]; otv. red. Yu.K. Orlov. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moskva. Prospekt, 2011. 
12. Pravookhranitel'nye organy Rossii: uchebnik dlya bakalavrov (Law enforcement agencies: Textbook for bachelor students), Pod obshch. red. V.P. Bozh'eva, B.Ya. Gavrilova. 5-izd., pererab. i dop. Moskva. Izdatel'stvo Yurait, 2014. 
13. Rayanov F.M. Trudnyi put' k pravovomu gosudarstvu (The hard way to the rule-of-law state), Ufa. Izdatel'stvo «Bashkortostan», 1999. 
14. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i sootno-sheniya: monografiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: the problem of understanding and relationship: monograph), Moskva. Yurlitinform, 2015.
15. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz (State-legal "diseases": historical diagnosis), Nauchno-populyarnoe izdanie. Ufa. NIIPP, 2005. 
16. Sychev O.M. O vremeni vozniknoveniya notariata v Rossii: istoriko–pravovoi analiz (On the time of occurrence of notaries in Russia: historical and legal analysis), Notarial'nyi vestnik. 2008. No. 7. Pp. 45–50.
POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS OF PAVEL NOVGORODTCEV: FROM PUBLIC IDEALS TO HUMANITARIAN PRACTICES (TO THE 150 ANNIVERSARY OF THE THINKER)
GLUSHKOVA Svetlana Igorevna
Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Head of the Chair of Human Rights, Deputy Dean of the Law Faculty, Director of the Center of Legal Education and Human Rights of the ANO HE “Liberal Arts University” (Autonomous Nonprofit Organization of Higher Education " Liberal Arts University"), Yekaterinburg, Russia 
The article gives the main markers of an intellectual biography and political and legal ideas of P. I. Novgorodtcev, who is the founder of the school of “revived natural right” in Russia. It is noted that he was the first to support the juridical  registration of rights to dignified human existence and implementation of reforms for further realization of this right. The article studies the main statements of the school of “revived natural right”, which were elaborated by P. I. Novgorodtcev. In the course of analysis of his intellectual biography it is possible to make a conclusion on a gradual switch of Novgorodtcev from constructing public and moral ideals to concrete legal humanitarian practices, which found their reflection in elaboration of reformative suggestions on protection of human fights for dignified existence, which were supported by Novgorodtcev in the course of his work in the legislative committee of the first State Duma of the Russian Empire, and in the institutional framework – in formation of the Russian juridical faculty in Prague. Novgorodtcev was among the first in Russian political and legal thought, who developed the ideas of humanization of policy and right. 
Key words: natural law, school of "revived natural law", right, state, human rights, right to worthy human existence, public ideal, humanitarian practices, history of philosophy of law, history of political and legal doctrines, rule-of-law state, neoliberalism, political and legal ideas and ideals.
References
1. Glushkova S.I. Problema pravovogo ideala v russkom liberalizme (A problem of a legal ideal in the Russian liberalism), Ekaterinburg, 2001.
2. Emel'janov B.V. Russkaja filosofija prava: Istorija stanovlenija i razvitija (Russian legal philosophy: History of formation and development), Ekaterinburg, 2005.
3. Istorija filosofii prava (History of philosophy of law). Avtorskij kollektiv: A.P. Al'bov, V.M.Baranov, Z.Sh. Idrisov i dr. SPb: Juridicheskij institut (Sankt-Peterburg), Sankt – Peterburgskij universitet MVD Rossii, 1998. 
4. Novgorodcev P.I. Gosudarstvo i pravo (The state and law), Voprosy filosofii i psihologii. 1904. Kn. IV (74). 
5. Novgorodcev P.I. Demokratija na rasput'e (Democracy at the crossroads). Novgorodcev P.I.Ob obshhestvennom ideale. M., 1991.
6. Novgorodcev P.I. Kant i Gegel' v ih uchenijah o prave i Gosudarstve (Kant and Hegel in their doctrines on law and state), Predislovie Al'bov A.P. SPb, 2000. 
7. Novgorodcev P.I. Krizis marksizma (Crisis of Marxism), Novgorodcev P.I. Ob obshhestvennom ideale. M., 1991.
8. Novgorodcev P.I. Lekcii po istorii filosofii prava (uchenija Novogo vremeni 19 - 20 vv. (Lectures on history of philosophy of law (doctrines of Modern times of 19 - 20th centuries), Na pravah rukopisi. 4-e izdanie. Knigoizdatel'stvo  «Vysshaja shkola» studentov Moskovskogo kommercheskogo instituta. M., 1928.
9. Novgorodcev P.I. Ob obshhestvennom ideale (On a public ideal), M., 1991.
10. Novgorodcev P.I. Pravo na dostojnoe chelovecheskoe sushhestvovanie (The right to worthy human existence), Novgorodcev P.I. Sochinenija. M., 1995.
11. Novgorodcev P.I. O zadachah sovremennoj filosofii prava (On the tasks of modern philosophy of law). SPb, 1902.
12. Tumanova A.S., Kiselev R.V. Prava cheloveka v pravovoj mysli i zakonotvorchestve Rossijskoj imperii vtoroj poloviny 19 – nachala 20 veka (Human rights in a legal thought and lawmaking of the Russian Empire of the second half of 19 – the beginning of the 20 century), M., 2011.
13. Frolova E.A. Estestvenno-pravovaja koncepcija P.I. Novgorodceva (Natural and legal concept of P. I. Novgorodtsev), Problemy teorii prava i gosudarstva, istorii politiko-pravovoj mysli: Sbornik rabot uchenikov, druzej, kolleg professora O.Je.Lejsta. Almaty, 2005.
14. Frolova E.A. Istoriko-filosofskie osnovy ponjatija pravosoznanija (Historical and philosophical bases of the concept of legal conciseness), Instituty gosudarstva i prava v ih istoricheskom razvitii. Sbornik nauchnyh statej k 60-letiju V.A.Tomsinova. Otv. redaktor T.E.Novickaja. M., 2012.  
SOME QUESTIONS OF HISTORY OF APPEARANCE OF ALCOHOLISM AND EFFECTIVE COUNTERMEASURES (HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECT)
ASKAROVA Aygul Rinatovna
Police Major, Instructor of the Department of Professional Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation”, Ufa, Russia. 
The article studies questions of influence of the state and authorities themselves on the existence of such a destructive phenomenon as alcoholism in the country. It gives information on the use of measures against production and sale of home and state-made alcohol by the Tsarist and Soviet authority. The article gives a light insight of the depths of history of Ancient Rus on questions of appearance of such a phenomenon as “tavern”, which led to emergence of such social blemish as excessive drinking. It provides the analogy between Tsarist Russia and the Soviet pre-revolutionary society of the beginning of the 20th century, when despite the opposition from the noble class, who got good profit into the State Treasury, the “dry law” was accepted and became a rather radical measure of liquidation of excessive drinking in the country, and came to be a great example for further generations. 
Key words:  Tsarist Russia, alcoholism, fight, alcoholism, right, moonshining, history, Russian State, tendencies, legal treatment, fight methods, civilization, “dry law”.
References
1. Deichman E.I. Alkogolizm i bor'ba s nim (Alcoholism and countermeasures), M.-L. Moskovskii rabochii, Obshchestvo bor'by s alkogolizmom, 1929.
2. Bogolepova D.P., Bronskogo M.G., Derevenko N.N. Populyarnyi finansovo-ekonomicheskii slovar' (Popular Dictionary of Finance and Economics), Moskva. NKF SSSR, 1925. 
3. O merakh ogranicheniya torgovli spirtnymi napitkami. 29 yanvarya 1929 g. (On measures of limitations of liquor trading. January 29, 1929), Sobranie uzakonenii i rasporyazhenii Raboche-krest'yanskogo Pravitel'stva RSFSR. 1929. No. 20. P. 224.
4. Parkhomenko A.G. Deyatel'nost' sovetskoi militsii po bor'be s p'yanstvom i alkogolizmom. 1917–1930 gg. (po materialam RSFSR) (Activities of the Soviet militia to combat drunkenness and alcoholism. 1917–1930 gg. (RSFSR materials)), Avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva, 1984.
Akhmetdinova A.R. Tendentsii razvitiya antialkogol'nogo zakonodatel'stva v pervye desyatiletiya sovetskoi vlasti (Tendencies of development of anti-alcohol laws in the first decades of Soviet power), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 2010. No. 12 (31). Pp. 104–107.
RUSSIAN STATEHOOD:HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDY
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
On the basis of defining essentially different historical periods of Russia's development, and comparing them, the author reveals fundamental differences in the nature of the Russian statehood in pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Based on the working Constitution of the Russian Federation, he proposes to rethink the fundamental basis to form the post-Soviet Russian statehood. The post-Soviet Russian statehood in its further development should be based not on a special way of Russia, but on the provisions of its current Constitution, corresponding to the core values of modern times. Such a path of development of the Russian statehood will bring it to the path of development, which has already been found by many modern developed countries in the world.
Key words: historical periods of state development, Russian statehood; essential features of the Russian state, Russian Constitution, essence of the post-Soviet state, optimal future for Russia, democratic rule-of-law state.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), Ufa. Izdanie Bashkirsk. un-ta, 1998. 
2. Kara-Murza S.G. Krizisnoe obshchestvovedenie. Chast' pervaya. Kurs lektsii (The critical social science. Part one. Lecture course), Moskva. Nauchnyi eks-pert, 2011. 
3. Krizis Rossiiskoi gosudarstvennosti v period Smutnogo vremeni (The crisis of the Russian statehood during the Time of Troubles), Referatwork.ru: http://referatwork.ru/ istoriya-gos-upravleniya/section-5-1.html.
4. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye bolezni: istoricheskii diagnoz (State law diseases: historical diagnosis), Ufa, 2005. 
5. Rayanov F.M. Federatsiya – ne samotsel' (Federation - is not a goal), Vlast'. 1996. No. 3.
6. Rayanov F.M. Razvitie sovremennykh predstavlenii o sushchnosti federativnogo gosudarstvo (The development of modern ideas on the nature of a federal state), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal. 1999. No. 1 (21). Pp. 112–113.
7. Rayanov F.M. Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan kak sub"ekta Rossiiskoi Federatsii (RB legislation system as a subject of the Russian Federation), Sistema zakonodatel'stva Respubliki Bashkortostan: stanovlenie i dal'neishee razvitie. Materialy respublikanskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii 22 fevralya 1996., g. Ufa: Akademiya nauk Respubliki Bashkortostan. Ufa, 1996. Pp. 20–25.
8. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsiokul'turnom izmerenii (The concepts of "rule-of-law state" and "civil society" in the socio-cultural dimension), Pravovoe gosudarstvo. 2012. No. 4 (30). Pp. 20–25.
9. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya real'nost' (Legal culture as a legal reality), Politika i obshchestvo. 2011. No. 4. Pp. 77–82.
Rayanov F.M. Trudnyi put' k pravovomu gosudarstvu (The hard way to the rule-of-law state), Ufa. Izdatel'stvo «Bashkortostan», 1999.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGAL CERTAINTY AND RES JUDICATA
DERBYSHEVA Ekaterina Aleksandrovna 
Instructor of the Chair of Human Rights of the Faculty of Law of the ANO HE Liberal Arts 
University, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
The article discusses the concept of "res judicata" and "principle of legal certainty" in order to clarify their relationships. Whereas the term "res judicata" is known in the context of formulary process, the author refers to Roman law on the matter at hand. As in modern interpretation, “res judicata" is mentioned in the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, in this article there are citations to the judicial acts of these courts. As a result of reviews of scientific opinions of "res judicata" and the principle of legal certainty, the analysis of judicial practice and a brief historical reference to Roman law, the author concludes that there is a definitive interdependence of the studied concepts on the one hand, and the lack of identity, synonymity, on the other hand. The principle of legal certainty is the broader concept; "res judicata" is the starting idea for one of its aspects.
Keywords: “res judicata”, principle of legal certainty, force of res judicata, formulary process.
References
1. Akalinskij protiv Rossii: postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 07.06.2007 po zhalobe No 2993/03 (Akalinsky against Russia: the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 07.06.2007 on the complaint N 2993/03), Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «GARANT».
2. Alekseeva T.M. Pravovaja opredelennost' sudebnyh reshenij v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: ponjatie, znachenie i predely: monografija (Legal certainty of judicial decisions in criminal proceedings: the concept, significance and limits: Monograph), M., Jurlitinform, 2016.
3. Anishina V.I., Nazarenko T.N. Realizacija principa pravovoj opredelennosti v rossijskoj sudebnoj sisteme (The implementation of the principle of legal certainty in the Russian judicial system), Nauka i obrazovanie: hozjajstvo i jekonomika; predprinimatel'stvo; pravo i upravlenie, 2013, No. 2, pp. 40–47.
4. Ashirbekova M.T. Vlijanie principa pravovoj opredelennosti na postroenie sistem sudebno-poverochnogo proizvodstva UUS i UPK RF (The influence of the principle of legal certainty in the construction of the system of judicial verification of UUS and the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation), Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo, 2014, No. 3, pp. 6–10.
5. Baryshnikov P.S. Vlijanie Soveta Evropy na grazhdanskoe processual'noe pravo Rossii (The influence of the Council of Europe on civil procedural law of Russia), Aktual'nye problemy rossijskogo prava, 2016, No. 2, pp. 61–69.
6. Berestnev Ju.Ju., Vinogradov M.V. Praktika Evropejskogo suda po pravam cheloveka: princip pravovoj opredelennosti ili jauod licet jovi, non licet bovi? (Practice of the European court of human rights: the principle of legal certainty or, quod licet jovi, non licet bovi?), Rossijskaja justicija, 2006, No. 11, pp. 66.
7. Brumaresku protiv Rumynii: postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 28 oktjabrja 1999 g. po zhalobe No. 28342/95. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «GARANT».
8.Vishnevskij G.A. Dejstvie principa res judicata kak neobhodimoe uslovie obespechenija spravedlivosti (The principle of res judicata as a necessary condition for justice), Sovremennoe pravo, 2013, No. 11, pp. 76–83.
9. Volkova protiv Rossii: postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 05.04.2005 g. po zhalobe No 48758/99 (Volkova against Russia: the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 05.04.2005 on the appeal N 48758/99), Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «GARANT».
10. Garsia Garrido M.H. Rimskoe chastnoe pravo: Kazusy, iski, instituty (Roman private law: Incidents, claims, institutions), Perevod s ispanskogo, Otv. Red. L.L. Kofanov. M., Statut, 2005.
11. Dozhdev D.V. Rimskoe chastnoe pravo: uchebnik dlja vuzov (Roman private law: textbook for universities), Pod obshh. red. akademika RAN, d.ju.n., prof. V.S. Nersesjanca. M., Izd-vo NORMA, 2003. 
12. Kovtun N.N., Shunaev D.M. Pravovaja opredelennost' i res judicata v reshenijah Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka (Legal certainty and res judicata to the decisions of the European Court of human rights), Rossijskij sud'ja, 2014, No. 9, pp. 38–42. 
13. Kovtun N.N. Pravovaja opredelennost' rossijskogo ugolovno-processual'nogo prava (Legal certainty of the Russian criminal procedural law), Gosudarstvo i pravo, No. 8. 2015, pp. 32-43.
14. Luk'janova I.N. Peresmotr sudebnyh aktov: dvizhenie k pravovoj opredelennosti ili dvizhenie po spirali pravovoj neopredelennosti? (Revision of judicial acts: the movement to legal certainty or the movement of the spiral of legal uncertainty?), Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, No. 7, ijul' 2014 g, pp. 3–8.
15. O proverke konstitucionnosti chasti vtoroj stat'i 397 Grazhdanskogo processual'nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii v svjazi s zhalobami grazhdan I.V. Amosovoj, T.T. Vasil'evoj, K.N. Zhestkovoj i drugih: postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 19.03.2010 No 7-P (On the constitutionality of the second paragraph of Article 397 of the Civil Procedure Code in connection with the complaints of citizens I.V. Amosova, T.T. Vasilyeva, K.N. Zhestkova and others: the decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation from 19.03.2010 number 7-P), Ros. gaz. 2010, 02 aprelja.
16. Rakevich protiv Rossii (Rakevich v Russia), postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 28.10.2003 po zhalobe No 58973/00 (Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 28.10.2003 on the complaint N 58973/00), Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «GARANT». 
17. Rjabyh protiv Rossii (Ryabykh v Russia), postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 24 ijulja 2003 g. po zhalobe No 52864/99 (Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 24.07.2003 on the complaint No 52864/99), Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «GARANT». 
18. Rehtina I.V. Predposylki principa pravovoj opredelennosti (res judicata) v istochnikah prava Drevnej Rusi X-XVI vv. ( Backgrounds of the principle of legal certainty (res judicata) in sources of law of Ancient Rus X-XVI centuries), Istorija gosudarstva i prava, 2014, No. 15, pp. 16–21.
19. Stepanenko D.A., Lavdarenko L.I. Problema iskljuchenija sudebnyh oshibok i obespechenija stabil'nosti sudebnyh reshenij v sfere ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva (The problem of eliminating judicial errors and the stability of judicial decisions in criminal proceedings), Rossijskij sud'ja, 2016, No 4, pp. 26–32.
20. Sultanov A.R. Zashhita svobody sovesti, rasprostranenija ubezhdenij cherez prizmu postanovlenij Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka (The protection of freedom of conscience, the spread of beliefs through the prism of the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights). M., Statut, 2013. 
21. Terehov V.V. Ponjatie i soderzhanie kategorii «res judicata» v rossijskom i zarubezhnom grazhdanskom processe (The concept and content of the category of "res judicata" in Russian and foreign civil process), Rossijskij juridicheskij zhurnal, 2014, No. 5, pp. 203–209.
22. Horunzhij S.N. Neoproverzhimost' sudebnogo reshenija (The persuasive power of judicial decisions), Vestnik grazhdanskogo processa, 2014, No. 3, pp. 59–75.
23. Cepkova T.M., Borisov M.S. Sootnoshenie zakonnoj sily sudebnogo reshenija i principa res judicata v svete postanovlenij evropejskogo suda po pravam cheloveka (The ratio of legal force of judicial decisions and the principle of res judicata in the light of the judgments of the European court of Human Rights), Rossijskaja justicija, 2010, No. 8, pp. 52–55.
POLITICAL NETWORKS
AND SYNCRETISM OF MODERN LEGAL CULTURE OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY
ABEZGILDIN Ruslan Rinatovich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Political Science of the North-West Institute of Management of the RFPANE&PA (St. Petersburg), St. Petersburg, Russia. 
The study of the relationship between authorities and citizens through the prism of their information interaction involves the study of features of current political networks of this modern society. The analysis of political processes taking place in Russia proves that the functioning of social and socio-political networks has become quite specific. It is important to consider network technologies impact while solving issues related to ensuring political stability, law and order, rule-of-law state building and democracy "extension". The current Russian Constitution is based on the doctrine of natural law and provides syncretism of modern legal culture and, consequently, use of the entire spectrum of current social normative regulators in political networks. Network structures of political activity in modern Russian society allow working out the main directions of innovative development of social capital, most closely approximate to Russian citizens’ needs.
Key words: political network; syncretism of modern legal culture; information interaction; doctrine of natural law.
References
1. Ezerskaya A.I. Politiko-pravovaya institucionalizaciya gosudarstvennogo kontrolya v kontekste formirovaniya mekhanizma protivodejstviya korrupcii: problemy ehffektivnosti (The political and legal institutionalization of state control in the context of the formation of the mechanism of counteraction of corruption: Problems of efficiency), Izvestiya Yuzhnogo federal'nogo universiteta. Tekhnicheskie nauki, 2013, No. 6 (143), pp. 185–190.
2. Klochkova U.A. Politiko-pravovaya akkul'turaciya: osnovnye aspekty vzaimodejtviya (Political and legal acculturation: the main aspects of interaction), Vestnik Taganrogskogo instituta upravleniya i ehkonomiki, 2014, No. 2 (20), pp. 37–39. 
3. Yuvich L.S. Obshchaya teoriya prava (General Theory of Law), Leningrad, LGU, 1976. 
4. Kudryavcev V.N. Pravo i povedenie (Law and behavior), Moscow, Urid. lit., 1978. 
5. Alekseev S.S. Samoe svyatoe, chto est' u Boga na zemle. Immanuil Kant i problemy prava v sovremennuyu epohu (The most sacred thing God has on earth. Immanuel Kant and the problem of law in the modern era), Moscow, Norma, 1988. 
6. Shafirov V.M. Obespechenie prava: chelovekocentristskij podhod (Ensuring the law: human-centered approach). Monografiya, Krasnoyarsk, KrasGU, 2005. 
7. Masuda Y. The Information Society as Post Industrial Society. World Future Society, Washington, 1983. 
8. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P., Ger O.E., Kajzer A.G., Reuf V.M. Gosudarstvennoe televidenie kak instrument formirovaniya ideologii (State television as a tool for the formation of the ideology), Mir politiki i sociologii, 2013, No. 12, pp. 113–129. 
9. Dunyaeva M.M. Rol' i znachenie sredstv massovoj kommunikacii v sovremennyh politicheskih processah (The role and importance of mass media in modern political processes), Politika i obshchestvo, 2014, No 10, pp. 1252-1257. Doi: 10.7256/1812-8696.2014.10.13267
10. Lebedeva N.N. Vliyanie Interneta na vzaimootnosheniya gosudarstva i obshchestva (The impact of the Internet on the relationship between state and society), Gosudarstvo i parvo, 2004, No. 10, pp. 84–91. 
11. Borodin V.V. Nacional'naya strategiya protivodejstviya korrupcii v sisteme gosudarstvennoj i municipal'noj sluzhby v sovremennoj Rossii (The National Strategy for countering corruption in the system of state and municipal services in modern Russia), Mir politiki i sociologii, 2013, No. 10, pp. 57–62.
12. Zaharcev S.I. Korrupciya i den'gi: k voprosu primeneniya operativno-rozysknyh meropriyatij (Corruption and money: To the question of the use of search operations), Uridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2013, No. 10, pp. 137–141. 
13. Sal'nikov V. Institualizaciya korrupcionnyh otnoshenij (Institutionalization of corruption relations), Zashchita i bezopasnost', 2013, No. 1 (64), pp. 13–15. 
14. Potolokova M.O. Manipulirovanie v reklame (Manipulation in advertising), Pravovoe pole sovremennoj ehkonomiki, 2011, No. 3, pp. 63–65.
15. Krajnova K.A. Internet kak sredstvo politicheskoj manipulyacii v sovremennom politicheskom upravlenii (Internet as a means of political manipulation in modern political management), PolitBook, 2013, No. 2, pp. 65. 
16. Smorgunov L.V. Setevoj podhod k politike i upravleniyu (Network Approach to Policy and Management), Polis, 2001, No. 3, pp. 108–109. 
17. Galiev F.Kh. Vozdejstvie prava na obshchestvennye otnosheniya i sinkretizm pravovoj kul'tury (Law impact to public relations and legal culture syncretism), Vestnik Bashkirskogo un-ta, 2013, Tom 18, No. 4, pp. 1352–1356.
18. Galiev F.Kh. O sinkretizme pravovoj kul'tury (On syncretism of legal culture), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 4 (34), pp. 36–73. 
19. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm pravovoj kul'tury sovremennoj Rossii: teoretiko-metodologicheskoe i istoriko-prikladnoe issledovanie (Syncretism of legal culture of modern Russia: theoretical and methodological, historical and applied research), avtoref. diss. … dokt. yurid. nauk, Moscow, Rossijskaya akademiya narodnogo hozyajstva i gosudarstvennoj sluzhby pri Prezidente Rossijskoj Federacii, 2014. 
20. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy i pravovaya kul'tura v prizme istoricheskogo razvitiya (Social norms and legal culture in the prism of historical development), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2010, No. 2, pp. 5–9.
21. Kolesnikov V.N. Setevye struktury politicheskoj aktivnosti v sovremennom rossijskom obshchestve (Networking political activity in modern Russian society), Upravlencheskoe konsul'tirovanie, 2013, No. 1, pp. 99–108.
22. Baranov N.A. Politicheskie otnosheniya i politicheskij process v sovremennoj Rossii: Kurs lekcij, V 3-h ch. (Political relations and political process in modern Russia: Course of lectures, in 3 V.), SPb., BGTU, 2004. [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: www.politnauka.org/library/ uchebnik/baranov.php (accessed date 8.10. 2016).
23. Ehkonomika i spravedlivost': voprosy i otvety (Economy and Justice: questions and answers) [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://www.toz.khv.ru (accessed date 8.10. 2016). 
24. Volkova A.V. Formirovanie sistemy gosudarstvennogo upravleniya v Rossii (politiko-aksiologicheskij podhod) (Formation of the system of government in Russia (axiological-policy approach)), avtoref. diss. … dokt. polit nauk, SPb., 2014. 
25. Kistyakovskij B.A. Social'nye nauki i pravo. Ocherki po metodologii social'nyh nauk i obshchej teorii prava (Social Sciences and Law. Essays on the methodology of social sciences and general theory of law), B.A. Kistyakovskij. Filosofiya i sociologiya prava, SPb., 1998, pp. 323-301. 
26. Primakov E. Ne prosto rabotat', a znat' vo imya chego (Do not just work, but to know in the name of what), Rossijskaya gazeta, 2015, 14 yanvarya. pp. 5.
27. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz(State-legal "disease": historical diagnosis), Nauchno-populyarnoe izdanie, Ufa, NIIPP, 2005.
ON THE NOTION OF PUBLIC ENFORCEMENT AS A FORM OF REALIZATION OF STATE AUTHORITY
PETRENKO Mikhail Nikolaevich
Postgraduate Degree Seeker of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the SLI of the FPS of Russia, Samara, Russia. 
Public enforcement is one of the main forms of state influence on social realm. Alongside, in relations between the state and people, who are under the full powers of the state, it is necessary to apply public enforcement as a form of state authority, under which the state is able to realize its functions, and people, which are under the sovereign right of the latter, do not suffer from unwarranted interference into their lives from the part of the state. The establishment of such correlation is impossible without understanding the category of public enforcement. In this article, on the ground of classical and modern research works of national and foreign authors, including those who are not mentioned in the national science, the author of the article gives the analysis of features and signs of public enforcement as a form of realization of state authority, on the results of which the author formulates the definition of public enforcement. 
Key words: enforcement, public enforcement, authority, state authority, authority relations, state, will, society, officials, authoritative powers.
References
1. Berman M.N. Coercion, Compulsion, and the Medicaid Expansion: A Study in the Doctrine of Unconstitutional Conditions. Faculty Scholarship, 2013. Available at: http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/faculty scholarship/1498 (accessed 14 january 2015).
2. Blake M. Distributive Justice, State Coercion, and Autonomy, Philosophy and Public Affairs. 2001. Vol. 30, No. 3, pp.257–296.
3. Bahrah D.N. Administrativnaja otvetstvennost' grazhdan SSSR (Administrative responsibility of citizens of the USSR), Sverdlovsk, Izd-vo Ural. un-ta, 1989.
4. Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofija prava (Philosophy of law), pod red. D.A. Kerimova, V.S. Nersesjanca, M.: Mysl', 1990.
5. Zharenov I.P. Gosudarstvennoe prinuzhdenie v uslovijah demokratizacii obshhestva (State coercion in conditions of democratization of society), dis. … kand. jurid. nauk, M., 2006.
6. Kudin F.M. Izbrannye trudy (Selected works), vstup. st. V.A. Azarova, Volgograd, Izd-vo VolGU, 2010.
7. Teorija gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), pod red. N.I. Matuzova, A.V. Mal'ko, M., Jurist, 2004.
8. Novejshij filosofskij slovar' (Newest philosophical dictionary), pod red. A.A. Gricanova. 3 izd., ispr. Minsk: Knizhnyj Dom, 2003.
9. Ozhegov S.I., Shvedova N.Ju. Tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka: 80 000 slov i frazeologicheskih vyrazhenij (Dictionary of Russian language: 80 000 words and idiomatic expressions), Rossijskaja akademija nauk, Institut russkogo jazyka im. V.V. Vinogradova, 4-e izd., dop., M., Azbukovnik, 1997.
10. Petrenko M.N. O ponimanii fenomena vlasti v nauke (On understanding of the phenomenon of power in science), Pravovaja politika i pravovaja zhizn', Saratov: Saratovskij filial Instituta gosudarstva i prava RAN, 2013, No. 3, pp. 20–25.
11. Filosofskaja jenciklopedija v 5 t. (Philosophical encyclopedia in 5 volumes), pod red. F.V. Konstantinova. M.: Sov. jencikl., 1960–1970. Available at: http://dic. academic. ru/dic. nsf/enc_philosophy/219/%D0¬% 92%D0%9E% D0%9B%D0%AF (accessed: 17 february 2014).
12. Fialkovskaja I.D. Sushhnost' metoda prinuzhdenija v teorii administrativnogo prava (The essence of the method of compulsion in administrative law theory), Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo, 2014. No. 2 (1), pp. 290–294.
13. Finogentova O.E., Lomaev A.Ju. Problemy realizacii publichnogo interesa v normah grazhdanskogo prava (Problems of realization of public interest in civil law), Vestnik Samarskogo juridicheskogo instituta, 2015, No. 2 (16), pp. 65–70.
14. Filosofskij slovar' (Philosophical dictionary), pod red. I.T. Frolova, 7 izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Respublika, 2001.
15. Cygankova E.A. Prinuzhdenie kak metod osushhestvlenija gosudarstvennoj vlasti (Coercion as a method of realization of the government), avtoref. … kand. jurid. nauk. M., 2010.
16. Shopengaujer A. Mir kak volja i predstavlenie. Aforizmy i maksimy. Novye aforizmy (The World as will and representation. Aphorisms and maxims. New aphorisms), per. s nem. Ju. Ajhenval'd, F. Chernigevec, R. Krasin, Minsk: Sovremennyj literator, 1999.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF JUSTICE IN ISLAM AND JUDAISM
AKHVERDIEV Eldiyar Eldarovich 
Postgraduate student of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Faculty of Law of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod: National Research University, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.
Nowadays it is not infrequent that non-Islamic sources of information, statements of politicians, that are not familiar with Muslim traditions or being very perfunctory acquainted with this religion, slogans of public awareness campaigns diffuse impression about inhuman nature of Islam and Islamic Justice. They pretend it being atrocious, ruthlessly invalidating the value of human life.  That sort of allegations stimulates researchers to redress the injustice through an unbiased approach to the problematics, to analyze and to draw an analogy between Islamic principles of Justice and those of other religious legal theories. The article examines the essence and fundamental principles of Muslim Justice, their impact on Procedure and suggests comparative analysis of proceeding guidelines in Islam and Judaism.
Key words: court, Justice, judge, mujtahid, Islam, Judaism, proceeding principles, comparative analysis.
References
1. Abu Hamid Al-Gazali. Nastavlenie praviteljam (Instructions for governors).
2. Al-Bukhari.  «Sahih» v kratkom izlozhenii («Sakhih» in summary), Riyadh, 1999. (Arabian).
3. Al-Khafiz ben Khadjar al-Askalani. Sochinenija (Writings). 
4. Abdur Rakhman I. Doi. Islamskij shariat. Nigerija (Islamic shariah. Nigeria). 
5. David R. Osnovnye pravovye sistemy sovremennosti (sravnitel'noe pravo) (Main modern legal systems (comparative law)), Moskva, 1967.
6. Ibn Kayim al-Djavziya. Nastavlenie dlja teh, kto vystupaet ot imeni Gospoda Mirov (Instructions for those who act on behalf of the Lord of Universe), Beirut, Part. I. P. 85–86 (Arabian). 
7. Muhammad Abdel Djavad Muhammad. Pravosudie v islame (Justice in Islam), Alexandria, 1977. (Arabian). 
8. Kalinina E.V. Kategorija spravedlivosti i ee realizacija v vethozavetnom i talmudicheskom predstavlenii o pravosudii (The category of fairness and its implementation in Old Testament and Talmudic apprehension of justice), Business in law. Economics and legal magazine. 2012. No. 2. P. 37
9. Kalinina E.V. Gosudarstvenno-pravovoe uchenie iudaizma. Vethozavetnaja i talmudicheskaja koncepcija (Jewish State and Law Theory. Old Testament and Talmudic conceptual understanding), – doctoral paper. - Nizhny Novgorod State University. N. Novgorod, 2012, 
10. Koran (Koran), Perevod s arabskogo i kommentarij M.-N.O. Osmanova. St-Petersburg. «Publishing company. «DILYA», 2010.
CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN OBJECT OF ECONOMIC SECURITY
ERKEEV Ilshat Khamitovich 
Senior Instructor of the Department of Forensics of the FSGEI HE "Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia", Ufa, Russia.
FROLOVA Natalia Alekseevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law named after G.V. Maltsev of the Department of Law named after M.M. Speranskiy of the Institute of Law and National Security of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service under the President of the Russian 
Federation, Moscow, Russia. 
The aim of this article is to study civil society as an object of economic security, which allows viewing economic security of civil society and a state as uniordinal phenomena. Security is one of indisputable priorities for a person. Knowledge of destructive factors (risks, dangers, threats), applying measures of their non-admission and elimination are its essence. Availability of acceptable norms for life environment, food provision, accommodation make vital needs of a person, necessary for his/her survival and biological existence. The mechanism of provision of economic security of civil society should be naturally included into the mechanism of provision of national economic security. Provision of economic security of civil society will encourage its effective functioning and formation of a rule-of-law state. 
Key words: civil society; destructive factors of economic security of civil society; civil society actors in the state-legal mechanism of ensuring economic security.
References
1. O Strategii nacional'noj bezopasnosti Rossijskoj Federacii: ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 31.12.2015 № 683(The National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation: the Presidential Decree number 683 of 31.12.2015), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2016. № 1. Ch. 2. St. 212.
2. Tseykovets N.V. Konceptual'nye podhody k ponimaniju i obespecheniju nacional'noj jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti: nauchnye teorii i gosudarstvennye strategii (Conceptual approaches to the understanding and maintenance of national economic security: Scientific theories and public policies), Zhurnal Novoj jekonomicheskoj associacii. 2016. №1.
3. Stepicheva O.A., Chernova V.V., Nyquist M.A. Celevaja funkcija i ugrozy jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti lichnosti (The objective function and threats to economic security of a person), Social'no-jekonomicheskie javlenija i processy. 2015. № 2. URL: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/tselevaya-funktsiya-i-ugrozy-ekonomicheskoy-bezopasnosti-lichnosti (reference date: 11.03.2016).
4. Doklad o chelovecheskom razvitii 2014. Rezjume (The Human Development Report 2014. Summary), M.: Izd. «Ves' Mir», 2014.
5. Livshits R.Z. Teorija prava (Theory of law). Moskva, 1994.
6. Rayanov F.M. Trudnyi put' k pravovomu gosudarstvu (The hard way to the rule-of-law state), Ufa: Izdatel'stvo «Bashkortostan», 1999. 
7. Zhadan I.E. Indeks razvitija chelovecheskogo potenciala v sisteme pokazatelej jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti strany (Index of human development in the system of economic indicators of the country's security), Nauchno-metodicheskij jelektronnyj zhurnal «Koncept». 2014. № 10. C. 26-30. Electronic resource: URL: http://e-koncept.ru/2014/14266.htm.
8. Gosudarstvo, obshhestvo, lichnost': problemy sovmestimosti (State, Society, identity: compatibility issues), Pod obshh. red. R. A. Romashova, N.S. Nizhnik. M.: Jurist, 2005. 
9. Arzamaskin N.N. K voprosu o sistemnom analize faktorov, vlijajushhih na sovremennuju rossijskuju gosudarstvennost' (On the question of the system analysis of the factors influencing the modern Russian state), Pravo i politika. 2007. № 3.
10. Mingaleva J.A. Strukturnaja modernizacija: voprosy jekonomicheskoj bezopasnosti municipal'nyh obrazovanij (Structural modernization: Issues of economic security of municipalities), Jekonomika regiona. 2012. №1.
11. Bendikov M.A. Jekonomicheskaja bezopasnost' promyshlennogo predprijatija v uslovijah krizisnogo razvitija (Economic security of the industrial enterprise in the conditions of crisis development), Menedzhment v Rossii i za rubezhom. № 2. M.: Izd-vo «Delo i Servis», 2000.
PROBLEMS OF IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY FORMS OF RAILWAY AND WATER TRANSPORT POLICE
MAMLEEVA Dilara Radikovna 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Administrative Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
This article deals with the peculiarities of law enforcement and public safety on river, sea and railway communications. The author reviews basic problems of improving the organization and activities of police in transport in the second half of the XIX century. Particular attention is paid to the specifics of the personnel policy in units of transport police, basic forms and methods of its work. The author considers specific tasks and powers of transport police. The author examines the regulatory framework and the organization of transport police activities during the period under review, basic methods and techniques of law enforcement on highways of the country. The features of water and railway police activities in the fight against strike and revolutionary movements are analyzed. The article describes the basics of using overt and covert methods of transport police activities in criminal environment in transport infrastructure.
Key words: railway communications, protection of public order in transport, police surveillance, river police, railway police departments, port gendarmerie brigades.
References
1. Vremennoe Pologenie ob upravlenii Odesskim portom i o portovoi policii (Provisional Regulations on the management of the port of Odessa and the port police), Odessa, 1890. 
2. GARF, f. 110, op. 2, d. 2276, pp. 85-86.
3. Litvinov N.D. Borba s terrorizmom na geleznodorognom transporte Rossiiskoi Imperii (The fight against terrorism on the railways of the Russian Empire), Voroneg, 2000.
4. Mamleeva D.R., Myginova Z.R. Osobennosti kompetencii I strukturi organov policii na transporte v pervoi polovine XIX veka (Features of competences and structure of transport police in the first half of the XIX century), State of Law: theory and practice, 2014, No. 3 (37), pp. 144–148. 
5. Ministerstvo vnutrennih del 1802-1902. Istoricheskii ocherk  (The Ministry of Interior 1802- 1902. Histirical essay), (reprintnoe izdanie). M., 2002. 
6. Peregudova Z.I. Politicheskii sisk Rossii (Political in spying Russia), 1880–1917. M. ROSSPEN, 2000.
7. Pologenie o portovoi policii v voennih portah Imperii (Provision of port police in military ports of the Empire), Petergov, 1894. 
8. PSZ. Sobr (Collection), 3-e. T. 1. No. 350. 
9. Rossiiskoe zakonodatelstvo X-XX vekov: v 9-ti t. T. 6. Zakonodatelstvo pervoi polovini XIX veka (Russian legislation of X-XX centuries: in 9 vols. V. 6. Legislation of the first half of the XIX century), ed. O.I Chistyakov. M., 1987. 
10. Svod voennih postanovlenii (Set of military regulations) in 1869. P. 1. Bk. III (local military control), Ed. 2nd. St. Petersburg, 1869. Art. 692.
11. Svodzakonov Rossiiskoi Imperii. T. 12. Ch. 1. Ustav putei soobshenia (The Code of Laws of the Russian Empire. T. 12. Part 1. Charter of Railways), St. Petersburg, 1869.
12. Sistematicheskii sbornik cirkularov Departamenta Policii I Shtaba Otdelnogo Korpusa Gandarmov, otnosashihsia k obazannostam chinov Korpusa po proizvodstvu doznanii. Sost. kollegskii sovetnik Savickii (The systematic collection of circulars of the Police Department and the Special Corps of Gendarmes Headquarters relating to the duties of officials of the Corps for the inquiry. Comp. Collegiate Councillor Sawicki), St. Petersburg, 1908.
RULE-OF-LAW DEMOCRATIC STATE AS THE BASIS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS IN MODERN CONDITIONS
MOROZOVA Alexandera Sergeevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of  Constitutional and International Law of the Urals Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
PLAKHTIY Elena Vladimirovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Urals Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
The topical aim of modern Russia is a qualitative modernization of the society and state. The formation, which includes the main counterparts, such as rule of law, which provides creation of a strong and effective state; juridical mechanisms presupposing the order of participation of citizens in taking over a state decision and forming public authorities. It is thought that a complex approach to the realization of a rule-of-law and democratic state as the basis of the constitutional organization of Russia should be a part of the state policy, which can guarantee the unity and political stability of Russia.
Key words: democracy, rule-of-law state, constitutionalism, foundations of the constitutional system, public power, popular sovereignty, human rights and freedoms, government by the people.
References
1. Avakyan S.A. Problem tsentrizma, demokratii, detsentralizatsii v sovremennom gosudarstve: konstitutsionno pravovie voprosi (Problems of centralism, democracy, decentralization in the modern state: constitutional and legal issues), M., TK velbi, 2006. 
2. Avakyan S.A. Konstitutsia Rossii: pripoda, evolutsia, sovremennost (The constitution of Russia: nature, evolution, modernity), M., RWED, 1997.
3. Bazhenova O.I. Otdel’nie voprosi konstitutsionalizatsii mestnogo samoupravlenia (Some problems of constitutionalization of local government), Theory and practice of Russian constitutionalism, M., 2013. 
4. Borisov I.B., Ignatyuk A.V. Nekotorie konstitutsionno-pravovie aspekti organizatsii viborov po proportsional’noq sisteme v predstavitel’nie organi munitsipal’nih obrazovani’ (Some constitutional and legal aspects of the organization of the elections by the proportional system in representative bodies of municipal entities), the Constitutional and municipal law, 2011. 
5. Dobrynn N.M. konstitutsionalizm i pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoria i praktika vzaimosv’azi (Constitutionalism and the rule of law: the theory and practice of interaction), electronic resource, http, www.justicemaker.ru/view-article.php?id=10&art=3359 (date of access: 05.11.2016).
6. Doktrini pravovogo gosudarstva I verhovenstva v sovremennom mire (The doctrines of a Rule-of-law State and the rule of Law in the modern world), Collection of articles, ed. by V.D. Zorkin, P.D. byarenbojm, M, 2013. 
7. Yengibaryan N. Konstitutsionnoe razvitie v sovremennom mire. Osnovnie tendentsii (Constitutional development in the modern world. The main trends), M., Norma, 2007. 
8. Kravets I.A. Pravo na konstitucionnuju modernizaciju v svete teorii sovremennogo konstitucionalizma i jekonomicheskoj konstitucii (Right to constitutional modernization in the light of theory of modern constitutionalism and economic constitution), Constitutional and municipal law, 2010, No. 10. 
9. Lebedev V.A. Kireev V.V. Suverennai demokratia kak konstitutsionnai idea sovremennoy Rosii (Sovereign democracy as the constitutional idea of modern Russia), Chelyabinsk State University, 2007. 
10. Mitin A. N. Upravlenie perenosit budushee v nastoyashee (Management brings the future into the present: Monograph), Yekaterinburg, Ural State Law Academy, 2010. 
11. Novgorodtsev P.I. Kant and Gegel v ih ucheniah o prave (Kant and Hegel in their teachings on law and state), SPb., 2000.
12. Oseichuk, V.A. konstitutsionno-pravovie problem stroitel’stva v Rosii demokraticheskogo pravovogo sotsial’nogo gosudarstva (Constitutional and legal problems of a democratic rule-of-law social state in Russia), Author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree doctor of law. Tyumen, 2009.
13. Rayanov F.M. Trudnyi put' k pravovomu gosudarstvu (The hard way to the rule of law). Ufa. Izdatel'stvo «Bashkortostan», 1999. 
14. Rayanov F.M. Gragdanskoe obshestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo: problem ponimania i sootnosheni’a (Civil society and rule-of-law state: problems of understanding and relationship), monograph, M., Yurlitinform, 2015. 
15. Rayanov F.M. Gosudarstvenno-pravovye «bolezni»: istoricheskii diagnoz. (State-legal "disease": historical diagnosis). Nauchno-populyarnoe izdanie. Ufa. NIIPP, 2005. 
16. Federal’ni’ zakon ot 06.10.2003 No 131-FZ “ob obshih printsipah mestnogo samoupravleni’a v Rossi’sko’ Federatsii (Federal law of 06.10.2003 No 131-FL (as amended. and add.), On General principles of organization of local self-government in the Russian Federation), http, www.pravo.gov.ru (date of access: 03.11.2016).
LIMITATION FOR ACTION IN THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL TIME CONSTRAINTS 
ARUTYUNYAN Marina Samvelovna
Candidate of (Sciences), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE «Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation», Ufa, Russia. 
The object of the research is civilized concepts and ideas on the notion, essence and meaning of the periods for the limitation for action in the system of civil time constraints. The aim of the work is a complex study of statements of civil legislation, scientific theories in order to state the essence and meaning of civil time constraints, the place of limitations for action in the system of civil time constraints. General scientific methods of knowledge, these are dialectical and system and structural, made the methodological basis. Additionally, the author applied historical and legal, legalistic methods of inquisition of legal phenomena. The results of the work are the conclusions of the author on the place of limitation for action in the system of civil time constraints. Generalizations and conclusions formulated in accordance with the results of the research can enrich conceptual theses of the civil law on the institute of limitation for action.
Key words: term, term classification, limitation for action, legal fact.
References
1. Gribanov V.P. Sovetskoe grazhdanskoe pravo (Soviet civil law), M. Yurlit, 1979. 
2. Krasavchikov O.A. Juridicheskie fakty v sovetskom grazhdanskom prave (Legal facts in Soviet civil law), M. Legal literature, 1958.
3. Sergeev A. P. Sroki osushhestvlenija i zashhity grazhdanskih prav (Timing of implementation and protection of civil rights), SPb. NEVA, 1996.
4. Federal'nyj zakon ot 7 maja 2013 g. № 100-FZ «O vnesenii izmenenij v podrazdely 4 i 5 razdela I chasti pervoj i stat'ju 1153 chasti tret'ej Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 01.05.2016 № 95-FZ) (Federal law of 7 may 2013 N 100-FL «On amendments to subsections 4 and 5 of section I of part one and article 1153 of part three of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation» (with the last amend. and add. 01.05.2016 No. 95-FL)), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2013, No. 19, Art. 2327.
DEBATABLE PROVISIONS OF CHAPTER 45.1 OF THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
ENIKEEV Oleg Anatolievich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Candidate of Sciences (Medicine), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the SEI HPE “Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan”, Ufa, Russia.
The article analyzes historical background of the principle of jurisdictional immunity of foreign states on the European and international level. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the country had the concept of absolute immunity. Considering development stages of the concept of jurisdictional immunity in Russia, the author also analyses the formation of the concept of relative (functional) immunity, which was the reason to adopt and enact chapter 45.1 of the Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation (CCP RF). It is shown that this chapter contains a number of contradictions with the general part of CCP RF (redundancy of terms granted to a foreign state while examining and resolving cases with its participation). The author proposes to introduce into CCP RF the obligation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to give an opinion on this category of cases, because the judge alone can not determine the level of jurisdictional immunities of Russia in the foreign country and apply the principle of reciprocity. These changes will eliminate the duplication of certain provisions of chapter 45.1 of CCP RF with general part of CCP RF and expedite consideration and resolution of cases of this category.
Key words: judicial immunity, jurisdictional immunity, foreign states, civil procedure, principle of reciprocity.
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CONVERGENCE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LAW AS THE KEY TREND OF LEGAL REGULATION OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTHCARE
ENIKEEVA Zarema Airatovna
Teaching assistant of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
Public private partnership in healthcare is now one of the most efficient and promising ways to improve the quality of health services and make them available for various strata of society. The institution of public private partnership originated at the interface between public and private law, having some borderline position. The output of this mechanism depends on the level of its legal regulation, the efficiency of which is defined by the balance and the interaction of public and private law tools. Interpenetration of public and private law principles or, in other words, the process of convergence, is crucial in legal regulation of relationships developing at all stages of implementation of public private partnership projects. In speaking of the partnership of state and private sector as part of PPP implementation in health care, it is necessary to take into account special social significance of the relevant projects and, at the same time, equality of entities, their voluntary participation in the PPP project, and hence, the need to take into consideration both partners’ interests. The combination of private and public law principles in the regulation of emerging legal relations definitely impacts the method of legal regulation.
Key words: public private partnership, convergence, health services, private and public law principles, interest, method of legal regulation, public interest, private interest.
References
1. Alekseev S.S. Obshaya teoria prava (Сommon law theory), M, Urid.lit, 1981. 
2. Belickaya A.V. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo kak alternativa contractnoy sisteme (Public private partnership as an alternative of a contract system), Urist, 2014, No. 5, pp. 33–37.
3. Edinorossy predlagaut otmenit’ privatizaciu v ramkah GCP (United Russia deputies offer to cancel the privatization within the PPP) Available at, http:// pppcenter.ru/index.php?id=813. (accessed  date: 07 July 2016).
4. Zayceva O.B. Metod sovremennogo trudovogo prava (The method of modern labor law), Orenburg, OOO IPK Universitet, 2015.
5. Korshunov N.M. Konvergencia chastnogo i publichnogo prava: problemy teorii i praktiki (The convergence of private and public law: problems of theory and practice), Moscow, Norma, INFRA-M, 2013.
6. Lukina A.N. Nekotorye problemy publichnogo upravlenia gosudarstvenno-chastnym partnerstvom (Some problems of public administration of publicprivate partnership), Administrativnoe pravo i process, 2015, No. 3, pp. 71–76.
7. O gosudarstvenno – chastnom partnerstve, munitsipalno-chastnom partnerstve v Rossiskoi Federacii i vnesenii izmenenyi v otdelnye zakonodatelnye acty Rossiskoi Federacii (Public private partnerships , municipal- private partnership in the Russian Federation and the Introduction of Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation), feder.zakon Ros.Federacii ot 13 iul’a 2015, No. 224 – FZ, Ros.gaz, 2015, 17 iul’a.
8. Popondopulo V.F. Publichno-chastnoe partnerstvo: pon’atie i pravovie formi (Public private partnership: the concept and legal forms), Arbitrazhnye spori, 2014, No. 2, pp. 81–100. 
9. Saidov Z.A. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo v mehanisme administrativno-pravovogo regulirovania economici (Public private partnership in the mechanism of administrative regulation of economy), Rossiyskaya usticia, 2015, No. 9. pp. 46–51.
10. Chelyshev M.U. Koncepcia optimizacii mejotraslevih sv’azey gragdanskogo prava: postanovka problemi (The concept of optimization of inter-branch of civil law relations: Problem formulation), Kazan, Kazanskyi gosud.un-t im.V.I. Ul’anova-Lenina, 2006.
11. Yakovlev V.F. Grajdansko-pravovoy metod regulirovania obshestvennih otnosheniy (Civil law method of regulation of social relations), M, Statut, 2006.
TO THE ISSUE OF COMPETENCE REQUIREMENTS TO LITIGATION GUARDIANS IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
ZHEMALETDINOV Rustem Maratovich
Candidate of Sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
Legal regulation of consideration and adjudication of the cases arising from public legal relationship has been considerably changed in connection with enforcement of the Administrative Court Procedure Code of the Russian Federation. In particular, there are new requirements to litigation guardians in administrative cases, which are not established in civil and arbitral procedure. Litigation guardians need to have the higher legal education in some cases tried as administrative proceedings. In this case, the persons involved in judicial proceedings, but do not have legal education, are obliged to have litigation guardians. Legal capacity to sue of these persons, possibilities to exercise their procedural rights, are significantly limited. Such features of administrative legal proceedings break a number of constitutional principles and are not induced by public interests. On the basis of the comparative analysis of procedural branches of law and legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation the author proves the necessity to withdraw the norms containing excess requirements to litigation guardians in administrative cases.
Key words: administrative proceedings, representation in administrative process, civil procedure, legal representation, competence requirements to litigation guardians, obligatory participation of a litigation guardian in legal proceedings. 
References
1. Kodeks administrativnogo sudoproizvodstva ot 8 marta 2015 goda № 21-FZ (The Administrative Court Procedure Code of the Russian Federation of March 8, 2015 No. 21-FZ.), Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. 2015. No. 10. Art. 1391.
2. Federal'nyj zakon ot 31 maja 2002 goda № 63-FZ «Ob advokatskoj dejatel'nosti i advokatu-re v Rossijskoj Federacii» (Federal Law of May 31, 2002 No. 63-FZ «On Legal Practice and the Bar in the Russian Federation»), Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation. 2002. No. 23. Art. 2102.
3. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 16.07.2004 № 15-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti chasti 5 stat'i 59 Arbitrazhnogo processual'nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii v svjazi s zaprosami Gosudarstvennogo Sobranija – Kurultaja Respubliki Bashkortostan, Gubernatora Jaroslavskoj oblasti, Arbitrazhnogo suda Krasnojarskogo kraja, zhalobami rjada organizacij i grazhdan» (Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of 16.07.2004 No. 15-P «On the case of check of constitutionality of part 5 of article 59 of the Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation in connection with inquiries of the State Assembly – Kurultai of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Governor of the Yaroslavl region, Arbitration Court of Krasnoyarsk Krai, complaints of a number of organizations and citizens»), [Electronic resource] Access from legal system «ConsultantPlus».
4. Bjulleten' Verhovnogo Suda RF (Bulletin of the Supreme Court of the RB), 2007. No. 11.
THE RIGHT TO TEMPORARY STORAGE OF IMPORTED GOODS IN RECIPIENT'S WAREHOUSES WITHOUT APPLICATION OF PUNITIVE SANCTIONS
SVETLICHNIY Andrey Viktorovich
In-house counsel in JSC “Urals Pipe Works”, Pervouralsk, Russia. 
The case, in the framework of which a commercial organization disputed illegal actions of customs authorities on charging penalties for violation of terms of customs paperwork and customs clearance charges and taxes. A customs authority calculated and charged a penalty from the sum of customs payments and  VAT for the organization  on the grounds of its violation of the last term of submission of the custom declaration and terms of customs clearance charges and VAT from the date of the goods' deliverance, bought by this organization, into the customs territory of the Russian Federation, till the date of submission of a customs declaration, neglecting the facts that the organization, firstly, made its payments on the account of the Federal Treasury in the capacity of a monetary deposit before filling a customs declaration, secondly, committed actions speaking for the intention to use these payments in the capacity of a monetary deposit, which is proved by customs receipts, thirdly, delivered the foreign goods to the recipient’s warehouse (the time zone of customs control).  The commercial organization vindicated its rights, in advance of filling and submission of a customs declaration, to place foreign goods into a recipient's warehouse without paying corresponding customs charges for storage of imported goods in time zone warehouses of the customs authority and applying punitive sanctions for violation of terms of filling and submission of a customs declaration. 
Key words: imported goods, customs declaration, recipient’s warehouse, penalties, customs authority, code, alliance.
References
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2. O tamozhennom regulirovanii v Rossijskoj Federacii: feder. zakon Ros. Federacii ot 27.11.2010 N 311-FZ: prinjat Gos. Dumoj Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federacii 19 nojabrja 2010 g.:  odobr. Sovetom Federacii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federacii 24 nojabrja 2010 g. (On Customs Regulation in the Russian Federation: the Federal Law on November 27, 2010 N 311-FL: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation November 19, 2010: approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly November 24, 2010), The Russian gazette November 29, 2010 No. 269; Collection of the RF legislation November 29, 2010 No. 48, Art. 6252), Ros. gaz. 29 nojabrja 2010 g. N 269; Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federacii  29 nojabrja 2010 g. N 48, st. 6252; Parlament. gaz. 03-09 dekabrja 2010 N 63.
3. Nalogovyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii. Chast' vtoraja ot 05 avgusta 2000 g. N 117-FZ. Prinjat Gos. Dumoj Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federacii 19 ijulja 2000 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federacii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federacii 26 ijulja 2000 g.: vved. Feder. zakonom Ros. Federacii ot  05 avgusta 2000 g. N 118-FZ ( The Tax Code of the Russian Federation. The second part on August 5, 2000 N 117-FL. Adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation July 19, 2000: approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation July 26, 2000: put in force by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation on August 5, 2000 No. 118-FL), Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federacii. 07 avgusta 2000 g. N 32, st. 3341; Parlament. Gaz. 10 avgusta 2000 g. N 151-152. 
4. Obzor praktiki rassmotrenija sporov, svjazannyh s primeneniem arbitrazhnymi sudami norm Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii o zaloge: informacionnoe pis'mo Prezidiuma VAS RF ot 15.01.1998 N 26 (Review of practice of disputes relating to the application by commercial courts of rules of the Civil Code on the lien: Information Letter of the Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the RF on January 15, 1998 No. 26), Vestnik VAS RF, 1998 g. N 3.
SURROGATE MATERNITY IN RUSSIA: ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION AND PRACTICE 
AKHMATYANOVA Venera Amirzyanovna 
Senior Lecturer of the Chair of Law Disciplines of the Neftekamsk branch of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Neftekamsk, Russia.
The article covers the experience of legal regulations of surrogate maternity in the Russian Federation. It reveals statements of main legal and regulatory acts, which administer realization of the surrogate maternity program, studies some problems connected to implementation of the stated legal norms in practice. The article uncovers the contents of such categories as “surrogate maternity”, “surrogate mother” in details and distinguishes their attributes and characteristic features. Special attention is paid to the study of the subject contents of legal relations, which appear in connection to realization of the surrogate maternity program. Herewith, it analyzes some collisions of legislation in power, which regulates the procedure of registration of genetic parents of a child born to a surrogate mother in the register of births. The article researches some problems of a contract between a surrogate mother and genetic parents (one parent). It gives statistic data and materials of judicial practice. 
Key words: assisted reproductive technologies, surrogate maternity, surrogate mother, genetic parents.
References
1. Aslamurzaeva A. Surrogatnoe materinstvo: probely zakonodatel'stva (Surrogacy: gaps in legislation), EZh-Yurist. 2011. No. 30. P. 8.
2. Borisova T.E. Aktual'nye voprosy zakonodatel'noi i pravoprimenitel'noi praktiki surrogatnogo materinstva v Rossii (Topical issues of the legislative and law enforcement practice of surrogate motherhood in Russia), Sotsial'noe i pensionnoe pravo. 2008. No. 1 [Elek-tronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
3. Vershinina E.V., Kabatova E.V., Yashmetova M.O. Surrogatnoe materinstvo v Rossii i zarubezhnykh stranakh: sravnitel'no-pravovoi analiz (Surrogacy in Russia and foreign countries: Comparative legal analysis), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
4. Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii (chast' tret'ya) (The Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part Three)) ot 26.11.2001 № 146-FZ (red. ot 03.07.2016) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 01.09.2016) [Elektronnyi resurs]. Do-stup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
5. Dronova Yu.A. Chto nuzhno znat' o surrogatnom materinstve (What you need to know about surrogacy), M.: Gorodets, 2007 [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
6. Kokorin A.P. K voprosu o poluchenii soglasiya surrogatnoi materi na zapis' roditelyami rebenka suprugov, predostavivshikh svoi geneticheskii material (On the issue of the receipt of the surrogate mother's consent to record as the child's parents the spouses who provided their genetic material), Semeinoe i zhi-lishchnoe pravo. 2010. No. 1. Pp. 28–31.
7. Mikhailova I.A. Zakonodatel'stvo, reglamentiruyushchee ustanovlenie proiskhozhdeniya detei, nuzhdaetsya v korrektirovke (The legislation governing the establishment of origin of children needs to be corrected), Voprosy yuvenal'noi yustitsii. 2009. No. 2. P. 17.
8. Pozdnie rody.-URL: http://akusherstvo.policlinica.ru/born14.html (Late childbirth) (Sait Tsentra sovremennoi meditsiny «EVROMEDPRESTIZH») (accessed date: 21.11.2016).
9. Prikaz Minzdrava RF ot 26.02.2003 № 67 «O primenenii vspomogatel'nykh reproduktivnykh tekhnologii (VRT) v terapii zhenskogo i muzhskogo besplodiya» (Utratil silu) (The Russian Ministry of Health Order from 26.02.2003 number 67 "On the application of auxiliary reproductive-technologies (ART) in male and female infertility treatment" (repealed)), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
10. Prikaz Minzdrava Rossii ot 30.08.2012 № 107n (red. ot 11.06.2015) «O poryadke ispol'zovaniya vspomogatel'nykh reproduktivnykh tekhnologii, protivopokazaniyakh i ogranicheniyakh k ikh primeneniyu» (The Ministry of Health of Russia Order of 30.08.2012 number 107n (ed. From 06.11.2015) "On the procedure for the use of assisted reproductive technologies, contraindications and limitations to their use"), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
11. Reshenie Kalininskogo raionnogo suda g. S.-Peterburga, ot 05 avgusta 2009 g. po grazhdanskomu delu № 2-4104 (The decision of the Kalinin district court of St. Petersburg, on August 5, 2009 at civil case № 2-4104), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Spravochno-pravovaya sistema Kon-sul'tantPlyus.
12. Sait kompanii «Rosyurkonsalting» (Company website), URL:  http://www.jurconsult.ru/news/news3.php (accessed date: 21.11.2016).
13. Sait TRK «Peterburg-Pyatyi kanal» (Broadcasting company website), URL: http://5-tv.ru/news/34334/ (accessed date: 21.11.2016).
14. Svitnev K. «Surrogatnoe» ottsovstvo po-prezhnemu vne zakona? (“Surrogate" Fatherhood is still out of law?), Novye zakony i nor-mativnye akty. 2011. No. 48. P. 138.
15. Semeinyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 29.12.1995 № 223-FZ (red. ot 30.12.2015) (The Family Code of the Russian Federation of 29.12.1995 number 223-FL (ed. By 12.30.2015)), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
16. Federal'nyi zakon ot 15.11.1997 № 143-FZ (red. ot 30.03.2016) «Ob aktakh grazhdanskogo sostoyaniya» (Federal Law of 15.11.1997 number 143-FL (ed. From 03.30.2016) "On Acts of Civil Status"), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'-tantPlyus».
17. Federal'nyi zakon ot 21.11.2011 № 323-FZ (red. ot 03.07.2016) «Ob osnovakh okhrany zdorov'ya grazhdan v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 03.10.2016) (Federal Law of 21.11.2011 number 323-FL (ed. From 07.03.2016) "On the basis of public health protection in the Russian Federation" (rev. and ext., joined. In force from 10.03.2016)), [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
CHALLENGING ISSUES OF RETURN OF A WRIT OF EXECUTION TO THE RECOVERER AFTER INITIATING ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia. 
SLEPNEV Evgeny Leonidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
In the current context, the grounds and challenging issues of the return of a writ of execution to the recoverer after initiating enforcement proceedings demand researchers’ attention. While enforcing judgments, protection of rights and lawful interests of citizens and legal entities is actually carried out. However, having a court decision one should not always hope that it will be executed in due time. A significant part of recoverers continues to suffer while searching the implementation of judgments awarded on behalf of the state in their favor.
Key words: recoverer, debtor, return of a writ of execution, enforcement proceedings.
References
1. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 12.12.1993 (s izmeneniyami i dopolneniyami, poslednie vneseny Zakonom Rossiiskoi Federatsii o popravkakh k Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 21 iyulya 2014 g.) (The Constitution of the Russian Federation from 12.12.1993 (with changes and additions, the latter made by the Federal law on amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation of July 21, 2014)), [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 07.04.2016).
2. Konventsiya o zashchite prav cheloveka i osnovnykh svobod ot 04.11.1950 (s izmeneniyami vnesenny-mi Protokolom N 11 ot 11.05.1994g.) (Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 04.11.1950 (as amended by the Protocol N 11 from 11.05.1994)), [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://www.consultant.ru/ (accessed date: 07.04.2016).
3. Grazhdanskii protsess: uchebnik (Civil proceedings: Textbook), pod red. M.K. Treushnikova. Moskva, 2003.  
4. Sbornik dokladov. Vsemirnaya konferentsiya Mezhdunarodnoi assotsiatsii protsessual'nogo prava (The collection of reports. World Conference of the International Association of Procedural Law), 18–21 sentyabrya 2012 g. Moskva, 2012. 
5. Murzabulatov U.M. Razvitie sudebno-ispolnitel'noi sistemy Rossii i kontseptual'nye probely v zakonodatel'stve ob ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve: monografiya (Development of the Russian judicial and executive system and conceptual gaps in the legislation on enforcement proceedings: Monograph), Ufa. RITs BashGU, 2015. 
6. Ispolnitel'noe proizvodstvo. Problemy pravoprimeneniya. Osparivanie otsenki, proizvodimoi v ramkakh ispolnitel'nogo proizvodstva (Enforcement proceedings. Enforcement problems. Challenging assessments made within the framework of enforcement proceedings), P.V.Sadovskii. http://ppt.ru.
7. Stat'ya 46, Federal'nogo zakona ot 02.10.2007 № 229-FZ (red. ot 08.03.2015) «Ob ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve» (Article 46 of the Federal Law of 02.10.2007 number 229-FL (ed. From 03.08.2015) "On Enforcement Proceedings"). 
8. Osnovnye pokazateli deyatel'nosti UFSSP Rossii po RB za 2015 god (Main indicators of activity of the OFBS of Russia in RBfor 2015), Materialy dlya kollegii UFSSP Rossii po RB.
9. Grazhdanskii protsessual'nyi kodeks RF ot 14.11.2002 g. № 138-FZ (red. ot 30.12.2015 s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 01.01.2016) (Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation of 14.11.2002, № 138-FL (ed. from 12.30.2015 as amended, in force from 01.01.2016)), Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoi sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
10. Morozova I. B., Treushnikov A.M. Ispolnitel'noe proizvodstvo (Enforcement proceedings), Moskva. Gorodets, 2004.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF DEMOCRACY IN THE SCIENCE OF CRIMINAL AND PENAL LAW IN THE END OF THE XIX AND BEGINNING  OF THE XX CENTURIES 
KOROLEV Ruslan Vitalievich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Head of the Department of Physical Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia”, Ufa, Russia. 
In this article, the author highlights such a topical problem as the development of the principle of democracy in the science of criminal and penal law in the XX century that is the influence of the study of aspects of penitentiary science during two centuries. The aim of the work is the study of the notion of “democracy” in the science of criminal and penal law as well as its main elements. The author also gives the opinion of different scientists of the 19-20th centuries on the questions of signs of democracy in penitentiary science, that is the means of accommodation of prisoners and means of influence on prisoners. This question brings the diversity of opinions among scientists:  some scientists take the view that it is necessary tо follow solitary incarceration, some think that solitary incarceration does not follow the principle of democracy. In the question of application of means of influence on prisoners, there are two opinions, the essence of which lies in the following: it is necessary to influence on prisoners with the aim of frightening and further correctional education and influencing with the help of labor. The above stated means of correction of prisoners must correspond to the principle of democracy and most significantly, to the aims of the criminal and penal law, that is, regulation of the order and conditions of execution of punishment stating the means of correction of prisoners, protecting their rights, freedoms and legal interests, providing assistance to prisoners in social adaptation. The conclusions made in this article can be applied to criminal and penal law that is for the correction of prisoners and implementation of new methods of correction in practice. 
Key words: penitentiary science, democracy, convict, method of placement of inmates, correction methods.
References
1. Dostoyevsky F.M. Zapiski iz mertvogo doma (Notes from the Dead House), M. 1984, p 14.
2. Mokrinskiy S.P. Nakazanie, ego celi i predpolozhenija (Punishment, its goals and assumptions), Scientific notes of the Imperial Moscow University, 1902, No. 12, pp. 132.
3. Poznyshev S.V. Osnovy penitenciarnoj nauki (Basics of penitentiary science), M., 1924.
4. Poznyshev S.V. Ocherki tjur'movedenija (Essays of prison keeping),  Scientific notes of the Imperial Lyceum of Tsarevich Nicholas, 1910, No. 5, pp. 63–64.
5. Tagantsev N.S. Russkoe ugolovnoe pravo (Russian criminal law), T. 2. SPb., 1902.
6. Ugolovno-ispolnitel'noe pravo Rossii: teorija, zakonodatel'stvo, mezhdunarodnye standarty, otechestvennaja praktika konca XIX–nachala XXI veka: uchebnik dlja vuzov (Penitentiary Law in Russia: theory, legislation, international standards, domestic practice of the late XIX - early XXI century: Textbook for Universities), pod red. d.ju.n., prof. A.I. Zubkova. — 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M. Norma, 2006, pp. 253–256.
7. TSGAOR. F. 122. Op. 1. Deloproizvodstvo (Record keeping 1), D. 176. L. 169–170.
8. Yadrintsev N.M. Russkaja obshhina v tjur'me i ssylke (Russian community in prison and exile), SPb., 1872.
BAIL AS A CONDITION TO EXEMPT FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLEDGERY
MITSKAYA Elena Vladimirovna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Law Institute (St. Petersburg); Professor of the Department of Criminal Law and Procedure of the M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan. 
In this article, the author analyzes the provisions of the new Criminal Code of Kazakhstan regulating the exemption from criminal liability with the establishment of pledgery. In particular, the author reviews the issues of defining requirements to the pledger, the lack of conditions of the victim's consent to exempt the accused from criminal liability with the establishment of pledgery. In addition, the author considers the problems of procedural implementation of explaining consequences of bailment and its fate in case if the person commits a new criminal offense under the regulation of the exemption from criminal liability with the establishment of pledgery. The author provides her own arguments to eliminate ambiguities and contradictions of the Kazakhstan legislation in the matter under inquiry.
Key words: criminal offense, criminal liability, exemption from criminal liability, bail, pledgery. 
References
1. Ugolovnyi kodeks Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 3 iyulya 2014 goda № 226-V (The Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan from July 3, 2014 № 226-V), Almaty, 2014.
2. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyi kodeks Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 4 iyulya 2014 goda № 231-V (Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 4, 2014 № 231-V), Almaty, 2014.
3. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 21 noyabrya 2014 goda № 1219 «Ob utverzhdenii Pravil prinyatiya, khraneniya, realizatsii i obrashcheniya zaloga v dokhod gosudarstva» (Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan from November 21, 2014 № 1219 "On approval of the adoption of the Regulations of acceptance, storage, sale and forfeiture the bail") Kazakhstanskaya pravda, 2014, 4 dekabrya.
GENERAL PROVISIONS ON VICTIMSAND WITNESSES INTERROGATION IN THE INVESTIGATION OF CRIMES AGAINST LIFE AND HEALTH OF MINORS COMMITTED ON GROUNDS OF POLITICAL, IDEOLOGICAL, RACIAL, NATIONAL OR RELIGIOUS HATRED OR ENMITY OR ON GROUNDS OF HATRED OR ENMITY CONCERNING ANY SOCIAL GROUP
SKRIPKA Armine Aramovna
 Post-graduate student of the Department of Forensics of the FSBEI HE “Tula State University”, Tula, Russia
The article analyzes a complex of issues related to organization and conducting victims’ and witnesses’ interrogation in cases over crimes against life and health of minors committed on grounds of political, ideological, racial, national or religious hatred or enmity or on grounds of hatred or enmity concerning any social group. These peculiarities of the interrogation are predefined by: – procedural status of the relevant participants of criminal proceedings, they have certain rights and responsibilities, procedural safeguards and protection of their rights; – common fact in proof provided by article 73 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and specific list of circumstances, subjected to be proven in cases over crimes against life and health committed by juveniles on extremist grounds; – characteristics and circumstances of the investigative situation, in terms of which the investigation is done; – degree and characteristics of interrogatee’s awareness concerning the facts, events and phenomena relevant to the investigation, interrogatee’s position towards the investigation, characterized by open or latent conflict or conflict-free relation to the inquiry; – interrogatee’s psychological and criminological characteristics.
Key words: extremism, minors, grounds, political, ideological, racial, national or religious hatred or hostility, social groups, investigation, interrogation.
References
1. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. Tipologija agressii i formy ee projavlenija v strukture motivacii jekstremistskoj i terroristicheskoj dejatel'nosti (Typology of aggression and forms of its manifestation in the structure of motivation of extremist and terrorist activities), Vestnik of Volgograd Academy of the MIA of Russia, 2013, No. 2 (25), pp 59–63. 
2. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. Dialekticheskoe edinstvo jekstremizma i terrorizma kak filosofskaja predposylka dlja sovershenstvovanija podhodov k kriminalisticheskomu nauchnomu obespecheniju antiterroristicheskoj i antijekstremistskoj dejatel'nosti (Dialectical unity of extremism and terrorism as a philosophical prerequisite for improved approaches to forensic scientific support for anti-terrorist and anti-extremist activity), Vestnik of the Moscow University of the MIA of Russia, 2015, No. 8, pp. 115–118.
3. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. Sootnoshenie ponjatij jekstremistskoj i terroristicheskoj dejatel'nosti: gnoseologicheskij i pravovoj aspekty (The relationship between the concepts of extremist and terrorist activities: epistemological and legal aspects), Black holes in Russian legislation, 2015, No. 4, pp. 94–97.
4. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. O klassifikacii javlenij jekstremizma i terrorizma: edinstvo sushhnosti i polivariantnost' otobrazhenija v sociume (On the classification of phenomena of extremism and terrorism: the unity of nature and the multivariate display in the society), Constitutional state: theory and practice, 2015, No. 4 (42), pp. 31–35.
5. Aivazova O.V., Gnetnev I.G. Osobennosti formirovanija pokazanij podozrevaemyh, obvinjaemyh, imejushhih psihicheskie rasstrojstva, ne iskljuchajushhie vmenjaemosti (Peculiarities of formation of the testimony of suspects, accused persons with mental disorder not excluding sanity), Izvestia of the Tula state University. Economic and legal Sciences, 2013, No. 2-2, pp. 63–69. 
6. Vardanyan A.A. Osobennosti proizvodstva doprosa podozrevaemogo i obvinjaemogo po delam o pohishhenii cheloveka, sovershennom v celjah ego prodazhi ili poluchenija vykupa (Features of the production of the interrogation of suspects and the accused in cases over kidnapping committed for the purpose of sale or ransom), Lawyer, 2010, No. 4, pp. 103–108.
7. Vardanyan A.V., Larionov I.A. Pravovye i taktiko-kriminalisticheskie osobennosti provedenija sledstvennyh dejstvij s uchastiem migrantov v kontekste problemy formirovanija sistemy polnyh i neprotivorechivyh dokazatel'stv po ugolovnym delam ob organizacii nezakonnoj migracii (Legal and tactical-criminalistics peculiarities of investigative actions with the participation of migrants in the context of the problem of formation of system of complete and consistent evidence in criminal cases over the organization of illegal migration), Proceedings of the Tula state University. Economic and legal Sciences, 2016, No. 2-2, pp. 3–9. 
8. Konovalov V.S., Aivazova O.V. Osobennosti proizvodstva doprosa poterpevshego i svidetelja po delam o prestuplenijah, svjazannyh s prichineniem vreda zdorov'ju (Peculiarities of production of the interrogation of victims and witnesses in cases of crimes involving body injury) / Lawyer-Jurist. 2007. No. 3. pp. 63 – 65.
9. Aivazova O.V., Konovalov S.I. Kriminalisticheskij priem kak kategorija sovremennoj nauki kriminalistiki (Criminalistics technique as a modern category of forensic science), Izvestiya of Tula state University. Economic and legal Sciences, 2016, No. 2-2, pp. 73–79.
10. Vardanyan A.V., Ivanov M.E. Perechen' obstojatel'stv, podlezhashhih dokazyvaniju pri rassledovanii nezakonnoj dobychi (vylova) vodnyh biologicheskih resursov, kak jelement kriminalisticheskoj metodiki rassledovanija ukazannyh dejanij (List of circumstances subject to proof in the investigation of illegal production (catch) of aquatic biological resources, as an element of criminalistics technique of investigation of these acts), Lawyer, 2014, № 6 (67), pp. 53–55. 
11. Vardanyan A.V. Obstojatel'stva, podlezhashhie ustanovleniju po delam o prestuplenijah v sfere zemel'nyh pravootnoshenij, kak jelement chastnoj kriminalisticheskoj metodiki rassledovanija ukazannyh dejanij (Circumstances, subject to establishment in cases over crimes in the sphere of land relations, as an element of private criminalistics methods of investigation of these acts), Lawyer, 2013, № 4 (59), pp. 37–39.
12. Vardanyan A.V. Kriminalisticheski znachimye osobennosti poterpevshih po delam o tjazhkih nasil'stvennyh prestuplenijah protiv lichnosti (Forensically significant features of victims in cases over serious violent crimes against the person), Proceedings SWorld, 2013, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 35–41.
13. Vardanyan A.V. Kriminalisticheskaja tipologija sub#ektov nasil'stvennyh posjagatel'stv na zhizn' i zdorov'e lichnosti, imejushhih psihicheskie rasstrojstva, ne iskljuchajushhie vmenjaemosti (Forensic typology of the subjects of violent attacks on the lives and health of a person with mental disorder not excluding sanity), Izvestia of the Tula state University. Economic and legal Sciences, 2014, No. 2-2, pp. 3–9. 
14. Vardanyan A.V. Viktimologicheskij aspekt lichnosti poterpevshego v strukture kriminalisticheski znachimyh priznakov tjazhkih prestuplenij protiv zhizni i zdorov'ja cheloveka (Victimological aspect of the personality of the victim in the structure of forensically important signs of grave crimes against the life and health of man), Philosophy of law, 2010, No. 6, pp. 25–28.
15. Vardanyan A.V., Bezruchko E.V. K voprosu o neodnoznachnoj ocenke bespomoshhnogo sostojanija v praktike Verhovnogo suda Rossijskoj Federacii (To the question of ambiguous rating of a helpless condition in the practice of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation), Proceedings of the Tula state University. Economic and legal Sciences, 2015, No. 3-2, pp. 9–16.
16. Vardanyan A.V. Nekotorye problemy naznachenija psihologo-psihiatricheskoj jekspertizy pri rassledovanii nasil'stvennyh posjagatel'stv na zhizn' i zdorov'e lichnosti, sovershennyh sub#ektami, imejushhimi psihicheskie rasstrojstva, ne iskljuchajushhie vmenjaemosti (Some problems of assignment of psychological and psychiatric examination during the investigation of the violent attacks on the lives and health of a person, committed by persons having mental disorder, not excluding sanity), Izvestia of the Tula state University. Economic and legal Sciences, 2014, No. 2-2, pp. 168–172.
17.  Ugolovnoe delo No. 2-41/15 (Criminal case). The St. Petersburg city court. 2015.
18. Kassacionnoe opredelenie Verhovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii. Delo № 5-O12-75 (Cassation definition of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. Case No. 5-A 12-75). August 15, 2012.
MODERN PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF NON-CASH PAYMENT BY PLASTIC BANK CARDS
GALYAUTDINOV Rustem Flyurovich
Police Major, Lecturer of the Department of Special Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
The article analyzes the causes of crime growth in the field of computer and telecommunication systems through the use of cashless payments using plastic bank cards. The author reviews the main types of crimes in the sphere of circulation of non-cash payments, as well as activities, enforced by the Russian Interior Ministry aimed at their effective prevention, detection and suppression. Significant attention is paid to combating terrorist and extremist activities financing. The data presented in the article are supported by statistical indicators and examples of significant criminal cases initiated in our country in recent years. The result of the work is the definition of basic state functions in order to ensure the transparency of the credit and financial system: regulation of electronic payments, identification of legal status of bank cards operations at the federal level, introduction of new technical and technological means to protect bank cards.
FINANCIAL SECURITY AND ITS LEGAL REGULATION: SOME NEW PROBLEMS
KONDRAT Elena Nikolaevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Legal Support of Management of MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.
The article analyzes legal regulation of financial security in modern conditions. New problems and latest tasks in this sphere are stated from the point of view of juridical science. The article gives information on modern assessment of challenges and new threats, which appear in the financial sphere. It specifies orienting points for neutralizing these threats. It proves the necessity of effective adaptation of the Russian state mechanism for the analyzed threats and challenges. At present, provision of financial security of a state comes to be an important task for many countries. This task becomes prioritized under conditions of the financial crisis for our country. 
Key words: financial security; legal regulation; threats and challenges in the financial sphere; legal foundation; state mechanism.
References
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THE IMPLEMENTATION  OF THE PRINCIPLE OF PREVENTION  OF HARM TO THE ENVIRONMENT
IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
GIZZATULLIN Ravil Khasanovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir state University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The article analyzes some aspects of legal regulation in ecological legislation of ecological and legal measures and requirements, which guarantee realization of such a principle of ecological legislation as prevention of harm to the environment    on the stage preceding realization of ecologically significant activities.  In particular, it is about the assessment of influence on the environment, ecological expertise and requirements to separate stages of engineering, construction and reconstruction of capital objects, which negatively influence the environment. The author concludes that the ecological legislation in power in respect to the stated ecological and legal measures and requirements does not ensure due realization of the principle of prevention of harm to the environment.
Key words: environmental law, principles of law, environment, prevention of harm, environmental legislation, environmental assessment, environmental requirements.
References
1. Brinchuk M.M. Printsipy ekologicheskogo prava (Principles of Environmental Law), monografiya. Moskva. Yurlitinform, 2013. 
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TOWARDS THE QUESTION OF THE EXACERBATION OF THE CRISIS IN THE U.S.- RUSSIAN RELATIONSHIP AT THE CURRENT STAGE YELIZAROV
Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Russia. 
Russia–United States relations have gone through many ups and downs in the past ten to fifteen years. They include the short-term thaw seen in the early 2000s, and Obama's “Reset” started in 2009, which failure was announced in March 2014, and the current stage of the crisis that has already been nicknamed ‘the new Cold War’ in the Western media. The Russian Federation was wrongfully accused of its aggressive actions due to the annexation of Crimea; a number of sanctions were approved against individuals, businesses and officials from Russia and Ukraine. Although Russia and the United States have had the periods of confrontation before, the current situation appears to be more unpredictable and volatile. But despite the serious crisis in the relations with the US and EU, Russia still needs the collaboration with them. Imposing reciprocal sanctions, the Russian government has to act in a reasonable manner. At the same time, the United States and Western countries continue to impose new sanctions pushing Russia for greater cooperation with China, which has resulted in jointly implementing large-scale projects. As the passions around Ukraine subside, the United States and Europe are expected to be more aware of increasing threat from Sino-Russian rapprochement.
Key words: Russia, the US, China, Putin, Obama, Ukraine, Syria, crisis, collaboration, partnership, sanctions, confrontations.
References
1. Kremeshok V.A. Po povodu stat'i R. Legvol'da o "novoj Holodnoj vojne" (Concerning the article by R. Legvold of "The New Cold War") // USA - Kanada. 2014. No. 12. pp. 95–102.
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3. Sovbez OON vvyol sankcii protiv irakskih boevikov (The UN Security Council imposed sanctions against the Iraqi fighters) // The Online Newspaper "Lenta.ru", dated 15.08.2014 URL: https://lenta.ru/news/2014/08/15/iraq1/ (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
4. Sirijskoe uregulirovanie prodvinulos' ne dal'she Bashara Asada (The Syrian settlement has progressed no further than Bashar al-Assad). Kommersant, dated 16.11.2015 URL: http://kommersant.ru/Doc/2855020 (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
5. SSHA otkazalis' prinyat' delegaciyu vo glave s Medvedevym dlya obsuzhdeniya Sirii (The United States refused to receive the delegation led by Medvedev to discuss the current situation in Syria) // The News Agency of Interfax dated 14.10.2015 URL: http://www.interfax.ru/world/473318 (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
6. Senate Panel Approves Bill to Authorize Military Aid to Ukraine, New Sanctions // DFNS.net Policy Edition, dated 19.09.2014. URL: http://policy.dfns.net/2014/09/21/senate-panel-approves-bill-to-authorize-military-aid-to-ukraine-new-sanctions/ (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
7. Concerns about Russia Rise. But Just a Quarter Call Moscow an Adversary. Public Remains Wary about U.S. Involvement in Ukraine, dated 25.03.2014. URL: http://www.people-press.org/2014/03/25/concerns-about-russia-rise-but-just-a-quarter-call-moscow-an-adversary (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
8. Full text of Barack Obama's speech to the UN General Assembly // The Telegraph, dated 24.09.2014.  URL: http://telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/barackobama/11119048/Full-text-of-Barack-Obamas-speech-to-the-UN-General-Assembly.html (the date of access: 17/10/2016)
9. Gordon M. and Schmitt E. U.S. Considers Supplying Arms to Ukraine Forces, Officials Say // The New York Times, dated 02.02.2015. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/world/us-taking-a-fresh-look-at-arming-kiev-forces.html (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
10. G20: Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin agree to Syrian-led transition // The Guardian, dated 16.11.2015. URL: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/16/g20-barack-obama-and-vladimir-putin-agree-to-syrian-led-transition (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
11. Killough A. Romney before Obama Speech: "We Don't Have a President that Knows What to Do" // CNN, dated 11.09.2014. URL: http://edition.cnn.com/2014/09/10/politics/christie-r.index.html (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
12. Legvold R. Managing the New Cold War. What Moscow and Washington Can Learn from the Last One // Foreign Affairs, July/August 2014. pp. 74-84.
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14. Russians Strike Targets in Syria, but Not ISIS Areas // The New York Times, dated 30 September 2015. URL: http://www.suara.tv/2015/10/01/russians-strike-targets-in-syria-but-not-isis-areas (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
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18. Syria crisis: US attacks Moscow welcome for Assad // BBC, dated 22 October 2015. URL: http://www.policemc.gov.bh/en/news/world/45278 (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
19. U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria into Proxy War with Russia // The New York Times, dated 12.10.2015. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/13/world/middleeast/syria-russia-airstrikes.html?_r=0 (the date of access: 17/10/2016).
INTERNATIONAL AND LAW CRIMINAL ASPECTS OF DETECTION, ARREST AND CONFISCATION OF MONEY AND PROPERTY, OBTAINED BY CRIMINAL MEANS, FINANCING TERRORISM AND EXPANSION OF MASS DESTRUCTION WEAPONS
KRIVOV Andrey Valerievich
Degree-Seeking Student of the Department of training of personals of higher qualification of the FSBEI HE "Russian State University of Justice", Judge of Stolbtsovski District of Minsk Region, Stolbtsy, Republic of Belarus,
The article reveals the questions of criminal regulation of counter measures against legalization of money funds and property, obtained by criminal means, and financing terrorism and expansion of mass destruction weapon. The article studies aspects of detection, arrest and confiscation of money funds and property, obtained by criminal means. According to the author, elaboration of the international (national) methodology of damage assessment (in the real and perspective senses) from money funds and property, obtained by criminal means, could solve a number of questions, connected to organizational, legal, informative and even political aspects of the stated problem. The essential potential in this sphere of international cooperation lies in further development of cooperation among national authorities, the so-called the financial intelligence (the Federal Service for Financial Monitoring and the Federal Security Service) and their foreign partners and also in the framework of specialized international organizations
Key words: money laundering, criminal and legal aspects of fight against money laundering, financing of terrorism, expansion of mass destruction weapons.
References
1. Bankovsky А.L., Тroshkin Е.S. Otmyvanie «grjaznyh» deneg i mezhdunarodnyj terrorizm ("Dirty" money laundering and international terrorism. Terrorism and safety on a transport), Materials of intern. pract. conf. 2002. М., 2002, рр. 34–37.
2. Ugolovnyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ot 13.06.1996 N 63-FZ (Criminal Code of the Russian Federation from 13.06.1996 N 6-FL (ed. from 30.12.2015)) / http://www.pravo.gov.ru (30.12.2015).
3. Ugolovno-processual'nyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ot 18.12.2001 N 174-FZ (red. ot 30.12.2015) (Code of criminal procedure of the Russian Federation from 18.12.2001 N 174-ФЗ (ed. from 30.12.2015)) / http://www.pravo.gov.ru (30.12.2015).
4. Konvencija o pravovoj pomoshhi i pravovyh otnoshenijah po grazhdanskim, semejnym i ugolovnym delam gosudarstv-chlenov SNG ot 22 janvarja 1993 g. (Convention on legal aid and legal relations on civil, domestic and criminal cases of states-members of the CIS from January, 22.01. 1993) // http://base.garant.ru/10119702/.
5. Krilova N.Е., Serebrenikova А.V. Ugolovnoe pravo zarubezhnyh stran (Anglii, SShA, Francii, Germanii) (Criminal law of foreign countries (England, the USA, France, Germany)), Izd. 2-e, pererab. i dop. / N.E. Kuznecova. М. "Zertsalo", 1998. 
6.  Ugolovnoe zakonodatel'stvo zarubezhnyh stran (Anglii, SShA, Francii, Germanii, Japonii) (Criminal statute of foreign countries (England, the USA, France, Germany, Japan)), sb. zakonodatel'nyh aktov / pod red. I.D. Kozochkina. М.: " Zertsalo ", 1998. 228 p.
7. Ugolovnyj kodeks Ispanii (Criminal code of Spain), pod red. i s predisl. N.F. Kuznecovoj i F.M. Reshetnikova. М. " Zertsalo ", 1998.
8. Swart А.Х.Joule. Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo v Niderlandah (Criminal trial in Netherlands), Pravovaja sistema Niderlandov / otv. red. V.V. Bojcova, L.V. Bojcova. М. " Zertsalo ", 1998, рр. 258–291.
 
 
 
ABEZGILDIN Ruslan Rinatovich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Political Science of the North-West Institute of Management of the RFPANE&PA (St. Petersburg), St. Petersburg, Russia. 
AKHVERDIEV Eldiyar Eldarovich 
Postgraduate student of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Faculty of Law of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod: National Research University, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. 
AKHMATYANOVA Venera Amirzyanovna 
Senior Lecturer of the Chair of Law Disciplines of the Neftekamsk branch of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Neftekamsk, Russia.
ASKAROVA Aygul Rinatovna
Police Major, Instructor of the Department of Professional Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation”, Ufa, Russia.
ARUTYUNYAN Marina Samvelovna
Candidate of (Sciences), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE «Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation», Ufa, Russia. 
CHASHIN Alexander Nikolaevich
Candidate of Science (Law), Assistant professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the FSBEI HE "North-eastern State University», Magadan, Russia
DERBYSHEVA Ekaterina Aleksandrovna 
Instructor of the Chair of Human Rights of the Faculty of Law of the ANO HE Liberal Arts 
University, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
ENIKEEV Oleg Anatolievich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Candidate of Sciences (Medicine), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the SEI HPE “Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan”, Ufa, Russia.
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
ENIKEEVA Zarema Airatovna
Teaching assistant of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
ERKEEV Ilshat Khamitovich 
Senior Instructor of the Department of Forensics of the FSGEI HE "Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia", Ufa, Russia.
FROLOVA Natalia Alekseevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law named after G.V. Maltsev of the Department of Law named after M.M. Speranskiy of the Institute of Law and National Security of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia. 
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia
GALYAUTDINOV Rustem Flyurovich
Police Major, Lecturer of the Department of Special Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
GIZZATULLIN Ravil Khasanovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir state University”, Ufa, Russia
GLUSHKOVA Svetlana Igorevna
Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Head of the Chair of Human Rights, Deputy Dean of the Law Faculty, Director of the Center of Legal Education and Human Rights of the ANO HE “Liberal Arts University” (Autonomous Nonprofit Organization of Higher Education " Liberal Arts University"), Yekaterinburg, Russia 
KONDRAT Elena Nikolaevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Legal Support of Management of MGIMO University, Moscow, Russia.
KRIVOV Andrey Valerievich
Degree-Seeking Student of the Department of training of personals of higher qualification of the FSBEI HE "Russian State University of Justice", Judge of Stolbtsovski District of Minsk Region, Stolbtsy, Republic of Belarus,
KOROLEV Ruslan Vitalievich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Head of the Department of Physical Training of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia”, Ufa, Russia. 
KUKSIN Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation, Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Institute of the SAEI HE «Moscow City Pedagogical University», Moscow, Russia. 
MAMLEEVA Dilara Radikovna 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Administrative Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia.
MITSKAYA Elena Vladimirovna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Law Institute (St. Petersburg); Professor of the Department of Criminal Law and Procedure of the M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan. 
MOROZOVA Alexandera Sergeevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of  Constitutional and International Law of the Urals Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Yekaterinburg, Russia
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia. 
NOVOPAVLOVSKAYA Elena Evgenyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of State Law Disciplines of the FSGEI HE «Belgorod Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after I.D. Putilin», Belgorod, Russia
PETRENKO Mikhail Nikolaevich
Postgraduate Degree Seeker of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the SLI of the FPS of Russia, Samara, Russia
PLAKHTIY Elena Vladimirovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Urals Institute of Administration of the Russian Presidential Academy of National, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
RAKHIMZODA Ramazan Khamro
(Rakhimov Ramazon Khamroevich)
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Organization of Law Enforcement Activities of the Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Lieutenant-General of Police, Dushanbe, Tajikistan. 
SALNIKOV Victor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the “Legal Science: History and Modernity” Journal, Honored Worker of Science of Russian Federation, Honored Worker of the Higher Education of the Russian Federation
SKRIPKA Armine Aramovna
Post-graduate student of the Department of Forensics of the FSBEI HE “Tula State University”, Tula, Russia
SLEPNEV Evgeny Leonidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
SVETLICHNIY Andrey Viktorovich
In-house counsel in JSC “Urals Pipe Works”, Pervouralsk, Russia. 
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Russia. 
ZAKHARTSEV Sergey Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy, Moscow, Russia
ZHEMALETDINOV Rustem Maratovich
Candidate of Sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
 
 

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК