№ 4 (42) 2015 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

№ 4 (42) 2015

№ 4 (42) 2015
Inside

  

  • Philosophy of Law
  • Classification of Extremism and Terrorism
  • Nature of State Immunity
  • Child-Friendly Justice 

Feature

             Philosophical and Legal Comprehension of the State

THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE

Zakhartsev S.I
Salnikov V.P. 

Philosophy of Law: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

Kukovskiy A.A.
Roslov P.D. 

National Values as an Object of Security Provision (Axiological Analysis)

Khabirov R.F. Overview of the Methodology of Theoretical and Legal  Approach to the Study of Sovereignty
Gorbachev S.B. Balance of Rights and Duties of the Russian People and the Elite as a Factor of Stability of the State
Vipkhanova G.V

Ecologic and Legal Provision of Coal Industry of Fuel Power Complex

Vardanyan A.V.
Kuleshov R.V.

On the Classification of the Phenomena of Extremism and Terrorism: the Unity of Essence and Polyvariant Display in the Society

SalnikovV.P.
SalnikovM.V.
Romanovskaya V.B.
Puzhaev V.V.

The Legal Nature of State Immunity
Kasimov T.S.

The Concepts of the Essence of the State

Ponomareva E.V. Gerasimov A.P. 

Legal Terminology as a Techno-Legal Means of Legal Technique

Ponomareva E.V.

The Main Directions of Improving Law-Making Activity

Romanov A.A.

Ethnopoliyical Myth: Genetics

Shagiev B.V. Problems of Functioning of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation in the System of Separation of Powers in Russia
Elizarov M.V.

Fichte's Views on National Destiny and the Purpose of the State

 CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 

Zaborovskaya S.G.
Ishmuratov M.M.

Principles of Personnel Reserve Formation in Municipal Services: Political and Legal Aspects

 CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCESS

 

Arsentyeva N.A.
Khairullina G. Kh. 

Features of Conciliation Procedures in the Field of Education

Shaburov A. S.
Umarova E.S.

Property and Land Ownership Relations as a Factor of Food Security

Khismatullin O.Yu.
Kurbanov D.A. 

Some Aspects of Preparation of a Case for Trial
Alsynbayeva E.M.

Legal Nature of Transplant Medical Care

 CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 

Tarasov A.A.
Gabdrashitova V.R. 

The Use of the System of Child – friendly JusticeduringCriminalProceedings

Nikolaev E.M. Legal Regulation of the Activity of Law Enforcement Bodies that Ensure State Protection of Crime Victims
Sharipova A.R.

The Problem of «Substitution of the Purpose» of the Law in its Implementation

Kostrova M.B.

The Realization of Criminal Politics: from Law Making to Law Enforcement

Gabdrashitova V.R. Restorative Approach in the Implementationof Criminal Policy in regard to Minors
Chigrin D.A. To the Question of “Reanimation” of the Institute of Returning Criminal Cases by the Courtto Conduct an Additional Investigation in Criminal Proceedings in Russia
Sagitdinova Z.I.

Some Aspects of Modern Methods of Teaching Criminal Law at University

 CRIMINALISTICS. FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVELY-SEARCH ACTIVITY 

Aminev F.G.

On Some Problems of Forensic Activities in the Russian Federation

Slavgorodskaya O.A.

 

Criminalistic and Criminal Procedural Basis of Provision of Participation of Witnesses in Crime Investigation
Aleshina S.A. The Scope of Persons in respect of Whom Reports of Crimes are Checked in order Prescribed by Article 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation

 FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW 

Krokhina Yu.A. International Conventions on Avoidance of Double Taxation: Effectiveness of Legal Regulation
Gabitov I.M. Democracy and Economic Policy of the State

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY.

INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW

Gavva A.A.

Estate Property Rights in German Civil Law

Yusupova Z.A.
Muhametgareeva N.M. 

International Environmental Law: the Contingence of Environment and Development

Shonin N.E.

International Law as a Stimulator of Realization of Rule-of-law State Idea

Pudakov E.R. On the Classification of Corruption Risks and Manifestations in Foreign Scientific Literature

Iamalova E.N. 

Historical Determinants of Democratization of the Political System of Estonia

Mirzoev A.K.

 

Dispositive regime for  the state sovereignty as a stability factor in the context of global and regional threats to international legal order

 REVIEW

Polstovalov O.V.

Review of the Monograph by N.I. Malykhina "Forensic Processing of the Traits and States of the Perpetrator" ( Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: Lulu Press, 2015. 180 p.) 

 TO THE AUTHORS

 

PHILOSOPHY OF LAW: YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW

ZAKHARTSEV Sergei Ivanovich

Doctor of sciences (Law), Professor of the chair ofTheory and History of State and Law of the Moscow State University of Technologies and Management,
Moscow, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich

Doctor of Sciences (Law), professor, editor-in-chief of the "Legal Science: History and the Present" journal, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,
Moscow, Russia
 E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper is devoted to different approaches to philosophy of law. In the paper, the authors analyzed modern Russian and foreign specialists’ opinions concerning the subject of law philosophy, the authors formulated approaches to the core of the problem. The subject matter of philosophy of law is determined, the paper deals with fundamental issues of law and legal reality as a whole.

Key words: philosophy; philosophy of law; philosophical-oriented science; ontology of law; epistemology of law; axiology of law; anthropology of law; logic of law; ethics of law; praxeology of law; legal consciousness; legal culture; legal reality.

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NATIONAL VALUES AS AN OBJECT OF SECURITY PROVISION

 (AXIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

KUKOVSKIYAnton Alexandrovich

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law, South-Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

ROSLOV Pavel Dmitrievich

graduate of the Law faculty of the South-Urals State University, Legal Adviser of the Extradepartmental Protection Directorate of the Interior Ministry of the Russian Federation for the city of Chelyabinsk,
Chelyabinsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In this article, the authors made an attempt to give grounds to the genesis and evolution of basic human values, to analyze main approaches to the notion of “value”. The authors treat security as the basic value for all humanity and give a comparative analysis and synthesis of such categories as “interest”, “value”, and “national security”. National security should be viewed as equally basic value for the triunity of “personality-society-state”. The authors’ approach to the notion of “national interest” is formed from the point of view of axiology of law. The authors analyze systematic features of national security and suggests authorial interpretation of correlation of such categories as “personality”, “society”, “state” from the point of view of arousing interest as an object of security. Legal category “national interest” is viewed from the position of the analysis of two main elements: central (permanent) and secondary (changeable). The authors make a suggestion to view threats to objects of security (values, interests) in their dynamics, to take into account their nature, to adjust the instrumentarium of national security for the purpose of their evening-out at the stage of their appearance.

Key words: national security, security, state, law, values, national interests, national threats, national values, axiology of law.

References

  1. Babenko, A.M. Pravovye cennosti i osvoenie ih lichnost'ju: dis. …d-ra jurid. Nauk [Legal Values and Development of their Personality: doctoral dis.] / A.M. Babenko. M., 2002. 395 p.
  2. Vozzhenikov A.V. Paradigma nacional'noj bezopasnosti reformirujushhejsja Rossii [The Paradigm of National Security of reforming Russia] M., 2010. P. 92.
  3. Vozzhenikov A.V., Prohozhev A.A. Sistema zhiznenno vazhnyh interesov Rossijskoj Federacii: sushhnost', soderzhanie, klassifikacija, mehanizm soglasovanija [The system of Vital Interests of the Russian Federation: the Nature, Content, Classification, Mechanism of Coordination] M., 2012.
  4. Gegel'. Fenomenologija duha (Reprintnoe vosproizvedenie izdanija 1959 g. Vstup. stat'ja K.A. Sergeeva i Ya.A. Slinina) [Hegel. Phenomenology of the Spirit (Reprint edition 1959 publication. Preview Article of K.A. Sergeev and Ya.A. Slinin)] M.: Infra-M, 2011.
  5. Golubeva G.A., Dmitriev A.V. Sociologija [Sociology] M., 2014. P. 125.
  6. Zelenkov M.Iu. Pravovye osnovy obshhej teorii bezopasnosti Rossijskogo gosudarstva v XXI [Legal Basis of the General Theory of Security of the Russian State in the XXI] M., 2002. P. 101.
  7. Ideograficheskij slovar' russkogo jazyka [Thesaurus of the Russian language] M.: Izdatel'stvo JeTS. Baranov O.S. 1995.
  8. Kerimov D.A. Metodologija prava: predmet, funkcii, problemy filosofii prava [Methodology of Law: the Subject, Functions, Problems of Legal Philosophy] D.A. Kerimov [6-e izd.]. M.: Izd-vo Sovremennogo gumanitarnogo un-ta, 2011. 520 p.
  9. Kozlova E. I., Kutafin O. E. Konstitucionnoe pravo Rossii: Uchebnik [Constitutional Law of Russia: Textbook] M.: Jurajt, 2013. p. 608.
  10. Mamonov V.V. Konstitucionnye osnovy nacional'noj bezopasnosti Rossii [The Constitutional Foundations of Russia's National Security] M. 2003, P. 111.
  11. Obshhaja psihologija. Slovar [General Psychology. Dictionary] / Pod. red. A.V. Petrovskogo. Psihologicheskij leksikon. Jenciklopedicheskij slovar' v shesti tomah / Red.-sost. L.A. Karpenko. Pod obshh. red. A.V. Petrovskogo. M.: PER SJe, 2005.
  12. Ozhegov S. I., Shvedova N.Ju. Tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka [Dictionary of Russian language.] P. 254.
  13. Prohozhev A.A. Obshhaja teorija nacional'noj bezopasnosti [The General Theory of National Security], M. 2010.
  14. Prohozhev A.A. Chelovek i obshhestvo: zakony social'nogo razvitija i bezopasnosti [Man and Society: the Laws of Social Development and Security] M., 2011.
  15. Prohozhev A. A. Nacional'naja bezopasnost': problemy teorii [National Security: Theory] M.: RAGS, 1977. P. 17.
  16. Sultanov Sh. Z. Regional'nye konflikty i global'naja bezopasnost' [Regional Conflicts and Global Security] M.,1990. P. 25.
  17. Soedinennye Shtaty, Ameriki: Konstitucija i zakonodatel'nye akty [United States of America: The Constitution and the Laws] M., 2014.
  18. Fedotov K. G. Istorija gosudarstva i prava zarubezhnyh stran [History of State and Law of Foreign countries]. L., 1977.
  19. Fenenko Ju.V. Sushhnost' i obshhaja harakteristika nacional'nyh cennostej, interesov i celej Rossijskoj Federacii [The Nature and General Characteristics of National Values, Interests and Goals of the Russian Federation] / Ju.V. Fenenko. Municipal'nyj mir. – 2009. № 1-4.
  20. Filosofskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar' /pod red. Kurbatova M.P. [Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary] M., 2012. P. 213.
  21. Filosofija nauki: Obshhie problemy poznanija. Metodologija estestvennyh i gumanitarnyh nauk: hrestomatija [Philosophy of Science: General Problems of Cognition. The Methodology of the Sciences and Humanities: a Reader] Otv. Red.-sost. L.A. Mikeshina. M.: progress-Tradicija: MPSI: Flinta, 2011. 992 p.

Ihering R. Der Geist des römischen Rechts.Heidelberg, 1968, p. 327

 

OVERVIEW OF THE METHODOLOGY OF THEORETICAL AND LEGAL APPROACH TOTHE STUDY OF SOVEREIGNTY

KHABIROV Radiy Faritovich

Candidate of Sciences (law), Deputy Head of the Russian President’s Domestic Policy Directorate,

Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article reveals the author's vision of the system components in the methodology of theoretical and legal study of sovereignty, it also raises the problem of the link between theory of state and law and other branches of legal knowledge and other social sciences in the context of the study of key features of the state. The article highlights the key components of the methodology of General theoretical legal study of sovereignty. The author insists on the need in theoretical and legal study of sovereignty not to dissolve in sociology, political sciences, sciences of public law and public international law and to keep the vector of the general legal approach in revealing state characteristics. The theoretical and legal concept of sovereignty in the author's interpretation involves the development in the context of law transformation.
Keywords: sovereignty, theory of state and law, methodology of legal approach, components of research methodology.

References

  1. Kazimirchuk V.P. Pravo i metody ego izucheniya. [Law and Methods of its Study]. M.: Izd-vo «Yurid. lit.», 1965. 204 p.
  2. Novikov A.M., Novikov D.A. Metodologiya [Methodology]. M.: SINTEG, 2007. 668 p.
  3. Vasil'ev A.M. Pravovye kategorii: Metodologicheskie aspekty razrabotki sistemy kategorii teorii prava. [Legal Categories: Methodological Aspects of the System of the Category of Theory of Law]. M.: Yurid.lit., 1976. 264 p.
  4. Pri vsei nedruzhelyubnosti skazannogo izvestnaya dolya spravedlivogo v slovakh V.L.Tsymburskogo est: «Imeya delo s ideei, teoretik-pravoved v prave borot'sya za obraztsovost' ee umstvennoio granki, khotya by ee prakticheskaya prilozhimost poshla prakhom. On mozhet chistoserdechno priznavatsya v svoei nesposobnosti provesti v politicheskoi dannosti granitsu mezhdu nalichiem suvereniteta i ego poterei …». Vse rassuzhdeniya, kak otmechaet avtor, o vozmozhnosti rasshireniya ili suzheniya, polnote ili nepolnote gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta, o priznanii chastichno suverennykh gosudarstv teoretiki-pravovedy schitayut metodologicheski nevernymi (sm.: Tsymburskii V.L. Ideya suvereniteta v rossiiskom, sovetskom i postsovetskom kontekste. [For all the friendliness of the words spoken there is a certain of justice in V.L.Tsymburskoi’s speech: "In dealing with the idea a theorist lawyer has the right to fight for its model mental cut, though its practical applicability crumbled. He can candidly admit his inability to draw the line between the presence of the sovereignty and its loss ... ". Theorists jurists consider all the arguments, as the author notes, the possibility of expansion or contraction, completeness or incompleteness of state sovereignty, partly on the recognition of sovereign states methodologically incorrect (see Tsymburskiy: The idea of ​​the sovereignty in the Russian, Soviet and post-Soviet context]. Ideya suvereniteta v rossiiskom, sovetskom i postsovetskom kontekste. Materialy nauchnogo seminara. [The Idea of the Sovereignty in the Russian, Soviet and post-Soviet Context. Materials of Science Seminar] Vyp.4 (13). M.: Nauchnyiekspert, 2008. p. 13.
  5. Kerimov D.A. Obshenauchnaya metodologiya i metodologiya prava. [General Methodology and Legal Methodology]. Teoretiko-metodologicheskie problemy prava. [Theoretical and Methodological Law Issues]. Vyp. 2. M.: Zertsalo-M, 2007. p. 7–18.
  6. Alekseev S.S., Kerimov D.A., Nedbailo P.E. Metodologicheskie problemi pravovedeniya [Methodological Issues of Legal Studies]. Pravovedenie. 1964. № 4. p. 15 – 28.
  7.  Berezhnov A.G. «Ob"ektivnoe» i «sub"ektivnoe» v kontekste teoretiko-metodologicheskikh problem pravoponimaniya. Teoretiko-metodologicheskie problemy prava. Vyp. 2. M.: Zertsalo-M, 2007. p. 120 –160.
  8. Kedrov B.M. Klassifikatsiya nauk. Prognoz K.Marksa o nauke budushchego. M.: Mysl', 1985. 543 p.
  9. Bezobrazov N.A. Issledovanie nachal vneshnego gosudarstvennogo prava, ili ob"yasnenie svoistv vzaimnykh otnoshenii gosudarstv / Nikolai Bezobrazov. SPb.: V Guttenbergovoi tipografii, 1838. [2], 95 p.
  10. Ivanovskii V.V. Uchebnik gosudarstvennogo prava. Kazan': Tipo-litografiya Imperatorskogo Universiteta, 1908. 510 p.
 

BALANCE OF RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE AND THE ELITE AS A FACTOR OF STABILITY OF THE STATE

GORBACHEV Sergey Borisovich

Candidate of Sciences ( Political Science), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HPE Bashkir State University,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The most important factor for stability and the very existence of the state is responsible perception of the people and the elite of their rights and responsibilities, their coherence and balance. In cases where this condition is not satisfied, it is fraught with negative consequences for the people, for the state, and for the elite. At the end of the XX century, the Russian elite acquired the rights that are disproportionate to the level of its duties and responsibilities. The masses, on the contrary, lost many social rights. However, in recent years, there is awareness and attempts to resolve the situation at the state level; the process of so-called «nationalization of the elite» evidences it, for example. There is also a trend of some convergence of interests of the people and a large part of the elite, it was manifested most clearly in the almost unanimous positive perception of the reunification of the Crimea with Russia. However, the imbalance of rights and obligations of the Russian people and the elite is still very large; it retains the risks for the state.
Keywords: Russia, the people, state, the elite, human rights, rights of the social community, obligations, responsibility.

References

  1. Solonevich I.L. Narodnaya monarhiya (People monarchy), M., Eksmo, 2003, 608 p.
  2. Ilyin V.V., Akhiezer A.S. Rossiyskaya gosudarstvennost: istoki, traditsii, perspektivyi (Russian Statehood: Origins, Traditions, and Perspectives), M, MGU, 1997, 384 p.
  3. Panarin A.S. Postmodernizm i globalizatsiya: proekt osvobozhdeniya sobstvennikov ot sotsialnyih i natsionalnyih obyazatelstv (Postmodernism and Globalization: the Project of Owners Liberation from Social and National Obligations), Problems of Philosophy, 2003. № 6, pp. 16-35.
  4. Gorbachev S.B. O roli pravovogo gosudarstva kak sotsialnogo regulyatora (On the role of the Rule- of- law State as a Social Regulator), Eurasian Law Journal, 2014, № 10 (77), pp. 92-94.
 

ECOLOGIC AND LEGAL PROVISION OF COAL INDUSTRY OF FUEL POWER COMPLEX

VIPKHANOVA GalinaViktorovna

Doctor of Law, Professor of the chair of Environmental and Natural Resources Law of the Moscow State University of Law named after O.E. Kutafin (MSLA),

Moscow, Russia

E-mail: //e.mail.ru/compose/?mailto=mailto%This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." target="_blank">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The strategic aim of modern state ecological policy in energetics is provision of safety and steady development of fuel power complex, decrease of negative effect of its branches, including coal mining and coal refining branches, on the environment. Achievement of this goal requires improvement of informational, etc. functions of regulation of this branch of economy, including state registrations of mines and other objects of under-earth and open-pit mining as dangerous production facilities, conducting ecological monitoring, etc. Coal companies should meet the requirements for mining works stated by ecological, natural resources and special (energetic) and other branches of legislation. Moreover, this is a necessary condition of ecologically determined development of coal industry. Increase of effectiveness of ecological and legal provision of coal industry requires elimination of existing gaps and collisions in the legislature, which prevent from optimal regulation of relations in the sphere of coal mining and formation of non-contradictory law enforcement practice.

Key words:coal industry, environmental protection, coal mining, coal refining, ecological safety, ecological requirements, subsoil use, use of natural resources, ecological and energy legislation.

References

1. Energy Strategy of Russia for the period up to 2030: approved by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation, dated 13 Nov. 2009 № 1715-R. Coll. of the legislation of the Russian Federation. 2009. No. 48.Article 5836.

2. The Draft of the State Report "On State and Protection of Environment of the Russian Federation in 2014" [Electronic resource]:.MNRE. URL: http://www.mnr.gov.ru/regulatory/list.php?part=1380 (accessed 20. 09.2015).

3. State report of the Ministry of Environment of the Russian Federation "On the State of Environmental Protection in 2007", Moscow, ANO "Centre for International Projects", 2008.

4. On the State Information System of Fuel and Energy Complex: Federal law of the Ryssian Federation of 3 December 2011 No. 382-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 21 Nov. 2011. adopted. by The Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 29 Nov. 2011. Collection of.the legislation of the Russian Federation. 2011. No. 49 (h. 5).article 7060.

5. Viphanova G. V. Doctrinal Basis of the Information of Legal Support of Nature Management and Environment Protection. Constitutional state: Theory and Practice. 2008. No. 13.

6. Natural Resources Legislation in the Conditions of Modernization of Economy of Russia: Modern Problems of Development: Monograph / V. B. Agafonov, V. K. Bykovsky, V. G. Vphanova, etc.; under the editorship of N. G. Zhavoronkova. M.: Norma, Infra-M, 2014.

7. Kruglov V. V. Legal Problems of Environmental Protection in Industry at the Present Stage (regional aspects) / Environmental Law. 2005. No. 4.

8. On the Environment: Federal law of the Russian Federation of 10 January 2002 No. 7-F3: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 20 Dec. 2001, adopted by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 26 Dec. 2001. ROS.gas. 2002. 12 Jan.; Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation.2002. No. 2, article 133.

9. Program of development of Coal Industry of Russia for the period up to 2030: approved by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 21 June 2014 No. 1099-R, / / Collections of the legislation of the Russian Federation. 2014. No. 27, article3786.

10. On State Regulation in the Field of Extraction and Coal Use, on Features of Social Protection of Workers of Coal Industry Organizations: the Federal law of the Russian Federation of 20 June 1996 No. 81-F3: adopted by the State. Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on May 17. 1996, approved by.the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 5 Jun. 1996. ROS.gas. 1996. 27 Jun.; Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation.1996. No. 26,article 3033.

ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE PHENOMENA OF EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM: THE UNITY OF ESSENCE AND POLYVARIANT DISPLAY IN THE SOCIETY

VARDANYANAkopVarazdatovich

Head of the Department of Forensics of the Rostov Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Colonel of police,

Rostov-on-Don, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

                KULESHOV Roman Vladimirovich

Head of the Department of coordination of scientific activity in the Russian Interior Ministry's Department for state service and personnel of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Lieutenant Colonel of Internal Service, Moscow, Russia

E-mail: rv111@mail.ru

The problem of extremism and terrorism is studied in the theoretical and legal aspect. The analysis of these concepts, allows to study in details the existing classifications, generated with the account of a number of specific criteria. It is noted that the classification itself is not universally accepted, since, in addition to the differences in the bases, many researchers, revealing the features of a particular type (forms), do not always put a single content in it. It is studied and analyzed the political, religious, ethnic and other factors affecting the development of terrorism and extremism. The ideas of the leading scientists in relation to these socially dangerous manifestations are considered. The diversity of the concepts is mentioned. In the result of the research the authors conclude that despite the considerable diversity of types and forms of terrorism and extremism, they as the destructive social phenomena are interrelated and form a dialectical unity.

Key words: extremism, extremist activity, terrorism, terrorist activities, ideology, extremist, terrorist, crimes, religious extremism, political extremism, national (nationalist) extremism, countering extremism, countering terrorism, dialectical unity, essence, classification, types of terrorism and extremism

References

  1. Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts in the Field of Combating International Terrorism and Other Manifestations of, M., 2003, pp. 13–15.
  2. Rimskiy A.V., ArtyukhA.V. Extremism and Terrorism: the Concept and the Basic forms of Scientific Statements, Belgorod State University, Series: Philosophy. Sociology. Law. Vol, T. 10, 16, 2009.
  3. Tomalintsev V.N., Kozlov A.A. Introduction to Social Extremismology. SPb., 2005.
  4. Topical Issues of Research and the Prevention of Extremism: Materials of the International Scientific Practical Conference, SPb., 2004.
  5. Extremism among St. Petersburg Youth: Analysis and Prevention Issues, SPb., 2003.
  6. Sergun E.P. Extremism in the Russian Criminal Law, Thesis ... candidate.jurid. Sciences,Tambov, 2009.
  7. Vlasov V.I. Extremism: Nature, Types, Prevention. M., 2003.
  8. Luneev V.V., Nechevin D.K. "Punk Prayer" in Christ the Savior Cathedral: Socio-legal, Criminological and Political Significance, Eurasian Law Journal, M., 2012, number 10 (53), pp. 150–153.
  9. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. Typology of Aggression and Forms of its Manifestation in the Structure of Motivation of Extremist and Terrorist Activities, Bulletin of the Volgograd Academy of the Russian Interior Ministry, Number 2 (25), 2013, pp. 59–62;
  10. Vardanyan A.V., Kuleshov R.V. Some Determinants of the Genesis of the Ethno-religious Extremism and Terrorism, as well as Updating on the Modern Society, Bulletin of the Volgograd Academy of the Russian Interior Ministry, Number 2013, 2 (25), pp. 151– 154.
  11. Arhiptcev N.I., Demko O.S. Features of Manifestations of Youth Extremism in Russia and in the Belgorod Region. Reasons for the Spread of Ethnic Extremism and Xenophobia among Young People (Central Federal District): Coll. Sociological Research, Ed. prof. LY Dyatchenko. Belgorod: Publishing house BSU, 2008. pp. 85.
  12. Martynenko B.K. Theoretical and Legal Issues of Political Terrorism: Example of Russia in the late 80's – 90's Twentieth Century, Thesis ... candidate.jurid. Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, 1999.
  13. Eremin D.N. Political Extremism in Russia: Forensic aspects (for example, the North Caucasian Region), Herald Baltic Federal University. Kant, Vol. 9, 2010, pp. 167–168.
  14. Belikov S. Political Extremism in the Youth Environment, Youth and Politics: the Materials of the "Round Table", M ., MSU. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1999, pp. 34–41.
  15. Vardanyan A.V. Concept of Prevention of Serious Violent Crimes: Epistemological, Operational and Investigative and Forensic Aspects, Yurist-Pravoved, 2011, № 2, pp. 6–10.
  16. Yangola V.N. Operatively-search Counteraction to Political Terrorism. Thesis ... candidate.jurid. Sciences, St. Petersburg, 2006, pp. 5–6.
  17. Joseph Stalin to Lavrenti Beria: "They must be Deported ...". Documents, Facts, Comments / entered. Art., amount., N. Bugay, postscript, M .: "Friendship of Peoples", 1992.
  18. Soldatov H.V. Psychology Ethnic Tensions, M., 1998.
  19. Vardanyan A.V. Ethnic and Ethno-religious Extremism as Factors Contributing to the Commission of Serious Violent Crimes against the Person. Criminalistics: Current Issues of Theory and Practice: the Seventh Collection of the All-Russian Scientific-practical Conference. Rostov-on-Don: FSEIHPE "RLI of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia", 2010, pp. 3–4.
  20. Marchenko G.V. State National Policy of the USSR in the North Caucasus (1917–1945 gg.): Military-historical aspect, Abstract of Thesis. ... The doctor ist, Sciences, M., 2004.
  21. Pudovikov A.S. Investigation of Crimes Committed by Members of Religious Sects. Abstract of the thesis ... Cand.jurid. Sciences,Vladivostok, 2010.
  22. Shapar V.B. Psychology of Religious Sects. Mn., 2004.
  23. Burkovskaya V.A. Criminological Characteristics of Religious Environment: Crime and Especially Innovative Technologies Subordination Leader Organization Adepts Followers, Thesis ... candidate.jurid. Sciences, M., 2006.
  24. Pominov S.N. Organization of Internal Affairs Bodies in the Sphere of Combating Religious Extremism, Thesis ... candidate.jurid. Sciences, Moscow, 2007.
  25. Bokarev S.N. Religious Extremism in Modern Russia: Social and Philosophical aspect, Problems of Counteraction to Extremism in the Russian Federation: Materials of the "Round Table", M., 2005, pp. 9–13.
  26. Mukhin T.K. Prevention of Crimes Committedby Members of Religious Totalitarian Sects. Thesis ... candidate. jurid. Sciences, Vladimir, 2008.

THE LEGAL NATURE OF STATE IMMUNITY

SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich

Doctor of Sciences (Law), professor, editor-in-chief of the "Legal Science: History and the Present" journal, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,

Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

SALNIKOV Mihail Victorovich

Doctor of Law, professor, President of the Fund for Support of Science and Education in the field of law enforcement activity "University",

St. Petersburg, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna

Doctor of Law, professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Faculty, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PUZHAEV Vladimir Vladimirovich

                teaching assistant of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Law Faculty, graduate student of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Faculty, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article gives a historical and theoretical perspective of the question of the essence and legal nature of state immunity as a category of general legal and branch legal sciences. The authors study opinions on the notion, grounds and ways of origin of state immunity, presented innational and foreign juridical science. On the basis of the method of comparative analysis, historical and systematic approach, they come to the conclusion that state immunity itself is a specific variety of legal privilege, the existence of which may be grounded by the basic characteristic of a state, as a bearer of sovereign power. The authors draw a line between state immunity and other varieties of legal immunities, which are realized in the framework of intrastate rights of different countries or in the context of international legal relations (deputative, judicial, diplomatic, etc.). The article reveals the genesis and contents of two main concepts of a foreign state’s immunity: absolute and functional (restricted). Herewith, it is stated that at the stage of intensive globalization, the transformation of sovereignty, which is an initial constant of political and legal existence of a state, led to the decay of the doctrine of absolute state immunity in favor of extension of ideas of the functional (restricted) state immunity.

Key words: state immunity, sovereignty, legal privilege, globalization, absolute immunity, functional immunity, law.

References

1. Anufrieva L.P. Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo [Private International Law: Textbook],V 3-kh t. Tom 2. Osobennaya chast': 2-e izd., pererab. i dop, M.: BEK, 2002, 656 p.

2. Boguslavskii M.M. Immunitet gosudarstva [State Immunity]. M.: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1962. 231 p.

3. Bol'shoi yuridicheskii slovar' [Big Law Dictionary], Avt. i sost. A.B. Borisov, M.: Knizhnyi mir, 2010, 848 p.

4. Brounli Ya. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo [International Law]. Kn.1. M.: Progress, 1977, 535 p.

5. Vel'yaminov G.M. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoi gosudarstvennyi immunitet [International Legal State Immunity), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2011, No.12, pp. 66-73.

6. Gaididei Yu.M. Konstitutsionno-pravovye osnovy gosudarstvennogo immuniteta [Constitutional and Legal Bases of State Immunity]: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, Volgograd, 2006, 167 p.

7. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. Pravovoi progress i tsennosti prava [Legal Progress and Law Values], Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 9, pp. 17-31.

8. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava.Yuridicheskaya nauka [Philosophy.Philosophy of Law. Jurisprudence]: Monografiya, M.: Yurlitinform, 2015, 264 p.

9. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. Chto takoe pravo? Voprosy ontologii i gnoseologii [What is law? Questions of Ontology and Epistemology], Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 2(40), pp. 14-22.

10. Ismagilov R.F., Salnikov S.P., Ger O.E., Kaizer A.G. Ekonomicheskie problemy: politicheskie resheniya [Economic Problems: Political Decisions], Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No.1, pp. 112-126.

11. Kaisin D.V. Immunitet gosudarstva i zashchita inostrannykh gosudarstvennykh kapitalovlozhenii v Rossii [Immunity of the State and Protection of Foreign State Capital Investments in Russia], Zakon, 2015, No.5, pp. 161-162.

12. Kondrat E.N. Globalizatsiya: ponyatie, sushchnost' i osnovnye protsessy [Globalization: Concept, Essence and Main Processes), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2013, No.10, pp. 97-109.

13. Lukashuk I.I. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo v sudakh gosudarstv [International Law in State Courts], SPb.,1993, 302 p.

14. Mal'ko A.V., Sumenkov S.Yu. Pravovoi immunitet: teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty [Legal Immunity: Theoretical and Practical Aspects], Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava, 2002, No.2, pp.16-23.

15. Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo: Uchebnik [International Private Law: Textbook], [Vlasov N.V. i dr.]; Otv. red. N.I. Marysheva, 3-e izd., pererab. i dop, M.: «Kontrakt»; Volters Kluver, 2010, 928 p.

16. Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo: Uchebnik [International Private Law: Textbook], L.P.Anufrieva, K.A. Bekyashev, G.K. Dmitrieva [i dr.]; Otv. red. G.K. Dmitrieva, 2-e izd., pererab. i dop, M.: TK Velbi, Prospekt, 2004, 688 p.

17. Mirzoev A.K. Yuridicheskie sredstva obespecheniya gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta [Legal Means of Ensuring the State Sovereignty], Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No.8, pp. 27-41.

18. Puzhaev V.V. Osobennosti uchastiya gosudarstva v mezhdunarodnykh grazhdansko-pravovykh otnosheniyakh [Features of Participation of the State in the International Civil Relations), Materialy IX Vserossiiskoi studencheskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoi yuridicheskoi nauki i praktiki», N.Novgorod: Nizhegorodskii gosuniversitet, 2013, pp. 224-227.

19. Salnikov V.P., Ivashov L.G., Dzhegutanov B.K. Filosofiya globalizatsii (Metodologicheskie osnovy geopoliticheskoi doktriny Rossii): Monografiya [Globalization Philosophy], Pod obshch. red. V.P. Salnikova, SPb.: Fond «Universitet», 2006, 268 p.

20. Salnikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Poisk natsional'noi idei v mnogopolyarnom mire [Search for National Idea in the Multipolar World], Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No.7, pp. 44-50.

21. Salnikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Salnikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. Pochemu na Vostok: povorot Rossii v sovremennom politiko-pravovom prostranstve, Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No.9, pp. 58-68.

22. Ushakov N.A. Yurisdiktsionnye immunitety gosudarstv i ikh sobstvennosti [Jurisdictional Immunities of the States and their Property], M.: Nauka, 1993.

23. Khlestova I.O. Konventsiya OON o yurisdiktsionnykh immunitetakh gosudarstv i ikh sobstvennosti i ee vliyanie na izmenenie tsivilisticheskogo protsessa v Rossii [Convention of the UN on Jurisdictional Immunities of the States and their Property and its Influence on the Change of Civil Process in Russia], Zakon, 2012, No.6, pp. 35-39.

24. Khlestova I.O. Problemy yurisdiktsionnogo immuniteta inostrannogo gosudarstva [Problems of Jurisdictional Immunity of the Foreign state): dis. ... dokt. yurid. nauk, M., 2003, 274 p.

25. Yakovenko E.A. K voprosu o pravovoi prirode immunitetov. Sootnoshenie kategorii «immunitet», «privilegiya», «l'gota» [On the Question of the Legal Nature of Immunities.Ratio of the categories "immunity", "privilege"), Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Seriya «Pravo» Vyp.26), 2010, No.33 (214), pp. 12-13.

26. Desgagnés L.R. L’imunnité des États et l’homologation et l’execution au Quebec des sentences arbitrales étrangeres. URL: http://www.cba.org/CBA/newsletters-sections/pdf/11_09_intl-arb.pdf.

27. Dupeyré R. Les immunités de juridiction et d’execution des États dans l’arbitrage international, URL: http://www.blogavocat.fr/sites/default/files/fichiers//Les%20immunités%20de%20juridiction%20et%20d'exécution%20d.pdf.

28. Lewis C. State and Diplomatic Immunity. London, 1980.

29. Toleikytė N. The Concept of State Immunity and the Main Challenges, Teisės Facultetas Vilniaus Universitetas, URL: http://www.tf.vu.lt/dokumentai/Admin/Doktorantų_konferencija/Toleikyte.pdf.

THE CONCEPTS OF THE ESSENCE

OF THE STATE

KASIMOV Timur Salavatovich

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of the SBEI HPE “Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan”,

 Ufa, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is dedicated to the concepts of the essence of state. The understanding of the concepts of the essence of state by theoreticians of state and law and other modern Russian scientists is considered. The correlation between the concepts of the essence of state and the theories of the origin of state, the approaches to the definition of state, state’s attributes, types of state, the concepts of a future state and the concepts of law as well as ideologies are described. An approach in which the concepts of the essence of state are classified according to subjects, objectives and methods of implementation of the government is suggested. Special features of class, liberal, social-democratic, race (Nazi) and nationalist (ethnocratic) concepts, theories of the rule-of-law and the welfare state as the concepts of the essence of the state are noted. Some conservative visions for a future state, such as neo-pagan and neo-Eurasianist are pointed out. A modern approach to the empire as an expression of the essence of the state is characterized.

Key words: concept, essence, state, law, theories of state, signs of state, types of state, class, general social, power, ideology, origin of state, future of state, empire.

References

  1. Afanasyev V.S. Subject 25. The State: New Approaches to the Nature, Functions, Typology. [Gosudarstvo: novye podhody k sushhnosti, funkcijam, tipologii] Obshhaja teorija prava i gosudarstva: uchebnik. – General Theory of Law and State: Textbook Ed. V.V. Lazarev. 5th ed., rev. and add, Moscow, Norma, 2013, pp. 377–404, (in Russ).
  2. Golovistikova A.N. Modern Theories of the Essence of the State and Law. Theory of State and Law [Sovremennye teorii sushhnosti gosudarstva i prava. Teorija gosudarstva i prava] – Textbook for Undergraduate by A.S. Pigolkin, A.N Golovistikova, Y.A. Dmitriev; ed. A. Pigolkin, Y. Dmitrieva. 2nd, rev. and add, Moscow, Publishing Yurayt, 2011, pp. 137-143, (in Russ).
  3. Chashin A.N. Theory of State and Law [Teorija gosudarstva i prava]: Textbook – Moscow, Publishing House "Business and Service", 2008, 688 p., (in Russ).
  4. Marchenko M.N. Theory of State and Law [Teorija gosudarstva i prava]: Textbook. – 2nd, rev. and add. Moscow, TC Welby, Publishing House of the Prospectus, 2005, 648 p. (in Russ).
  5. Chirkin V.E. Study of State [Gosudarstvovedenie]: Textbook, 2nd ed., rev. and add, Moscow, Jurist, 2000, 384 p., (in Russ).
  6. Shabanov Y.V. The Essence of the State as a Theoretical Legal Problem: Science versus Ideology [Sushhnost' gosudarstva kak teoretiko-pravovaja problema: nauka versus ideologija]. Nauchnye zapiski Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo socialnogo universiteta – Scientific Notes of Russian State Social University, 2010, no. 11, pp. 94-98, URL: http://elibrary.ru. Date of the application: 09.30.2015, (in Russ).
  7. Theory of State and Law [Teorija gosudarstva i prava]: Textbook / Ed. F.M. Rayanov, Ufa, BashSU, 2010, 436 p., (in Russ).
  8. Matuzov N.I., Malko A.V. Theory of State and Law [Teorija gosudarstva i prava]: Textbook, Moscow, Jurist, 2002, 512 p., (in Russ).
  9. Lyubashits V.J. Theory of State and Law [Teorija gosudarstva i prava]. Workshop by V.J. Lyubashits, A.Y. Mordovtsev, A.Y. Mamychev. 2nd, ext. and rev. – Rostov na Donu, Phoenix, 2010, 604 p. (in Russ.).
  10. Chervonyuk V.I. Theory of State and Law [Teorija gosudarstva i prava]: Textbook, Moscow, INFRA-M, 2006, 704 p., (in Russ).
  11. Baburin S.N. Lecture 6. The Essence of State. [Sushhnost' gosudarstva. Filosofija prava] – Philosophy of Law Lecture Course. Tutorial: in 2 t. T. 1 / Ed. M.N. Marchenko, Moscow, Prospect, 2011, pp. 153-177, (in Russ).
  12. Men’ I.V. The Essence, Aims and Objectives of the Rule-of-law and Social State [Sushhnost', celi i zadachi pravovogo i social'nogo gosudarstva.] Sovremennoe pravo, Modern Law, Scientific and Practical Journal, 2008, no. 9, pp. 28-36. (in Russ).
  13. Abdulaev M.I., Komarov S.A. Problems of the Theory of State and Law [Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava], Sankt Peterburg, Peter, 2003, 576 p., (in Russ).
  14. Kasimov T.S. Konservativnye koncepcii budushhego gosudarstva v sovremennoj Rossii (Conservative Conceptions of a Future State in Present-day Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teorija i praktika, 2014, No. 4 (38), pp. 18–22, (in Russ).
  15. Kornev A.V. Subject 29. The Theory of the Imperial State. [Teorija imperskogo gosudarstva] Obshhaja teorija prava i gosudarstva. – General Theory of Law and State: Textbook. Ed. V.V. Lazarev. -5th, rev. and add, Moscow, Norma, 2013, pp. 447–464. (in Russ).
  16. Dugin A. Project "Eurasia" [Proekt «Evrazija»], Moscow, Eksmo, Yauza, 2004, 512 p. (in Russ).

LEGAL TERMINOLOGY AS A TECHNO-LEGAL MEANS OF LEGAL TECHNIQUE

                PONOMAREVA Ekaterina Vladimirovna

Candidate of Sciences (Law), senior lecturer of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of Higher Professional Education Ufa law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

GERASIMOVAlexanderPetrovich

Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of Higher Professional Education Ufa law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Effective law enforcement is based on the accuracy of those circumstances (data) contained in it. The circumstances (data) must be presented in a clear, сcomprehensible language and terminology and have such characteristic as literacy. The language of legal norms is characterized by a developed system of legal terms, denoting certain professional concepts necessary for correct and clear expression of the will of the legislator. In the language of the act, the terms occupy a very small volume, however they are the basis for the use of other lexical units, and make the legislation more capacious, save it from lengthy descriptions and definitions. In every field of law there is some specific terminology. The task of the legislator is to use one and the same term while designating a certain notion in the regulatory text, to avoid carelessness, confusion, multiple interpretations and errors in legal activities.Legal terminology is an integral part of technical and legal means by which specific concepts get verbal expression in the normative legal act. Competent, appropriate use of this tool in legislative activity by the legislator will improve the efficiency of the legal act in society. The use of legal terminology in the legislation would solve many of the conflicts and resolve gaps in the law. However, the application of legal terminology must be reasonable.
Key words: legal terminology, term, normative legal act, legislative activities, legal technology, legal-technical means.

References

  1. Legislative Technique, Under the editorship of Y. A. Tikhomirov, M., 2000.
  2. Korotkova T.C. The Word in Terminological and non Terminological Application, Russian speech, 1975, No. 1; The place of Terminology in the System of Modern Sciences, M., 1970.
  3. Savchenko L.V. Legal Technique in Law-Making of Subjects of the Russian Federation, Diss. ... candidate of law. N, M., 2004.
  4. The Language of Law, ed. by A.S. Pigolkin, M., 1990.

THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING LAW-MAKING ACTIVITY

PONOMAREVA Ekaterina Vladimirovna

Candidate of Sciences (Law), senior lecturer of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of Higher Professional Education Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Legislative activity cannot be arbitrary, subjective, since the process of creating legal norms starts with the developing objective significant rules that require legal regulation. Then it goes through the social institutions and the state bodies, and after all it is implemented by the legislative, executive and judicial authorities via their inherent forms. In each state lawmaking has its own characteristics, but everywhere it is aimed at creating and improving the unified legal system that governs the various relations prevailing in the society, as well as manifestations of public will.The law-making process is directly connected with the stages of the legal act evolution, namely creating, approving and publishing of a legal act. The creation of an efficient legal act depends on the law-maker's actions. Thus, improving the law-making process, the efficiency of the legal act increases. Both in theory and in practice there can be distinguished the following ways of law-making process improvement, as legal monitoring, expertise, planning, legal education.

Key-words: law-making, law, efficiency, expertise, monitoring, planning, forecasting, legal education.

References

  1. Gerasimov A. P., Maksimova E. V. "On the Legal Monitoring as one of the Most Important Directions of Improving Legislative Activity of the Executive Federal Bodies", the Bulletin of AEB the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, No. 11, 2010, pp. 48-51.
  2. Maximova E. V. The Directions of Improving Federal Enforcement Authorities Activity on Regulatory Legal Acts Acceptance, Rule-of-Law State: Theory and Practice, 2009, No. 16, pp. 33–35.
  3. Maximova E. V. Legal Technique as a Means of Improving the Effectiveness of Regulatory Acts of Federal Executive Bodies: Cand. Sci. Dissertation, Ufa, 2009.
  4. Malko A. V. Law-making Policy as a Means to Prevent and Eliminate Errors in law // Lawmaking Errors: Definition, Types, Practice and Technique of Elimination in the Post-Soviet States / Under the editorship of V. M. Baranov, I.M. Matskevich, 2009.
  5. Polenina S. V. Results of Legislative Activity in the Russian Federation and the Definition of the Tasks of Forward Planning of Legislative Activities, Materials of the SPC, M., 1995, P. 67.
  6. Sorokin M.Yu., Badailina N.A. Regulatory Impact Assessment and the Parliament in France. URL: http://www.hse.ru/data/2011/10/02/1269929709/RIA%20France%20final.pdf (accessed: 10.09.2015).
  7. Tikhomirov Y.A. Theory of Law. M., 1982.
  8. Morozova L.A. Theory of State Law: Textbook, M., 2007
  9. Kochetkov V.A. Regional Legislative Process. Author’s abstract of Cand. Sci. Dissertation, Saratov, 1999.
  10. Shipachev V.A. Forecasting and Planning in Municipal Law-making, the Constitutional and Municipal Law, 2009, No. 18, pp. 26–29.
ETHNOPOLITICAL MYTH: GENETICS
ROMANOV Alexander Aleksandrovich

Candidate of sciences (politics), doctoral candidate of the chair ofTheory of State and Law of the department of Law named after M.M. Speransky of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service, Tver, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This article is dedicated to the problem of formation of ethnonation. Ethnonation is characterized by such a categorical and conceptual term as ethnicity, which is a necessary but not sufficient category for determination of an integral structure of ethnonation. The author proves that an ethnopolitical myth is formed on the basis of mystical, irrational perception of the reality and the past in an unbreakable interconnection of ethnical and political origins, and this is an ideological basis of ethnonation. The author makes an effort to study the genesis and modern state of an ethnopolitical myth in the process of formation of ethnonation. An ethnopolitical myth, its essence and contents are analyzed in the perspective of time and space, the article supports the conclusion that creation of an ethnopolitical myth is a continuous process, which has positive factors as well as negative ones, and mythological vision should be haltered by rational thinking.

Key words: ethnopolitical myth, ethnomythology, ethnonation, ethnicity.

References

  1. Semenov Y.I. Ethnology and Epistemology, Ethnographic Review 1993 № 6.
  2. Haliman J.N. Transformation of Ethnic Identity of Displaced People in Modern Russia. On the example of Primorye Territory, dis. ... Cand. sotciol. Sciences.
  3. Turaev V.A. Ethnopolitical Science, Textbook, M., 2004.
  4. Belkov O.A. Antinomies of Nationalism, NAVIGUT, 2005, № 5.
  5. .
  6. Osachenko J.S., Dmitrieva L.V. Introduction to the Philosophy of Myth, M., 1994.
  7. Hubner K. The truth of Myth, M., 1996, p. 325–341.
  8. Current Political Mythology: Maintenance and Functioning, M., 1996.
  9. Bordyugov G. Establishment of National Stories in post-Soviet States, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, the 25 november, 1998, p. 12–13.
  10. Polosin V.S. Myth. Religion. State, M ., Ladomir, 1999.
  11. Flood K. Political myth. Theoretical study, M ., Progress-Tradition, 2004.
  12. Hubner K. The truth of Myth, M., 1996, p. 325–340.
  13. McLuhan G.M. Understanding Media: The Outer Expansion of Man, M., Kuchkovo field, 2011.
  14. Ants S. Genesis of the Georgian Writing of Asomtavruli [electronic resource]. Access mode.

URL:https://www.academia.edu/4288385/%D0%93%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%B8%D1%81_%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%B3%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B7%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE_%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BC%D0%B0_%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B2%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BB%D0%B8_1981_2013_ (The date of circulation: 08.20.2014).

  1. Arapiev S. On the Writing of Gargareyt, Serdalo, November 13, 1997.
  2. Bayramkulov A.M. Karachai-Balkar People – 2000 years. Cherkessk, 1996.
  3. Ferro M. How to Tell a Story to Children around the World, M., 1992.
  4. Bibo I. Poverty of Spirit of Small East European States. – Ethnic Relations and Ethnic Conflicts, M., 1993.
  5. Tokarev S.A., Meletinsky E.M. Mythology, Myths of Nations of the World, M., 1980, Vol. 1, pp. 15–16.
  6. Political Theory and Political Practice. Dictionary, M., 1994, pp. 151–154.
  7. Zobov R.A., Kelasev V.N. Myths of the Russian Consciousness and Achieving Social Consensus, SPb., 1995.

PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE SYSTEM

OF SEPARATION OF POWERS IN RUSSIA

SHAGIEV Bulat Vasilovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Constitutional and Criminal Law of the RSSU branch in Lyubertsy, Lyubertsy, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

At present, the administrative reform is being implemented in Russia and it will be finished in due course. Some state organs appear, merge and become liquidated. These are: Militia, Supreme Arbitration Court, and the Investigation Committee of the Russian Federation. In due course, the Government of the Russian Federation is supposed to be reformed, that means establishing additional supervision organs and possible liquidation of some ministries, federal services and agencies. In connection with coming changes, the author analyzed the powers of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation from the moment of its establishment in the Tsarist Russia. The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation in modern Russia is not the supreme organ of the juridical branch and does not have organizational and chief functions in relation to it as it did in the Tsarist Russia and in the USSR. The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation have powers belonging to the legislative, executive and juridical branches of power in the Russian Federation. This poses some difficulties in the cooperation of powers. The author suggests redistributing the powers of The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation according to their asignment and basic functions of the juridical, executive and legislative branches. The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation itself should be eliminated or should be given new powers appropriate of the executive branch of the Russian Federation.

Key words: The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, The Ministry of Justice of the USSR, basic powers of The Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation,Defense Attornyes, Notary Office, Federal Service for the Execution of Sentences, Federal Bailiff Service, Registry Authorities, the juridical branch, juridical authorities.

References

1. Pavlova M.A. Positivism on Сrime and Punishment. Bulletin of the Bashkir University, 2008, T. 13, No. 3.

2. Vlasov A. A. Trial Advocacy. The textbook, Under the General editorship of doctor of law, professor G. B. Mirzoev, M., The Border. 2009, 453 p.

Fichte's Views on National Destiny and the Purpose of the State

elizarov Mikhail Vladimirovich

Candidate of Sciences ( Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSEI HPE “ Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This article deals with the philosophical views of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a German Enlightenment philosopher, one of the greatest representatives of classical German philosophy.Addressing Fichte’s philosophical thoughts seems to be certainly relevant, because many questions raised by him remain quite topical even in today’s world, including such issues as the essence of human freedom, the purpose of the state as a social institution. The study reveals the meanings of such concepts as “state”, “social interventionism”, “freedom”, “labor” and “national destiny” presented in the interpretation of Fichte. In addition, the author has analyzed the main provisions of such well-known works of Fichte as “Addresses to the German Nation” and “The Closed Commercial State” in terms of their relevance for the Theory of State and Law.

Keywords: Fichte, Addresses to the German nation, the public system of education, freedom, common national identity, public power, individual rights, state social function, interventionism, “Closed commercial state”.

References

  1. Vysheslavtsev B.P. Ehtika Fihte. [Osnovy prava i nravstvennosti v sisteme transcendental'noy filosofii]. Moscow, 1914. 437 p.
  2. Geyne G. Sobranie sochineniy [Vol.6]. Moscow, 1959. 472 p.
  3. Gulyga A.V. Shelling. Ripol Klassik, 1984. 317 p.
  4. Koplston F. Ot Fihte do Nizshe [Transl. from English by V.V. Vasil'eva]. Moscow: Respublika, 2004. 542 p.
  5. Lazarev V.V. Ehticheskaya mysl' v Germanii i Rossii. Osmyslenie fihteanstva russkimi filosofami kontsa XIX – nachala XX vekov. Moscow, 2006. 221 p.
  6. Luk'janov A.V. Filosofiya Joganna Gottliba Fichte. Orenburg, 1997. 230 p.
  7. Fihte J.G. Rechi k nemeckoj nacii [Trans. from German by A.A.Ivanenko]. Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 2009. 349 p.
  8. Fihte J.G. Sochinenija v dvuh tomah. [Vol.II., prepared by Vladimir Volzhskiy]. Saint Petersburg: Mifril, 1993. 798 p.
  9. Fihte J.G. Fakti soznaniya.Naznachenie cheloveka. Naukouchenie [Trans. from German].Minsk.: Harvest; Moscow: AST, 2000. 784 p.
  10. Fihte J.G. Yasnoe, kak solnce, soobshhenie shirokoy publike o podlinnoy sushhnosti noveishey filosofii [Popytka prinudit' chitateley k ponimaniyu]. Moscow, 1937. 120 p.
  11. Fisher K. Istoriya Novoy filosofii. [T.6. Fihte, ego zhizn', sochinenija i uchenie]. Direkt-Media, 2008. 814 p.
  12. Dimik Z. Problema obrazovanija v filosofii Fihte [Facta-Universitatis], n.2, (2003): 777-778.
  13. Heidegger M. Traktat Shellinga o sushhnosti chelovecheskoj svobody. M. Niemeyer, 1971. 237 s.
  14. Hinz M. Sistema svobody. Stuttgart, 1981. 368 s.
  15. Fichte J.G. Pis'mo. [Hrsg. von M. Buhr]. Leipzig: Philipp Reclam Junior, 1986. 435 s.
  16. Fichte J.G. Sistema ehtiki. [Hrsg. von Hansjürgen Verweyen]. Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 2014. 268 s.

PRINCIPLES OF PERSONNEL RESERVE FORMATION IN MUNICIPAL SERVICES: POLITICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS

ZABOROVSKAYA Svetlana Gennadievna  

Candidate of Sciences (Sociology), Director of the Institute of Additional Professional Education of the Bashkir Academy of Public Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan,Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
ISHMURATOV Minnirais Minigalievich  

Doctor of Sciences (economy), Professor of the chair of Economics and Socio-economic Policy of the Bashkir Academy of Public Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan,Ufa, Russia. E-mail: //e.mail.ru/compose/?mailto=mailto%This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." target="_blank">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

The organization of development of a personnel reserve of the municipal service is still an acute problem for modern Russia, because its presence and qualitative composition can provide continuity and efficiency of local government, and, accordingly, quality of local authorities. It’s not fortuitously that Russian researchers are exploring these issues, projecting them both at the federal, regional and local levels. Often a person in charge is faced with staff shortages. This problem is particularly acute in rural areas. In this article, the authors attempt to analyze legal regulation of formation of a personnel reserve of municipal services on the basis of legal acts of municipal entities of the Russian Federation.

 
Key words: personnel reserve, municipal service, a municipal employee, municipality, post of municipal service.  

References

  1. The Federal Law of 02.03.2007 № 25-FZ "On Municipal Service in the Russian Federation". The Compilation of the Legislation of the Russian Federation on March 5, 2007, № 10, Art. 1152.
  2. The Law of the City of Moscow as of October 22, 2008 № 50 "On Municipal Service in Moscow". Bulletin of the Mayor and the Moscow Government, № 65, 25.11.2008.
  3. The Law of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) as of July 11, 2007 № 480-W number 975-III "On Municipal Service in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" Yakut, Statements, № 67, 04.08.2007.
  4. The Law of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District as of June 22, 2007 № 67, JSC "On Municipal Service in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District", Bulletin of the State Duma of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, № 6, May-June, 2007.
  5. Resolution of the City Administration of Raduzhniy as of June 24, 2013 № 1237 "On the Personnel Reserve at the Municipal Service of the City Administration and the Management Reserve of Municipal Organizations and Institutions of the city of Raduzhniy", Raduzhniy official news, № 176–189, 02/07/2013.
  6. The Resolution of the Municipal Administration of Novokuibyshevsk City (Samara region) as of October 23, 2012 № 3563 "On the Personnel Reserve of Municipal Service in the Municipal Administration Novokuybyshevsk, Vestnik, №121 (9814), October 30, 2012.
  7. The Resolution of the Municipal Administration of Salekhard as of December 5, 2012 № 636, Arctic Circle. Special Issue № 49/1, December 6, 2012.
  8. The Resolution of the Municipal Administration of Kozelskiy District as of February 24, 2015 № 218 "On Approval of the Procedure of Formation of a Personnel Reserve of Municipal Service in the Administration of Kozelskiy District, Kozelsk, № 25-26, July 3, 2015.
  9. The Resolution of the Administration Tutaevsky Municipal District as of September 5, 2011 № 328 "On Approval of the Procedure of Formation of a Personnel Reserve of Municipal Service of Tutaevsky Municipal Area", Berega, № 60, September, 9, 2011.
  10. The Order of the Administration of Irkutsk City as of January 28, 2010 № 031-10-46/10 "On the Personnel Reserve at the Municipal Service of the City Administration and the Management Reserve of Municipal Organizations and Institutions of the city of Irkutsk ", Irkutsk official, № 5, February 8, 2010.
  11. The Order of the Government of the Tyumen Region as of November 10, 2008 № 1501-p "On the Regional Competition" The best Talent Pool of the Municipality ", SPS Consultant Regional Legislation.
  12. The Decision of the Municipal Council of the Alexeevskiy District and the town of Alekseyevka of Belgorod Region as of February 25, 2014 № 10 "On Approval of the Personnel Reserve of Municipal Service in the Alekseevskiy District", SPS Consultant Regional Legislation.
  13. The Decision of Deputies of Beysky District as of April 26, 2012 № 26 "On Approval of the Personnel Reserve of Elective Municipal Offices of Administration of Beysky district and the Management Reserve of Municipal Organizations and Institutions, Heads of Municipal Enterprises, Institutions and Organizations", Official Gazette, № 7, May 15, 2012.
  14. Gazizova L.I. The Formation of Image of Municipal Authority in Electronic Communications Media (for example of the Republic of Bashkortostan), The Bulletin of Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 2013, №3 (23), pp. 37–48.
  15. Gazizova L.I., Zaborovskaya S.G. Theoretical, Methodological and Legal Bases of Research of Municipal Service, Mdern Russia and the Republic of Bashkortostan: Political Science and Socio-economic Aspects, Ufa, BAGSU, 2013, pp 155–175.
  16. Gazizova L.I. Dorozhkin Y.N., Frolova I.V. Municipal Authorities in the Volga Federal District of the Russian Federation, Vlast’, 2014, № 8, pp. 136.
  17. Kiryanov A.J. The Organization of the Work with the Personnel Reserve of the Municipal Service, The Lawyer, 2012,. № 13.

Nikonov V.I. The Formation of a New System of Development of the Personnel Reserve.State Personnel Policy and its Implementation Mechanism (Kadrovedenie), Lectures, M, Publishing House of the RAPS, 1997, pp. 371.

ГРАЖДАНСКОЕ И СЕМЕЙНОЕ ПРАВО.

ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСКОЕ И МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ ЧАСТНОЕ ПРАВО.

ГРАЖДАНСКИЙ И АРБИТРАЖНЫЙ ПРОЦЕСС

FEATURES OF CONCILIATION PROCEDURES IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

ARSENTYEVA Nadezhda Anatolyevna

Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Labor and Environmental Law of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

KHAIRULLINA Guzel Khasanovna

Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Law and Social Science of the Institute of Historical and Legal Education of the Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In recent years, the attention of the state and civil society has increased significantly towards the problems of creating an enabling, humane and secure environment for development and socialization of children. Mediation is widely and successfully used in the modern world, especially in countries with a high legal culture and a developed civil society, to virtually all types of disputes, from family to commercial. In educational organizations, the establishment of the school mediation aims to protect the rights of children and create conditions for the formation of a safe space, equal opportunities and protection of their interests. This is due to the fact that the Russian Federation introduces international norms and standards, methods and technologies of working with children. The Russian model of the organization of restorative mediation in the educational organization is presented in the form of School services of reconciliation. They include representatives of teachers, of administration of educational organizations, parents, students themselves. In their work, the services of school mediation interact with the organs and organizations of system of prevention of neglect and delinquency, custody and guardianship, additional education. In the school services of reconciliation restorative mediation is used, the main concept is to develop solutions by the conflicting parties that is not reflected in the adoption of binding decisions. These services will contribute to resolving different types of conflicts in schools and personal growth of students and also serve as a form of prevention of offenses and crimes of minors.
Key words: mediation, conciliation procedures, school service of reconciliation, restorative justice, the Commission for the settlement of disputes between participants of educational relations, mediator, mediatory approach.

FEATURES OF CONCILIATION PROCEDURES IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

 
ARSENTYEVA Nadezhda Anatolyevna  

Candidate of Sciences (History), AssistantProfessor of the Chair of Labor and Environmental Law of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
KHAIRULLINA Guzel Khasanovna  

Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Law and Social Science of the Institute of Historical and Legal Education of the Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
In recent years, the attention of the state and civil society has increased significantly towards the problems of creating an enabling, humane and secure environment for development and socialization of children. Mediation is widely and successfully used in the modern world, especially in countries with a high legal culture and a developed civil society, to virtually all types of disputes, from family to commercial. In educational organizations, the establishment of the school mediation aims to protect the rights of children and create conditions for the formation of a safe space, equal opportunities and protection of their interests. This is due to the fact that the Russian Federation introduces international norms and standards, methods and technologies of working with children. The Russian model of the organization of restorative mediation in the educational organization is presented in the form of School services of reconciliation. They include representatives of teachers, of administration of educational organizations, parents, students themselves. In their work, the services of school mediation interact with the organs and organizations of system of prevention of neglect and delinquency, custody and guardianship, additional education. In the school services of reconciliation restorative mediation is used, the main concept is to develop solutions by the conflicting parties that is not reflected in the adoption of binding decisions. These services will contribute to resolving different types of conflicts in schools and personal growth of students and also serve as a form of prevention of offenses and crimes of minors.  
Key words: mediation, conciliation procedures, school service of reconciliation, restorative justice, the Commission for the settlement of disputes between participants of educational relations, mediator, mediatory approach.  

References

  1. Kirillovykh A.A. Legal Conflict in Education: Regulatory Practice and Alternative Resolution Mechanisms, the Lawyer, 2012, No. 10, pp. 43–57.
  2. Mikhailov M.V., Arsentyeva N.A., Dayanova E.M. The Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation" (from 29 December 2012 No. 273-FL), Journal of Teacher Education, 2013, 3–4.
  3. Konovalov, A.Y. Mediation in Education: a Review of the Experience of Different Countries, Psychological Science and Education Psyedu, EN, 2014, No. 3, pp. 90–91; Argunova, A.N., Bubnov, I.S. School Mediation as a Technology of Conflict Resolution in Adolescents, A.N. Argunova, Bubnova I.S.0, Psychology in Economy and Management, 2013, No. 2, pp. 90–93.

PROPERTY AND LAND OWNERSHIP RELATIONS AS A FACTOR

OF FOOD SECURITY

SHABUROV Anatoly Stepanovich

Doctor of Law, Professor of the department of Theory of State and Law of the Ural State Law University,

Ekaterinburg, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

UMAROVA Elena Sergeevna

postgraduate student of the department of Management and Law of the Ural State Agrarian University, Ekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article reveals the definition of modern threats of food security decrease in the country and their influence on national security of the state in the conditions of the WTO. The most important properties of land tenure, property right and food security, importance of safety of property rights are shown.

Key words: property, food security, safety of land use, land tenure, subjects of the relations of property, ownership of land, threats to security, WTO.

References

  1. Serebryannikov V., Khlopiev A. Sotsial'naya bezopasnost' Rossii. [Russian Social Security]. M., 1996.
  2. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 12 maya 2009 g. N 537 "O Strategii natsional'noy bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii do 2020 goda" [The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 12 May 2009 № 537 “On National Strategy of Security of the Russian Federation’]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, Federal'nyy vypusk № 4912, 19 maya 2009 .
  3. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 30 yanvarya 2010g. N 120 "Ob utverzhdenii Doktriny prodovol'stvennoy bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii". [The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 30 January 2009 № 120 “ On the Doctrine of Food Safety in the Russian Federation’] // Rossiyskaya gazeta, ‒ Federal'nyy vypusk № 5100, 03.02.2010.
  4. Prodovol'stvennaya i sel'skokhozyaystvennaya organizatsiya Ob"edinennykh natsiy [Food and Agricultural Organisation of the UN]. 2013 / FAO [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: www.fao.org (17.07.2015g.).
  5. Arkhipov S.I. Sobstvennost': pravovye grani: monografiya. [Property: Legal Terms]. M.: Yurlitinform. 2014.
  6. Grazhdanskoe pravo. Kratkiy uchebnyy kurs [Civil Law: Brief Taught Course]. Pod obshchey redaktsiey chlen kor.RAN S.S.Alekseeva. M.: «Norma», 2004.
  7. Frank S.L. Sobstvennost' i sotsializm. [Property and Socialism]. Russkaya filosofiya sobstvennosti (KhVII – KhKh vv.) SPb. 1993.
  8. Arkhipov S.I. Ibid.
  9. Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofiya prava [Philosophy of Law]. M.: «Mysl», 1990.
  10. Chicherin B.N. Izbr.trudy. [Selected Studies]. SPb., 1997.
  11. Frank, S.L. Dukhovnye osnovy obshchestva (Vvedenie v sotsial'nuyu filosofiyu) [Spiritual Basis of the Society]. S.L. Frank. Russkoe zarubezh'e: Iz istorii sotsial'noy i pravovoy mysli. L.: Prosveshchenie, 1991.
  12. Il'in I.A. Religioznyy smysl filosofii. [Religious Idea of Philosophy]. M., 2003.
  13. Kiryukhina M.V. Osobennosti sotsial'no-psikhologicheskogo otnosheniya rossiyskogo naseleniya k sobstvennosti. [Features of Socio-Psychological Attitude of the Russian People to Property]. Avtoreferat diss…kand. psikhol. nauk. M.1999.

SOME ASPECTS OF PREPARATION

OF A CASE FOR TRIAL

KHISMATULLIN Oliver Yurievich

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Head of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of higher professional education Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

KURBANOV Deny Abasovich

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of higher professional education Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: kurbanov.d.1957@ yandex.ru

The article studies the notion and essence of preparation of a civil case for trial, its role and place of this stage of a civil case from the theoretical and practical points of view. On the basis of a critical analysis of theoretical positions on the notion of this stage of a process, legislative provision of former and present legislations, the authors reveal the contents of the examined stage. Some peculiarities of preparation of a case as an independent stage of a civil case are dwelled on. Due realization of preparation of a civil case for trial favors implementation of principles of a civil case. It is viable to adopt the principle of the European procedural law “hearing a case in one court session” for faster determination of legal relations in dispute. The authors explain the necessity to adopt modern information technologies into juridical system, and, in particular, the introduction of electronic litigation in courts of general jurisdiction, the aim of which will be simplification of the procedure of statements of claim in an electronic form, receiving copies of documents, familiarization with materials of case. The reform of the system of execution of court acts, elaboration of new bills aimed at increasing the efficiency of the state system of execution of court acts, including search for alternative variants of this system.
Key words: civil proceedings, the right to judicial protection, the stage of the civil procedure, e-justice.

Библиографические ссылки

  1. Бикбаува А.И. Проблемы теории и практики подготовки гражданских дел к судебному разбирательству // Мировой судья. 2011. № 3. С. 14-16.
  2. Гольмстен А.Х. Гражданский процесс: хрестоматия под ред. М.К. Треушникова // Программа по русскому гражданскому судопроизводству: сокращенный порядок судопроизводства. М.: Городец, 2005.
  3. Закирова Д.И. Подготовка гражданских дел к судебному разбирательству: дис. … канд. юрид. наук. М., 2009.
  4. Иванов А.А. Интернет – интервью Председателя Высшего Арбитражного Суда Российской Федерации А.А. Иванова: // http://www.consultant.ru/law/interview/ivanov1/ (дата обращения: 17.01.2015).
  5. О внесении изменений в Арбитражный процессуальный кодекс Российской Федерации: федер. закон Рос. Федерации от 27 июля 2010 г. № 228-ФЗ. Доступ из справ.-правовой системы «КонсультантПлюс».
  6. О федеральной целевой программе «Развитие судебной системы России на 2013- 2020 годы»: постановление Правительства Рос. Федерации от 27 декабря 2012 г. № 1406. Доступ из справ.-правовой системы «КонсультантПлюс».
  7. Об обеспечении доступа к информации о деятельности судов в Российской Федерации: федер. закон Рос. Федерации от 22.12.2008 № 262-ФЗ (ред. от 21.12.2013). Доступ из справ.-правовой системы «КонсультантПлюс».
  8. Осокина Г.Л. Гражданский процесс. Общая часть: учебник. 2-е изд., перераб. М.: Норма, 2010.
  9. Пучинский В.К. Гражданский процесс зарубежных стран: учебник под ред. В.В. Безбаха. М.: Зерцало, 2008.
  10. Решетняк В.И. К вопросу об электронном правосудии в арбитражном и гражданском судопроизводстве // Юрист. 2011. № 9. С. 9-11.
  11. Рогожин С.П. О некоторых особенностях электронного обеспечения правосудия // Цивилист. 2012. № 2. С. 16-18.

Ярков В.В. Гражданский процесс: учебник для студентов вузов 7-е изд., перераб. и доп. М., 2009.
References

1. Bikbauva A.I. Problems of the Theory and Practice of Preparation of Civil Cases for Judicial Proceedings. Magistrate. 2011. №. 3. pp. 14-16.

2. Golmsten A.Kh. Civil Procedure: the Reader under the editorship of M. K. Treushnikov. The Program for Russian Civil Legal Proceedings: the Reduced Legal Proceedings Order. M.: Gorodets, 2005.

3. Zakirova D. I. Preparation of Civil Cases for Judicial Proceedings: thesis. Moscow, 2009.

4. Ivanov of A.A. Internet – interview of the Chairman of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation A.A. Ivanov://http://www .consultant.ru/law/interview/ivanov1/(date of the address: 17.01.2015).

5. On the Modification of the Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation: feder. law of the Rus. Federation of July 27, 2010 № 228-FZ. Access from ConsultantPlus system.

6. On the Federal Target Program "Development of Judicial System of Russia for 2013 – 2020": Resolution of the Government of the Rus. Federation of December 27, 2012 № 1406. Access from ConsultantPlus system.

7. On Ensuring Access to Information on Activity of the Courts in the Russian Federation: fed. law of the Rus.Federation of 22.12.2008 №. 262-FZ (edition of 21.12.2013).Access from ConsultantPlus system.

8. Osokin G.L. Civil Procedure. General Part: Textbook. 2nd prod., reslave. M.: Norm, 2010.

9. Puchinsky V.K. Civil Procedure of Foreign Countries: the Textbook under the editorship of V. V. Bezbakh. M.: Zertsalo, 2008.

10. Reshetnyak V.I. To a Question of Electronic Justice in Arbitration and Civil Legal Proceedings//the Lawyer. 2011. №. 9. pp. 9-11.

11. Rogozhin S.P. On Some Features of Electronic Justice//the Civilian. 2012. № 2. pp. 17.

12. Yarkov V.V. Civil Procedure: the Textbook for Students of Higher Educational Institutions. the 7th ed., additional M.: Volterskluver, 2009.

LEGAL NATURE OF TRANSPL

ANT MEDICAL CARE

ALSYNBAYEVA Elvira Makhamatovna

Candidate of Sciences (law), teaching assistant of the chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE “Bashkir State University”,Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the article, the author investigates the legal nature of transplant medical care. It is established that in the current legislation there is no uniform approach to understanding of essence of transplantation. Transplantation is defined as a kind of the medical care including delivery of medical services and performance of medical works that are directed to recovery of the recipient’s health by organs or tissues transplantation. The author defines that transplantation is a kind of hi-tech medical care and there is a feature of its legal regulation. The conclusion is drawn, that legal relationships arising at transplantation, have a mixed character. First, at such relations there are elements of public regulation. Secondly, the core of the obligation to deliver transplant help is providing medical services, and such relations can be civil.
Key words: transplantation, donorship, the legislation in the sphere of donorship and transplantation of human organs and tissues, medical care, presumption of agreement to take out organs (tissue) after death, contract on delivery of medical transplant services, civil responsibility during delivery of transplant services.

References

  1. Kobyakov D.P. Legal Problems of Transplantology, diss. ... cand. civil. sciences, M., 2000.
  2. The Law of the Russian Federation of December 22, 1992 No. 4180-1 "On an Organ Transplantation and (or) the Person" (with amendment and No. 279-FZ, additional from November 29, 2007), Sheets of SND and Russian Armed Forces, 1993, No. 2, Art. 62.
  3. The Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of October 22, 2012 No. 1074 "On the program of the State Guarantees of Free Delivering of Medical Care to Citizens for 2013 and on Planning Period of 2014 and 2015", Collection of the Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2012, No. 44, Art. 6021.
  4. Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation of October 09, 2009 No. 819 n "On the Statement of the Order of Delivery of Health Care by an Organ Transplantation Method", The Russian newspaper, 2009, No. 222.
  5. Danilochkina Yu.V. Legal Regulation of Business Activity in the Market of Medical Services, diss. ... cand. civil. sciences. Samara, 2003.
  6. Zhamkova O.E. Legal Regulation of delivering Medical Services in the Legislation of the Russian Federation, diss. ... cand. civil. sciences, M., 2007.
  7. The Federal Law of the Russian Federation of November 21, 2011 No. 323-FZ "On bases of Protection of Public Health in the Russian Federation" (with amendment and No. 233-FZ, additional from July 13, 2015), The Russian newspaper, 2011, No. 263.
  8. Stepanova E.N. Organ Transplantation of the Person: World Experience and Russia (civil aspect), diss. ... cand. civil. sciences, M., 2004.
  9. Margatskaya N.A. Civil Problems of Donorship and Transplantation, abstract diss. ... cand. civil. sciences, M.; MGU, 1984.
  10. Lomakina I.G. Civil Regulation of the Relations on Delivering Medical Services in the Russian Federation: diss.... cand. civil. sciences. M, 2006.
  11. Savitskaya A.N. Compensation of the Damage Caused by an Inadequate Doctoring. Lviv: Vishcha school, 1982.
  12. Sirotkina A.A. Contract of Delivering Medical Services: Features of Legal Regulation: diss. ... cand. civil. sciences. M, 2003.
  13. Maleina M.N. A person and Medicine in the Modern Law. M.: BEK, 1995.
  14. Novocelov V.I. A legal Status of Citizens in Branches of Public Administration. Saratov: Saratov un-t, 1977.
  15. Komzolov A.I. Civil Regulation and Protection of the Rights of Participants of Medical Relations, abstract diss. ... cand. civil. sciences. M, 1999.
  16. Mountain S.V. Contract of Delivering Medical Services, diss.... cand. civil. sciences, Belgorod, 2004.
  17. Tarasova V.A. Legal Status of Citizens in the Sphere of Social Security, The Soviet State and the Law, 1981, No. 1.
  18. The Federal Law of December 28, 2013 No. 442-FZ "On the Bases of Social Service of Citizens in the Russian Federation" (with amendment and No. 256-FZ, additional from July 21, 2014), Collection of the Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2013, No. 52 (part 1), Art. 7007.
  19. Order of the Russian Ministry of Health of December 29, 2014 No. 930n "On the statement of the Order of the Organization of Delivering Hi-tech Medical Care with Use of Specialized Information System" (with amendment and No. 598 of N, additional from August 27, 2015), Russian newspaper, 2014, No. 9.
  20. Putilo N.V. Legislation of Territorial Subjects of the Russian Federation on Health Care, Modern Russian Law, 2003, No. 1.

The Use of the System of Child-

FriendlyJusticeduringCRIMINALProceedings

Tarasov Alexander Alexeyevich

Doctor of Sciences (law), Professor, Holder of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

GabdrashitovaVenera Rauilevna

Teaching assistant of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article analyzes the possibilities of the use of child-friendly justice in criminal proceedings. The author justifies the conclusion that the Russian criminal procedure law contains a number of legal standards that could serve as a basis for the formation of such a system: a special item of evidence in criminal cases involving minors, the possibility of choosing a special preventive measure, specific grounds for termination of prosecution against minors, special rules of the conduct of certain investigative and other legal proceedings, special foundation to have a closed court session, a special circle of participants in the proceedings in these cases. All these rules share a common legal conception and provide a common goal to minimize adverse effects of the child's participation in criminal proceedings.

Key words: child-friendly justice, the proceedings in juvenile cases, restorative justice.

LEGAL REGULATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF LAW ENFORCEMENT BODIES THAT ENSURE STATE PROTECTION OF CRIME VICTIMS

NIKOLAEV Evgeniy Mikhailovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Police Lieutenant Colonel of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the article the normative-legal basis of the organization of the activity of law enforcement bodies ensuring state protection of crime victims is reviewed. The author takes up the laws and regulations that govern the use of state protection in criminal cases in respect of crime victims. Special attention is paid to the norms of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation and the Federal law of 24 August 2004 № 119-FZ "On State Protection of Victims, Witnesses and Other Participants in Criminal Proceedings" that regulate the criminal procedural activities of the investigator (inquiry officer) regarding the safety of persons suffered from crimes. The conclusion is made about the necessity of further improvement of criminal procedural legislation and law enforcement practice.

Keywords: criminal proceedings, victim, security, Federal laws and regulations that govern the application of state protection for victims.

References

  1. Kaats M.E. Obespechenie bezopasnosti lichnosti: ugolovno-protsessual'nyi aspekt: metodicheskie rekomendatsii [Ensuring the Safety of the Person: Criminal Procedure Aspect: Guidelines], Ufa, UYuI MVD Rossii, 2015, p. 21.
  2. Rossiiskaya gazeta [The Russian Newspaper]. 2009, May 19.

THE PROBLEM OF «SUBSTITUTION OF THE PURPOSE» OF THE LAW IN ITS IMPLEMENTATION

SHARIPOVA Aliya Rashitovna

Candidate of sciences (law), senior lecturer of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Lawof the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article analyzes the reasons for which the legislature makes changes to existing legal acts in the field of criminal policy. Newly adopted changes to the existing laws are divided into three groups: with the aim of addressing any conflict of laws between themselves and within themselves; aimed at bringing normative regulation in line with the changing objective reality; and changes with no explicit purpose of making them. New laws with an unobvious purpose of adoption are reviewed in detail. The problems of a multi-stage reform of prosecutor’s powers in criminal proceedings are investigated. The causes of criminalization and decriminalization of certain acts are analyzed. The stages of transformation of legislative regulation of criminal liability and prosecution of tax crimes cases are pointed out; the aim of these reforms is searched. "Ulterior motives" of making legal decisions are found out.

Keywords: criminal policy, criminal procedure, criminal law, public prosecutor, tax crimes, goal, lawmaking, law enforcement, prosecution, legal standards.

References

  1. Karjakin V.V., Makhov V.N. Criminal Cases on Tax Crimes, Moscow, 2005, 208 p.
  2. Explanatory Note to the Draft Federal Law «On Amendments to Some Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in connection with Improvement of Activity of Bodies of Preliminary Investigation», Explanatory Note to the Draft Federal Law «On Amendments to the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation», Official Site of the State Duma, URL: http: //www.duma.gov.ru/systems/law/ (the date of circulation 08.30.2015).

The Realization of Criminal Politics: from Law Making to Law Enforcement

Kostrova Marina Borisovna

Candidate of sciences (law), assistant professor of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

the realization of criminal politics must be done on the basis of the criminal principles system, that is, the conceptual ideas in the field of combating crime, which expresses this very politics. However, in present-day Russia there frequently occur cases of their distortion either at the stage of law-making or at the stage of law-employment. Combined cases are encountered as well. On the basis of the analysis of legislative regulation of the institute of necessary defence and the norm of liberating from penal responsibility due to reconciliation with the victim, the practice of their use and law explanatory practice of the Russian Federation Supreme Court the author targets the negative consequences of the penal political ideas distortions. The basic ones of the latter are the violations of the constitutional legal guarantees of person and lessening effectivity of crime combating.
Keywords: criminal politics, criminal law, language of criminal law, law making, law enforcement, law explaining practice of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.

References

  1. Bazhanov S.V. The Value of Penal Procedure: doctor of law thesis, Nizhniy Novgorod, 2002.
  2. Golovko L.V. Alternatives to Penal Prosecution in Present-day Law. St. Petersburg, 2002.
  3. Korobeev A.I. Penal Law and Penal Legal Politics, Complete Course of Penal Law, in 5 volumes, ed. by A.I. Korobeev. Vol. 1. Crime and Punishment. St. Petersburg, 2008,
  4. Kostrova M.B. “Fiscal” Function of Penal Law as a Result of Humanization of Penal Politics of the Russian Federation, The Library of a Criminalist, A scholarly journal, 2014, No. 3(14), pp. 54-63.
  5. Kostrova M.B. The Term “the First Time Criminal Person” in the Contexts of the Interaction of Criminal and Other Fields of the Russian Law, Lex Russica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 70-83.
  6. Kostrova M.B. The Novels of Criminal Responsibility Release as a Result of Norm Making of the Russian Federation Supreme Court Plenum, The library of penal law and criminology, 2015, No. 2(10), pp. 70-80.
  7. Polyakov M.P., Smolin A.Yu. The Principle of Procedural Economy in Penal Court Procedure: a monograph, Nizhniy Novgorod, 2011.

Restorative Approach in the Implementation of Criminal Policy

IN REGARD TO Minors

Gabdrashitova Venera Rauilevna

Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In chapter 50 of The Russian Federation Code of Criminal Procedure the order of procedures on juvenile justice is substantially regulated with account for international legal standards. However, a topical aim is to create child-friendly justice to protect his/her rights and freedoms, to consider his/her personalities, to make stimulation methods, applied by the state towards the under-aged, more adequate to the action and personality of a teenager, and to avoid new delinquencies. International legal acts stipulate a greater number of legal mechanisms directed to amicable dispute resolution with the under-aged (suspected or accused), than the Russian legislation. The author analyzed these mechanisms and concluded that many of them may be borrowed to elaborate the mechanism of restorative justice for the under-aged in Russia.

Key words: criminal policy, procedure on juvenile justice, restorative justice.

References

  1. International Acts on the Issues of Criminal Justice: Reading Book. In 3 volumes. Volume I. United Nations Documents / Ed. EnikeevZ.D., Ashirova L.M., Vasilyeva E.G. – Ufa: RITZ BashGU, 2007.
  2. The Council of Europe and
  3. Guskova A.P. Criminal Procedural Organization of Juvenile Justice in Modern Russia: Monograph / A.P. Guskova, V.A. Emelyanov, L.V. Yurchenko. – Orenburg: Orenburg State Agrarian University Publishing Center, 2009.
  4. International Acts on the Issues of Criminal Justice: Reading Book. In 3 volumes. Vol. II. UN Documents / Sost.
  5. Nikolaev E.M. Reconstruction of the Rights and Legitimate Interests of Victims in Criminal Proceedings: Monograph.-
  6. International Acts on Criminal Procedure: Reading Book. In 3 volumes. Volume III. The Document of the Council of Europe / Comp. Enikeev Z.D., Vasilyeva E.G., Ezhova E.V., Ashirova L.M., ShageevaR.M. – Ufa: RITZ BashGU, 2008.
  7. Golovko L.V. The Formation of the New Prospects for the Implementation of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan History of Russian Ascetic Opinion of the Expert // Materials of the Scientific-Practical Conference devoted to the 40th Anniversary of the Criminal-Legal Chairs of the Institute of Law of Bashkir State University and to the 80-th Anniversary of Birth of Doctor in Law, Professor Z.D. Enikeev (12-13 April 2012).Part 1. – Ufa: Ufa: RITZ BashGU, 2012.
  8. ["The Electronic Resource]. URL: http://www.pavlodar.com/zakon/?dok=04918&all=all (reference date: 15.07.2015).
  9. The Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated 4 July 2014 No. 231-V [Electronic resource]. URL:http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31575852&doc_id2=31575852#sub_id=1004101531&sub_id2=5300000&sel_link=1004101531(reference date: 18.07.2015).

To the question of “reanimation”

OF THE INSTITUTE OF RETURNING CRIMINAL CASES by the courtTO CONDUCT AN ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATION IN CRIMINAL proCEEDINGs IN RUSSIA

CHIGRIN Dmitriy Andreevich

postgraduate student of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article is devoted to restoring the institution of returning the criminal case to the court for further investigation. This was due to adoption by 21 July 2014 Federal law № 269-FL “On amendments to articles 236 and 237 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation”. The historical development of legal regulation of the possibility of changing charges in court was analysed. The Charter of criminal judicial proceedings of 1864, as well as the Criminal Procedural Codes of the RSFSR of 1922, 1923, 1960 years were analysed, too. The conclusion was made that the new legal framework contradicts the ideas, which were originally laid down in the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation. Consequences of legislative consolidation of such provisions extend much further than it follows from their textual interpretation. The author also considers the review of the Draft Federal Law “On amendments to the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the introduction of the Institution of the objective truth in a criminal case”. Current legislative trends are assessed as negative. The existence of mechanisms of completion of investigation shortcomings disavows the role of individual legal institutions and the concept of adversarial proceedings. In addition, these procedures reduce the quality of the ongoing investigation. The article is prepared with the usage of current scientific researches, judicial practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the latest changes of the criminal-procedural legislation were took into account.
Key words: criminal prosecution, public prosecution, criminal policy, criminal procedural policy, additional investigation

References

1. Sudebnyeustavy 20 noyabrya 1864 goda, sizlozheniemrassuzhdeniy, nakoihoniosnovany, izdannyeGosudarstvennoyKancelyarii. Vtoroe dopolnennoe izdanie. Chast vtoraja. [The Judicial Statutes of November 20, 1864 with Arguments on which They are Based, issued by the State Office. Second revised edition. Part two]. Saint-Petersburg, 1867. 522 p.

2. Tarasov A.A., Sharipova A.R. Ugolovno-processualnoe pravo v sisteme socialnyh reguljatorov: mesto i znachenie [Criminal Procedural Law in the System of Social Regulators: Place and Importance]. LexRussica.2015, no. 8 (august), pp. 47-57.

3. Postanovlenie VCIK ot 25 maja 1922 g. «Ob Ugolovno-Processualnom Kodekse» (vmeste s «Ugolovno-Processualnym Kodeksom R.S.F.S.R.»). [The Decree of the Central Executive Committee dated may 25, 1922 “On the Code of Criminal Procedure” (with “Code of Criminal Procedure, R. S. F. S. R.”)]. SU RSFSR [CS RSFSR]. 1922, № 20-21, p. 230.

4. Postanovlenie VCIK ot 15 fevralja 1923 g. «Ob utverzhdenii Ugolovno-Processual'nogo Kodeksa R.S.F.S.R.» (vmeste s «Ugolovno-Processualnym Kodeksom R.S.F.S.R.»). [The Decree of the Central Executive Committee of 15 February 1923 "On Approval of the Code of Criminal Procedure, R. S. F. S. R." (with "Code of Criminal Procedure, R. S. F. S. R.")] SU RSFSR [CS RSFSR]. 1923, № 7, p. 106.

5. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 20 aprelya 1999 g. № 7-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti polozheniy punktov 1 i 3 chasti pervoy stat'i 232, chaste chetvertoy stat'i 248 i chaste pervoy stat'i 258 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa RSFSR v svyazi s zaprosami Irkutskogo rayonnogo suda Irkutskoy oblasti i Sovetskogo rayonnogo suda goroda Nizhniy Novgorod» [The Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of 20 April 1999 № 7-P “On the Case on the Verification of Constitutionality of the Provisions of Paragraphs 1 and 3 of Article 232, the fourth part of Article 248 and Article 258 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the RSFSR in connection with Requests from the Irkutsk Court of the Irkutsk Region and the Soviet court of the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia”]. Rossijskaja gazeta [the Russian newspaper].1999. April 27.

6. Postanovlenie PlenumaVerhovnogo Suda RF ot 8 dekabrja 1999 g. № 84 «O praktike primeneniya sudami zakonodatel'stva, reglamentiruyushhego napravlenie ugolovnyh del dlya dopolnitel'nogo rassledovaniya» [The Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 8 December 1999 № 84 “On Practice of Application by Courts of the Legislation Regulating the Direction of Criminal Cases for further Investigation”]. Rossijskaja gazeta [the Russian newspaper]. 1999. December 16.

7. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF № 19-P ot 28 noyabrya 1996 goda «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti stat'i 418 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa RSFSR v svyazi s zaprosom Karatuzskogo rajonnogo suda Krasnojarskogo kraya». [The Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation № 19-P of November 28, 1996 “On the Case about the Verification of Constitutionality of Article 418 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the RSFSR in connection with the Request of the Caratoozskyi court of the Krasnoyarsk region”]. Rossijskaja gazeta [the Russian newspaper].1996. December 6.

8. Ugolovno-processual'noe pravo. Aktual'nye problemy teorii i praktiki: uchebnik dlya magistrov / pod red. V. A. Lazarevoj, A. A. Tarasova. 2-e izd., pererab. I dop. [Criminal Procedural Law. Actual problems of Theory and Practice: Textbook for masters / ed. by V. A. Lazareva, A. A. Tarasov. — 2 edition]. Moscow, 2013, 476 p.

9. Lazareva V.A. Problemy realizacii sostyazatel'nosti v ugolovnom processe Rossiyskoy Federacii. [Pproblems of Implementation of the Adversarial System in the Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation]. Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo: teorija i praktika / pod red. N.A. Kolokolova [Criminal Procedure: Theory and Practice / ed. by N.A. Kolokolov]. Moscow, 2011, pp. 215-258.

10. Federal'niy zakon № 269-FZ ot 21 iyulya 2014 goda «O vnesenii izmeneniy v stat'i 236 i 237 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federacii» [Federal Law 269-FZ of 21 July 2014 “On Amendments to Articles 236 and 237 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation”]. Rossiyskaya gazeta [the Russian newspaper]. 2014, July 25.

11. Kartochka proekta federal'nogo zakona № 440058-6 «O vnesenii izmeneniy v Ugolovno-processual'niy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federacii v svayzi s vvedeniem instituta ustanovleniya objektivnoy istiny po ugolovnomu delu» i sootvetstvuyushhie dokumenty. [Card of the Draft Federal law № 440058-6 “On Amendments to the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the Introduction of the Institution of Establishing the Objective Truth in a Criminal Case” and related Documents]. Web-resource. URL:

http://asozd.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/(Spravka)?OpenAgent&RN=440058-6 (reference date: 10.09.2015).

12. Podol'nyj N. Novyj UPK – novaya ideologiya ugolovnogo processa [The new CPC – a New Ideology of the Criminal Process].Rossijskaya usticija [Russian justice], 2002, № 11, pp. 2-3.

13. Garmaev U. Vsestoronnost' i polnota rassledovaniya [Comprehensiveness and Completeness of the Investigation].Zakonnost [Legality], 2002, № 9, pp. 6-9.

SOME ASPECTS OF MODERN METHODS OF TEACHING CRIMINAL LAW AT UNIVERSITY

SAGITDINOVA Zulfia Indusovna

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure, Institute of Law, of the FBSEI HPE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The modernization of the national legal education implies the need for new, effective methods in the teaching of law, including the Russian criminal law. The federal state educational standard of higher education 030900 Law (qualification (degree) “bachelor”) brings unequivocal demands for the introduction of interactive teaching methods to law students. At the same time, the use of interactive methods requires not only careful preparation by a teacher and students, but also imposes some restrictions, depending on topics and interactive methods. The author offers new approaches to the teaching of criminal law at university and reveals the particular method of the game during classes on “Criminal Statute”.

Key words: legal education, criminal law, methods of teaching criminal law, active and interactive methods of teaching criminal law at university.

References

  1. Prikaz Minobrnauki RF ot 04 ma’ya 2010 goda No 464 “Ob utverzhdenii I vvedenii v deistvie federal’nogo gosudarstvennogo obrazovatel’nogo standarta vysshego professional’nogo obrazovaniya po napravleniyu podgotovki 030900 Yurisprudenciya (kvalifilaciya (stepen’) “bakalavr”)” (On Approval and Enactment of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education 030900 Law (qualification (degree) “bachelor”)) [Eletronnyi resurs]. Dostup iz spravochno-pravovoiy sistemy “KonsultantPlus”.
  2. Ergardt O.R. Realizaciya kompetentnostnogo podkhoda v prepodavanii russkogo yazyka cherez ispol’zovanie metodov problemno-issledovatel’skoy deyatel’nosti (The Implementation of Competence Approach in Teaching the Russian Language through the Use of Methods of Problem-Research Activities), Municipal’noe obrazovanie: innovacii i eksperiment, 2011, No 4, pp.51-54.
  3. Kostrova M. B. Praktikum po ugolovnomu pravu (Workshop on Criminal Law). Obschaya chast’. Uchebnoe posobie. Ufa: RIO BashGU, 2006.

References

  1. Aminev F.G. On Some Problems of Improvement of the Legislation on Forencic and Expert Activity in the Russian Federation //Judicial Examination: Russian and International experience: Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference, Volgograd, May 21-22, 2014 – Volgograd: VA Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2014. P. 16-20.
  2. Aminev F.G. The Theory and Practice of Use of Special Knowledge in Crimes Investigation: Monograph. Ufa: Publishing of the Bashkir State University, 2015.
  3. The Resolution of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 20.11.2013 N 3261-6 State Duma "On Draft Federal law N 306504-6 "On Judicial and Expert Activity in the Russian Federation" [http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi? req=doc; base=EXP; n=572045].
  4. Tarasov A.A., A.S. Zakotyansky. The Simplified Procedures for Criminal Cases and Problems of Procedural Forms of Proof//The Constitutional State: theory and practice. 2014.

CRIMINALISTIC AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURAL BASIS OF PROVISION OF PARTICIPATION OF WITNESSES IN CRIME INVESTIGATION

SLAVGORODSKAYA Olga Alexandrovna

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the FSBEI “Saratov State Law Academy”, Saratov, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

It becomes possible to increase the opportunity of a witness to take part in a criminal procedure only by way of close cooperation of criminalistics and a criminal procedure. It is necessary to take into account a witness’s interests in a criminal procedure while determining perspective directions of the use of testimony from witnesses. Criminalistic study of as witness’s personality allows determining a witness’s interests. Improvement of criminally-remedial basics of the application of testimony from witnesses is carried out with due account for the norms of the international law. It is necessary to use positive foreign experience in the sphere of depositing witnesses’ testimony to solve the problem of widening the limits of witnesses’ participation in criminal investigations. Development of the institute of depositing of testimony from witnesses should be based on the provision of witnesses’ security. The key direction for the formation of legal basics of consolidation of witnesses’ testimony is the necessity to elaborate criminalisitc recommendations on dealing with negative factors appearing in the process of realization of right of the accused for depositing a witness’s testimony.

Key words: security, evidence, interrogation, deposit of testimony, information, forensic study of identity, testimony, crime, investigation, witness.

References

  1. Belkin R.S. Forensics: Problems, Trends, Prospects. From Theory to Practice, M ., jurid. lit., 1988.
  2. Belkin R.S. Lenin's Theory of Reflection and Methodological Problems of the Soviet Criminology, M., Higher School of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, 1970.
  3. Lushechkina M.A. Forensic Study of Personality in the Tactics of the Investigation. The thesis for the degree of candidate of legal sciences.M ., MGU, 2002.
  4. Kornukov V.M. Justice from the Standpoint of the Relationship of the Parties and the Court in Criminal Proceedings, the Russian Justice, 2010, №6, Access via ATP "Consultant Plus", Date Treatment 23/05/2015.
  5. Belkin R.S. Selected Works. M., Norma, 2008.
  6. Nikitchanka I.I. Deposition of Personal Evidence in Pre-trial Proceedings in Criminal Cases, Bulletin of the Kaliningrad branch of the St. Petersburg University of the Russian Interior Ministry, 2014, № 1 (35).
  7. Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 16.04.2013. №19 «On Introduction to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the draft Federal Law". On Amendments to the Criminal Procedural Code, Access via ATP "Consultant Plus", Date Treatment 27/05/2015.
  8. Baimaganbetov B. "Deposit of Testimony" and "Remote Interrogation" – the new institutions in the criminal process [electronic resource], URL: // http://prokuror.gov.kz/rus/novosti/stati/deponirovanie-pokazaniy-i-distancionnyy-dopros-novye-instituty-v-ugolovnom-processe, Date Treatment 06/06/2015.

THE SCOPE OF PERSONS IN RESPECT OF WHOM reports of crimeS ARE CHECKED in ORDER prescribed by ArtICLE 144 OF THE Code of Criminal Procedure OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

ALEShINA Svetlana Aleksandrovna
postgraduate student of the chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Today the question of the hour is the definition of the scope of participants of criminal proceedings in respect of whom reports of crime are checked in the manner prescribed by Art. 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The analysis of the criminal procedure legislation shows that the scope of participants in criminal proceedings in respect of whom reports of crime are checked in the manner prescribed by Art. 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, shall include: the persons actually detained on suspicion of committing a crime; the persons, who give themselves up at the stage of initiation of a criminal case; the persons, who are indicated as crime perpetrators in a statement, a report; the persons, whose activities are checked at the stage of initiation of a criminal case; the persons against whom the procedure of initiating a criminal case is brought in order of Article 448 of the Code.
Key words: criminal procedure, criminal proceedings, participant, detainee, voluntary surrender, checking reports of a crime.

References

1. Aleshchenko S.V. K voprosu o sootnoshenii ponyatii «yavka s povinnoi» i «dobrovol'noe soobshchenie o sovershenii prestupleniya» [To the Question of Corelation between “Voluntary Surrender” and “Voluntary Report of a crime”], Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Seriya 5, Yurisprudentsiya, 2006, № 8, pp. 137−142.

2. Bagautdinov B.B. Sovremennye problemy pravovogo regulirovaniya ugolovno-protsessual'noi deyatel'nosti v stadii vozbuzhdeniya ugolovnogo dela [Modern Problems of Legal Regulation of Criminal Procedure at the Stage of Initiation of a Criminal Case], dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, Volgograd, 2008. 242 p.

3. Bopkhoev Kh.V., Kruglov I.V. Fakticheskoe zaderzhanie i dostavlenie litsa, zaderzhannogo po podozreniyu v sovershenii prestupleniya [Real Arrest of the Person, Suspected of Committing a Crime], Rossiiskii sledovatel', 2005, № 5, pp. 2−5.

4. Demurchev L.G. Provedenie revizii, dokumental'nykh proverok i issledovanii v stadii vozbuzhdeniya ugolovnogo dela [How to Check out at the Stage of Initiation of a Criminal Case], Teoriya i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiya, 2011, № 4, pp. 220−223.

5. Derishev Yu.V., Zemlyanitsin E.I. Protsessual'noe polozhenie litsa, v otnoshenii kotorogo provoditsya predvaritel'naya proverka soobshcheniya o prestupleniy [Procedural Position of the Person in Respect of Whom Preliminary Check of the Report of a Crime is Held], Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravookhranitel'naya praktika, 2014, № 3 (29), pp. 95−100.

6. Klassen M.A. Pravovye pozitsii vysshikh sudebnykh organov o dokazatel'stvennom znachenii protokola yavki s povinnoi [Legal Positions of Highest Judicial Organs in Respect to Evidence Meaning of a Voluntary Surrender Proces-Verbal], Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Seriya: Pravo, 2011, № 27 (244), pp. 38–41.

7. Kozlova A.A. Ponyatie i osnovaniya poyavleniya v ugolovnom protsesse podozrevaemogo [Notion and Basis of the Suspect’s Appearing in Criminal Proceedings], Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pravo, 2006, № 13, pp. 105–107.

8. Kostrova M.B., Shcherbakov S.A. «Yavka s povinnoi» v kontekste vzaimosvyazi ugolovnogo i ugolovno-protsessual'nogo prava [“Voluntary Surrender” in the Interrelation between Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure Law], Aktual'nye problemy modernizatsii sotsial'no-politicheskoi i gosudarstvenno-pravovoi sistem: elektronnyi sbornik nauchnykh trudov Instituta prava BashGU. Vyp. II, Otv. red. I.A. Makarenko, Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2013, pp. 65−70.

9. Lapatnikov M.V. Yavka s povinnoi kak argument vinovnosti litsa v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve [Voluntary Surrender as an Inculpatory Evidence in Criminal Proceedings], Yuridicheskaya tekhnika, 2013, № 7-1, pp. 170−172.

10. Mel'nikov V.Yu. Obespechenie i zashchita prav cheloveka pri primenenii mer protsessual'nogo prinuzhdeniya v dosudebnom proizvodstve Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Human Rights Providing and Protection during Procedural Administration in Preliminary Proceedings in Russia], Avtoref. dis. … d-ra yurid.nauk, M., 2014, 68 p.

11. Meshkov M.V., Gonchar V.V. Povody k vozbuzhdeniyu ugolovnogo dela: protsessual'no-pravovye novelly [Causes to Initiate a Criminal Case: Legal and Procedural Novellae], Rossiiskii sud'ya, 2012, № 11, pp. 19–20.

12. Postanovlenie Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 27 iyunya 2000 g. № 11-P «Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti polozhenii chasti pervoi stat'i 47 i chasti vtoroi stat'i 51 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa RSFSR v svyazi s zhaloboi grazhdanina V.I. Maslova », Rossiiskaya gazeta, 2000, 27 iyunya.

13. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF ot 27 sentyabrya 2012 g. № 19 «O primenenii sudami zakonoda-tel'stva o neobkhodimoi oborone i prichinenii vreda pri zaderzhanii litsa, sovershivshego prestuplenie», Rossiiskaya gazeta,2012, 3 oktyabrya.

14. Smirnov A.V., Kalinovskii K.B. Ugolovnyi protsess: uchebnik [Criminal Procedure: TextBook], pod obshch.red. prof, Smirnov A.V., 4-e izd., pererab. i dop, M, KNORUS, 2008. 704 p.

15. Shishkin A.A. Vidy sodeistviya pravookhranitel'nym organam v ramkakh smyagchayushchikh obstoyatel'stv, [Types of Assisting Law Enforcement Bodies in terms of Mitigating Factors]. Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie, Voprosy teorii i praktika, 2011, № 5-2, pp. 211−213.

16. Yakimovich Yu.K. Podozrevaemyi i poterpevshii v sovremennom ugolovnom protsesse Rossii [The Suspect and the Victim in Modern Criminal Procedure of Russia], Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Pravo, 2013, №2 (8), pp. 110–113.

International CONVENTIONS on avoidance of double taxation: effectiveness of legal regulation

KROKHINA Yulia Aleksandrovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Administrative and Financial Law of the REU named after Plekhanov. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Unification of national tax systems is an integral sign of globalization of world economy. Contingence of tax systems of different states allows creation a favorable tax climate for investors. Herewith, unification of tax systems should not violate fiscal interests of each state and its national rights. Double taxation is a block for international economical integration and trade. The problem of elimination of double taxation is solved by way of international tax conventions. The majority of conventions on elimination of double taxation reached with participation of the Russian Federation do not limit tax remissions for companies registered in foreign jurisdictions. This stimulates the use of tax remissions in schemes of aggressive minimization of taxation. This article reviews problems of legal regulation of making and realization of international conventions on elimination of double taxation. The article determines basic tax risks connected to evasion of taxes by Russian taxpayers while implementing the conventions on elimination of double taxation.

DEMOCRACY AND ECONOMIC

POLICY OF THE STATE

GABITOV Ildar Midkhatovich

Candidate of Sciences (economics), Assistant Professor of the chair of General Economics of the FBSEI HPE "Bashkir Sjtate University", Ufa, Russia.

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

An urgent task of the Russian Federation at the present stage of its development is to find the optimum balance in the use of legal theory, legislation and practice of legal thought achievements. The other task is to develop a new look at institutional and functional aspects of the domestic legal system. The latter should be done on the basis of the Russian state specifics, as well as the history of the domestic law in light of established legal traditions. The article discusses a number of problems associated with collective decisions affecting the interests of the majority of society. Often these decisions are taken in a democratic way, but they do not lead to expected economic results. This is due to some "flaws" of a civil society.

Key words: voting, democracy, public option, corruption.

References

 

  1. Kenneth J. Arrow, General Economic Equilibrium: Purpose of the Study, Methodology of Analysis, Collective choice, World Economic Thought. Through the Prism of Centuries. 5 V, Co. Univ. G. G. Fetisov, A. G. Khudokormov. T. U. In 2 books. Worldwide Recognition: Lectures of Nobel laureates. B. 1, M., Mysl, 2004.
  2. James Buchanan. The Constitution of Economic Policy, Ibid.

ESTATE PROPERTY RIGHTS IN GERMAN CIVIL LAW

GAVVA Alina Alfritovna

Сandidate of sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">aagavva@gmail.com

In recent years the issue of the modernization of the system of real estate property rights has not lost its urgency in our country. The desire to improve the legal regulation of relations in the sphere of turnover of immovable property and to the harmonization of Russian and foreign real property rights requires an analysis of the doctrine, legislation and judicial practice of different countries. The particular importance is given in this process to the study of German civil law. This is due not only to the fact that Russian and German legal systems are developing within the framework of a unified Roman-Germanic legal family, but also increasingly complex international private law relations. In this regard, the particular interest is the experience of legal regulation of real property rights in German civil law.

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: THE CONTINGENCE OF ENVIRONMENT

AND DEVELOPMENT

YUSUPOVA Zilya Anasovna

candidate of Sciences (philology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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MUHAMETGAREEVA Natalia Mihailovna

senior instructor of the chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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International environmental law has gone through four key phases in its development. If the environmental activity on the national level realized since ancient times, international cooperation in the sphere of environment protection only appeared in the beginning of the XX century. First it had a sporadic character and concerned the protection of the particular nature objects. The development of international environmental law was inchmeal and the understanding of the necessity of this process attended a long way. The basic tendencies pointed at regulation of the environment protection are necessary under condition of the sustainable development; it leads to developing of the ecological national and international law. As a result, the further international cooperation on the environment protection is obligatory as on the bilateral though on the multilateral level of the negotiations including the work of the UN organizations.

Key words: International environmental law, soft law, sustainable development, environment.

References

  1. Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 26–30.
  2. Behring Sea Fur Seals Fisheries Arbitration (Great Britain v United States), Moore’s International Arbitrations (1893), p. 755.
  3. Philippe Sands, “Unilateralism, Values and International Law”, European Journal of International Law, vol. 11, no. 2 (2000), pp. 291–302, p. 293.
  4. Trail Smelter Arbitral Tribunal Decision 11 March 1941, American Journal of International Law, vol. 35 (1941), pp. 684–736.
  5. Bhrat H. Desahi, Institutionalizing International Environmental Law (New York: Transnational Publishers Inc., 2004), p. 71.
  6. Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers and William W. Behrens III, The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind (London: Pan Books Ltd, 1972), p. 23.
  7. Economic Development and the Conservation of Nature, G.A. Resolution 1831 (XVII), UN GAOR, 17th Session, Supp. no. 17, UN Doc. A/RES/1831 (XVII) (1962).
  8. Founex Report on Development and Environment, submitted by a Panel of Experts Convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 4–12 June 1971, Founex, Switzerland. Quoted in Desahi, Institutionalizing International Environmental Law, pp. 75–76 (emphasis added).
  9. Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 70.
  10. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.
  11. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 31 ILM 874 (1992).
  12. Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consenus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests, A/CONF.151/6/Rev.1, 13 June 1992.
  13. Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro, 5 June 1992, entered into force 29 December 1993, 1760 UNTS 79; 31 ILM 818 (1992).
  14. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Rio de Janeiro, 9 May 1992, entered into force 21 March 1994, 31 ILM 849 (1992).

INTERNATIONAL LAW AS A STIMULATOR OF REALIZATION OF RULE-OF-LAW STATE IDEA

SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Ufa,Russia

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The rule-of- law state idea has become very popular today. The states include in their constitutions provisions that they are rule-of- law and social states or declare that purpose. The author thinks, that the reason is not only the attractiveness of this idea (it was such one primordially), but also the influence of two factors: reached levels of economical and political development of the country and legal consciousness of citizens as well as increased influence of norms and principles of international law. It is also noted, that legal consciousness and law-obedience are cultivated not by propaganda and legislation, but by a vigilant work of law-enforcement authorities and their rapid response to each delinquency so as a result (like for instance in Germany) the state not even always needs to intervene: citizens call an infringer to order themselves. Hence, there is one step towards the rule-of-law state. In other words, the civil society is ready. And without it the rule-of-law state can’t exist.

Keywords: international law, rule-of-law state, conception, level of economical, political and social development of country, criteria, law-obedience, official, national law, constitution, civil society.

References

  1. Shonin N.E. Social Contract Theories as a Forerunner of the Rule-of-law State Conceptions, aktualnye voprossy rasvitiya nauki, Collected Papers of the International Academic and Research Conference: in 6 parts, Editor-in-chief A.A. Sukiassian, 2014, pp. 262-266.
  2. Tatsachen über Deutschland. Herausgegeben vom Presse- und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung. Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main, 2000. 528 p.
  3. Shonin N.E. Rule-of-law State and Modern Times, the Rule-of-law State, Theory and Practice, No. 2 (32)2013. pp. 63-69.
  4. Pugachov V.P., Solovyov A.I. Introduction to Politology: Manual for Higher School Students, 3-е ed., Revised and Amended. М., Aspect Press, 1998, 447 p.
  5. Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches 1919, https://de.wikisource. org/ wiki/Verfassung_ des_Deutschen _Reiches_ (1919)#Artikel_109.
  6. Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Socialist Federative Republic. Passed by the 5-th All-Russian Congress of Soviets in the Session from July 10th 1918.
  7. Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. Passed by the 2-nd Session of the CEC of the USSR on July 6th 1923 and in Final Cut by the 2-nd Congress of Soviets on 31 January 1924. Chapter 2.
  8. Constitution of the Russian Federation. December 12-th 1993 (with Changes, Amendments by decrees of the President of RF from 09.01.1996 Nr. 20, from 10.02.1996 Nr.173, from 09.06.2001 Nr. 679, from 25.07.2003 No. 841, by Federal Constituional Law from 25.03.2004 No. 1-FCL).
  9. Kodex des österreichischen Rechts. Bundesverfassung. 3. Auflage. Stand 1.3. 2001. Verlag Orac, Taschenkodex, 392 p.
  10. Hesselberger, Dieter. Das Grundgesetz. Kommentar für die politische Bildung. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 10, überarbeitete Auflage, Bonn, 1996, 392 p.

ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF CORRUPTION RISKS AND MANIFESTATIONS IN FOREIGN SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

PUDAKOV Eugene Rustamovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the chair of Criminal Law, Procedure and Forensics of the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies (branch) of the AL and SR (Moscow), interim of the head of the Institution PKUIR-13 Russian Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia     

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The urgency of the problems arising in the process of the formation of state policy of the Russian Federation on combating corruption, is justified and is associated with the further development and intensification of joint efforts of scientists in various fields of scientific knowledge and practice experts, with taking into account the changes in foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The article substantiates the need for systematic study of this concept through a detailed study of different corruption classifications. Scientific researches of corruption problems made by a number of foreign scientists are of great interest in this research.

Keywords: corruption, state anti-corruption policy, corruption risks, corruption, corruption acts, classification of corruption, corruption practices, consumer and business corruption.

References

1. Abashidze A.H. Korrupzia – ugroza nazionalnoi i mejdunarodno ibezopasnosti. [Corruption is a Threat to National and International Security]. Actual Problems of Struggle against Corruption: Materials of the Scientific Conference. Otv.red. V.V. Popadeykin, S.N.Sidorenko. M: MANEB, 2008. pp. 4–19.

2. Alenkina S.V. Mexanizm protivodeistvia korrupzii (teoretiko-pravovoe issledovanie). [The Mechanism of Counteraction of Corruption (Theoretical and Legal Research)]. M., 2008. pp. 20–21.

3. Rose-Ackerman S. Korrupzia i gosudarstvo. Prichiny, sledstvie, reformi. [Corruption and the State. Causes, Consequences, Reforms). M., 2003, p. 9

4. Johnston M. Political Corruption and Public Policy in America. M. Johnston. Monterey: Brooks Cole Publishing Co, 1982. p. 14–15.

5. Heidenheimer A., Political Corruption: A Handbook. New Brunswick, NJ, 1989. p. 362–363.

6. Rottenberg S. Comment // Journal of Law and Economics. 1975. Vol. 18 (3). pp. 611–615.

7. Tirole J. A. Theory of Collective Reputations // Research Papers in Economics University of Stockholm,1993. N 9, p. 6–8.

8. Theobald R. Patrimonialism. World Politics.1982. V. 34.№ 4. pp. 548559.

HISTORICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF ESTONIA

IAMALOVA Elvira Nailevna

Candidate of political science, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Ethics, Culturology and Public Relations

of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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The article analyzes the establishment of modern political system in Estonia with the aim of systematization of basic factors, which determined successful democratical transit of this country in the post-soviet period. On the basis of the research of historical and modern political narrative, it is possible to determine main stages of state and national construction of Estonia. The author concludes that this country had a number of favorable factors for democratization, the most important of which are historical, political and cultural, and geopolitical.

Keywords: democratization, political system, political regime, state construction, Estonia.

References

  1. Dawisha K., Parrott B. Russia and the New States of Eurasia : The Politics of Upheaval. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. 1994. 437 p.
  2. Lauristin M., Vihalemm P. The Political Agenda During Different Periods of Estonian Transformation: External and Internal Factors // Journal of Baltic Studies. Vol. 40. No. 1. PP. 1–28.
  3. Melville A., Stukal D., Mironyuk M. Trajectories of Regime Transformation and Types of Stateness in Postcommunist Countries // Perspectives on European Politics and Society. 2013. [Elektronnyi dokument]. URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15705854.2013.772749 (датаобращения : 25.02.2014).
  4. Park A. Ethnicity and Independence: The Case of Estonia in Comparative Perspective // Europe-Asia Studies. 2005. Vol. 46. No. 1. PP. 69-
  5. Put' v Evropu / Pod. obshch. red. I. M. Klyamkina i L. F. Shevtsovoi.
  6. 400 c. [ Way to Europe/ Edited by I.M. Klyamkina, L.F. Shevcova. Moscow: Novoe Izdatelstvo, 2008. 400 p.]
DISPOSITIVE REGIME FOR  THE STATE SOVEREIGNTY AS A STABILITY FACTOR IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL THREATS TO INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDER
MIRZOEV Ashurali Kendzhaevich

Degree seeking student of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Tajik National University

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In the context of modern world order transformation huge changes of international relations occur, which do not always have a positive content. The only possible basis of guarantee of the state sovereignty is a legal way of solving the problems of the world order. Global and regional threats to the sovereign state can be eliminated only by means of legal regulation on the basis of sovereign equality and mutual respect of interests.
Keywords: the transformation of the world order, international relations, national sovereignty, political and legal institutions, the system of state regulation.

References

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2. Aliev Ya.L., Vikhrov A.A., Salnikov P.P. Vsemirnyi krizis i organizovannaya prestupnost' – ugroza natsio-nal'noi bezopasnosti Rossii. Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. № 11, pp. 131-148.

3. Aliev Ya.L., Vikhrov A.A., Salnikov P.P. Tenevaya ekonomika i organizovannaya prestupnost' v sotsial'noi sisteme Rossii. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2015. № 1, pp. 31-43.

4. Beznosova Ya.V., Kondrat'eva A.N., Romanovskaya V.B., Romanovskaya L.R., Fedyushkina A.I. Vliyanie religioz-no-nravstvennykh tsennostei na formirovanie pravosoznaniya sovremennogo yurista. Izvestiya Sochinskogo gos-udarstvennogo universiteta. 2014. № 4-2 (33), pp. 86-89.

5. Vasil'ev A.I., Salnikov V.P., Stepashin S.V. Natsional'naya bezopasnost' Rossii: konstitutsionnoe obes-pechenie: Nauchnoe izdanie SPb.: Fond «Universitet», 1999.

6. Vystuplenie Prezidenta Respubliki Tadzhikistan Emomali Rakhmona pri poseshchenii Gosudarstvennogo ko-miteta natsional'noi bezopasnosti Respubliki Tadzhikistan. NIAT «Khovar». Dushanbe. 2014. 26 dekabrya.

7. Dogovor o kollektivnoi bezopasnosti ot 15 maya 1992 goda (s izmeneniyami, vnesennymi Protokolom o vnese-nii izmenenii v Dogovor o kollektivnoi bezopasnosti ot 15 maya 1992 goda, podpisannym 10 dekabrya 2010 go-da).

8. Zhdanov P.S., Romanovskaya V.B., Salnikov V.P. Dobro kak dolzhnoe i zlo kak real'nost' (o kategorii «zla» v russkoi filosofii prava). Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. № 12, pp. 186-191.

9. Zakhartsev S.I. Pravo i istina. Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2012. № 9, pp. 146-152.

10. Zakhartsev S.I. Pravosoznanie: ponyatie i urovni. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2012. № 2, pp.48-53.

11. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. Informatsionnoe prostranstvo kak novaya global'naya ugroza chelovechestvu i ego pravam: filosofskii i pravovoi podkhody. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2015. № 8, pp. 11-19.

12. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. Pravosoznanie yurista i pravovoi nigilizm: sovremennye problemy pro-fessional'noi deformatsii. Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2013. № 11, pp. 11-29.

13. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. Chto takoe pravo? Voprosy ontologii i gnoseologii. Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. № 2(40), pp. 14-22.

14. Zoirov D.M., Kolokol'tsev V.A. Organizatsionno-pravovoi mekhanizm obespecheniya natsional'noi i kollek-tivnoi bezopasnosti stran – uchastnikov SNG. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2003. № 1 (17), pp. 111-117.

15. Zoirov D.M., Salnikov M.V. Natsional'naya politika SSSR kak faktor formirovaniya postsovetskogo geo-politicheskogo prostranstva. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta MVD Rossii. 2002. № 3(15), pp.80-85.

16. Zoirov D.M., Safarov B.A. Gosudarstvennost' na postsovetskom prostranstve: predposylki suvereniteta. Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2012. № 11, pp. 25-34.

17. Zoirov D.M., Safarov B.A. Suverennaya gosudarstvennost' na postsovetskom prostranstve: predposylki i protsess formirovaniya (na primere Respubliki Tadzhikistan): Monografiya. Pod obshch. red. V.P. Salnikova. SPb.: Fond «Universitet», 2012. 

18. Ismagilov R.F., Karagodov V.A, Salnikov V.P. Mezhnatsional'nyi konflikt: ponyatie, dinamika, mekhanizm razresheniya / Pod obshch. red. V.P. Salnikova. SPb.: Fond «Universitet», 2003.

19. Kerimova T.V. Chelovek riska. Sotsial'no-filosofskie problemy. M.: OLMA Media grupp, 2009. 208 s.

20. Kriminologiya: Slovar' / V.N. Burlakov, G.N. Gorshenkov, V.M. Egorshin, R.F. Ismagilov, O.V. Lukichev, D,A. Shestakov, F.Yu. Safin / pod obshch. red. V.P. Salnikova. SPb.: Lan', 1999.  

21. Mirzoev A.K. Imperativnoe i dispozitivnoe pravovoe regulirovanie: problemy proyavleniya vnutrennikh kachestv suvereniteta. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2015. № 7, pp. 58-69.

22. Mirzoev A.K. Imperativnoe i dispozitivnoe pravovoe regulirovanie: problemy proyavleniya vneshnikh ka-chestv suvereniteta. Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. № 8, pp. 174-181.

23. Mikhailik A.G., Salnikov M.V. Geopoliticheskie i resursno-ekonomicheskie determinanty funktsioniro-vaniya sovremennogo gosudarstva: politiko-pravovoi analiz. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2002. № 3(15), pp. 9-14.

24. Pravovye mekhanizmy implementatsii antikorruptsionnykh konventsii / T.Ya. Khabrieva, O.I. Tiunov, V.P. Kashepov i dr. / Otv. red. O.I. Tiunov. M.: Institut zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya pri Pravitel'stve Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2012.

25. Romanovskaya V.B. Dukhovnost' i pravosoznanie (sootnoshenie fenomenov). Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo uni-versiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo. Seriya: Pravo. 2001. № 1 (3), pp. 161-169.

26. Romanovskaya L.R., Salnikov M.V., Fomichev M.N. Gosudarstvenno-konfessional'nye otnosheniya na postso-vetskom prostranstve: evolyutsiya i obshchaya kharakteristika . Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2015. № 9, pp. 41-53.

27. Savenkov A.N., Savenkov A.A. Kak pobedit' korruptsiyu: yuridicheskie praktiki Velikobritanii. Pravo-voe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2012. № 7, pp.7-16.

28. Salnikov V. «O roli parlamentov v bor'be s korruptsiei». Zashchita i bezopasnost'. 2013. № 1(64), p. 15.

29. Salnikov V. Institualizatsiya korruptsionnykh vzaimodeistvii – ugroza natsional'noi bezopasnosti. Za-shchita i bezopasnost'. 2006. № 1, p. 6.

30. Salnikov V. Institualizatsiya korruptsionnykh otnoshenii. Zashchita i bezopasnost'. 2013. № 1(64), pp. 13-15.

31. Salnikov V., Salnikov M. Pravovaya ontologiya grazhdanskogo soznaniya. Yuridicheskii mir. 2005. № 11, pp. 48-53.

32. Salnikov V.P. Korruptsionnye otnosheniya: protsess institutsionalizatsii. Pravovye sredstva protivo-deistviya korruptsii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: Mater. Vseros. nauchn.-prakt. internet-konf. Moskva, 27 noyabrya – 15 dekabrya 2013 g. M.: REU im. G.V. Plekhanova, 2014, pp. 113-120.

33. Salnikov V.P. Nezrimoe vtorzhenie. Negativnoe vozdeistvie informatsii na soznanie cheloveka. Zashchita i bezopasnost'. 1999. № 1.

34. Salnikov V.P., Salnikov M.V. Pravovaya kul'tura i pravovaya traditsiya v ikh kategorial'nom sootnoshenii i ponimanii. Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2014. № 3(37), pp. 13-19.

35. Salnikov V.P., Salnikov M.V. Natsional'no-etnicheskie tsennosti v pravovoi kul'ture i politiko-pravovykh traditsiyakh. Vestnik Bashkirskogo un-ta. 2014. № 3. Tom 19, pp. 1096-1099.

36. Salnikov V.P., Ivashov L.G., Dzhegutanov B.K. Filosofiya globalizatsii (metodologicheskie osnovy geopoliticheskoi doktriny Rossii): Monografiya / Pod obshch. red. V.P. Salnikova. SPb.: Fond «Universitet», 2006.

37. Salnikov V.P., Salnikov M.V., Biktasov O.V. Ontologichesko-pravovye osnovaniya grazhdanskogo soznaniya. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2005. № 3, pp .7-13.

38. Salnikov V.P., Kryuchkov R.A., Romanovskaya V.B., Salnikov M.V. Ponyatie riska v filosofsko-pravovom izmerenii v period Novogo i Noveishego vremeni. Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2014. № 10, pp. 174-184.

39. Salnikov V.P., Kryuchkov R.A., Romanovskaya V.B., Salnikov M.V. Riski v ekonomike, v prave i sotsial'noi zhizni: nauchnye podkhody k ponimaniyu. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2015. № 9, pp. 203-211.

40. Salnikov V.P., Kryuchkov R.A., Romanovskaya V.B., Salnikov M.V. Rok, risk, pravo i ekonomika: nachalo is-torii otnoshenii. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2013. № 11.

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42. Saulyak O.P. Pravoporyadok: kontury novykh podkhodov k issledovaniyu: monografiya. M.: Sotsial'no-politicheskaya mysl', 2009.

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46. Ekimov A.I. Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravoporyadok. Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2015. № 1, pp. 13-22.

REVIEW OF THE MONOGRAPH BY N.I. MALYKHINA

"FORENSIC PROCESSING OF THE TRAITS AND STATES OF THE PERPETRATOR" ( RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA, USA: LULU PRESS, 2015. 180 P.)

POLSTOVALOV Oleg Vladimirovich  

Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HPE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
ZAKHARTSEV Sergei Ivanovich  

Doctor of sciences (Law), Professor of the chair ofTheory and History of State and Law of the Moscow State University of Technologies and Management,

Moscow, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich  

Doctor of Sciences (Law), professor, editor-in-chief of the "Legal Science: History and the Present" journal, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,

Moscow, Russia

 E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
KUKOVSKIYAnton Alexandrovich  

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law, South-Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia

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ROSLOV Pavel Dmitrievich  

graduate of the Law faculty of the South-Urals State University, Legal Adviser of the Extradepartmental Protection Directorate of the Interior Ministry of the Russian Federation for the city of Chelyabinsk,

Chelyabinsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
KHABIROV Radiy Faritovich  

Candidate of Sciences (law), Deputy Head of the Russian President’s Domestic Policy Directorate,

Moscow, Russia.

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GORBACHEV Sergey Borisovich  

Candidate of Sciences ( Political Science), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HPE Bashkir State University,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
VIPKHANOVA GalinaViktorovna  

Doctor of Law, Professor of the chair of Environmental and Natural Resources Law of the Moscow State University of Law named after O.E. Kutafin (MSLA),

Moscow, Russia

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VARDANYANAkopVarazdatovich  

Head of the Department of Forensics of the Rostov Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Colonel of police,

Rostov-on-Don, Russia

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KULESHOV Roman Vladimirovich  

Head of the Department of coordination of scientific activity in the Russian Interior Ministry's Department for state service and personnel of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Lieutenant Colonel of Internal Service, Moscow, Russia

E-mail: rv111@mail.ru

 
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich  

Doctor of Sciences (Law), professor, editor-in-chief of the "Legal Science: History and the Present" journal, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation,

Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
SALNIKOV Mihail Victorovich  

Doctor of Law, professor, President of the Fund for Support of Science and Education in the field of law enforcement activity "University",

St. Petersburg, Russia

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ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna  

Doctor of Law, professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Faculty, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

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PUZHAEV Vladimir Vladimirovich  

                teaching assistant of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Law Faculty, graduate student of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Faculty, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

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KASIMOV Timur Salavatovich  

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of the SBEI HPE “Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan”,

 Ufa, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
PONOMAREVA Ekaterina Vladimirovna  

Candidate of Sciences (Law), senior lecturer of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of Higher Professional Education Ufa law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
GERASIMOVAlexanderPetrovich  

Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of Higher Professional Education Ufa law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
ROMANOV Alexander Aleksandrovich

Candidate of sciences (politics), doctoral candidate of the chair ofTheory of State and Law of the department of Law named after M.M. Speransky of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service, Tver, Russia

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SHAGIEV Bulat Vasilovich  

Candidate of sciences (law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Constitutional and Criminal Law of the RSSU branch in Lyubertsy, Lyubertsy, Russia

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elizarov Mikhail Vladimirovich  

Candidate of Sciences ( Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSEI HPE “ Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia

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ZABOROVSKAYA Svetlana Gennadievna  

Candidate of Sciences (Sociology), Director of the Institute of Additional Professional Education of the Bashkir Academy of Public Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan,Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
ISHMURATOV Minnirais Minigalievich  

Doctor of Sciences (economy), Professor of the chair of Economics and Socio-economic Policy of the Bashkir Academy of Public Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan,Ufa, Russia. E-mail: //e.mail.ru/compose/?mailto=mailto%This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." target="_blank">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
ARSENTYEVA Nadezhda Anatolyevna  

Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Labor and Environmental Law of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
KHAIRULLINA Guzel Khasanovna  

Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Law and Social Science of the Institute of Historical and Legal Education of the Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
ARSENTYEVA Nadezhda Anatolyevna  

Candidate of Sciences (History), AssistantProfessor of the Chair of Labor and Environmental Law of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
KHAIRULLINA Guzel Khasanovna  

Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Law and Social Science of the Institute of Historical and Legal Education of the Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
SHABUROV Anatoly Stepanovich  

Doctor of Law, Professor of the department of Theory of State and Law of the Ural State Law University,

Ekaterinburg, Russia

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UMAROVA Elena Sergeevna  

postgraduate student of the department of Management and Law of the Ural State Agrarian University, Ekaterinburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
KHISMATULLIN Oliver Yurievich  

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Head of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of higher professional education Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia

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KURBANOV Deny Abasovich  

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law disciplines of the Federal State Official Educational Establishment of higher professional education Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia

E-mail: kurbanov.d.1957@ yandex.ru

 
ALSYNBAYEVA Elvira Makhamatovna  

Candidate of Sciences (law), teaching assistant of the chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE “Bashkir State University”,Ufa, Russia

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Tarasov Alexander Alexeyevich

Doctor of Sciences (law), Professor, Holder of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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GabdrashitovaVenera Rauilevna

Teaching assistant of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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NIKOLAEV Evgeniy Mikhailovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Police Lieutenant Colonel of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia,

Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

SHARIPOVA Aliya Rashitovna

Candidate of sciences (law), senior lecturer of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Lawof the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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Kostrova Marina Borisovna

Candidate of sciences (law), assistant professor of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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Gabdrashitova Venera Rauilevna

Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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CHIGRIN Dmitriy Andreevich

postgraduate student of the chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia

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SAGITDINOVA Zulfia Indusovna

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure, Institute of Law, of the FBSEI HPE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia

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SLAVGORODSKAYA Olga Alexandrovna

Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the FSBEI “Saratov State Law Academy”, Saratov, Russia

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ALEShINA Svetlana Aleksandrovna
postgraduate student of the chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KROKHINA Yulia Aleksandrovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Administrative and Financial Law of the REU named after Plekhanov. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GABITOV Ildar Midkhatovich

Candidate of Sciences (economics), Assistant Professor of the chair of General Economics of the FBSEI HPE "Bashkir Sjtate University", Ufa, Russia.

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GAVVA Alina Alfritovna

Сandidate of sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the President of the Republic Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia

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YUSUPOVA Zilya Anasovna

candidate of Sciences (philology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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MUHAMETGAREEVA Natalia Mihailovna

senior instructor of the chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">nmch77@mail.ru

International environmental law has gone through four key phases in its development. If the environmental activity on the national level realized since ancient times, international cooperation in the sphere of environment protection only appeared in the beginning of the XX century. First it had a sporadic character and concerned the protection of the particular nature objects. The development of international environmental law was inchmeal and the understanding of the necessity of this process attended a long way. The basic tendencies pointed at regulation of the environment protection are necessary under condition of the sustainable development; it leads to developing of the ecological national and international law. As a result, the further international cooperation on the environment protection is obligatory as on the bilateral though on the multilateral level of the negotiations including the work of the UN organizations.

Key words: International environmental law, soft law, sustainable development, environment.

References

  1. Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 26–30.
  2. Behring Sea Fur Seals Fisheries Arbitration (Great Britain v United States), Moore’s International Arbitrations (1893), p. 755.
  3. Philippe Sands, “Unilateralism, Values and International Law”, European Journal of International Law, vol. 11, no. 2 (2000), pp. 291–302, p. 293.
  4. Trail Smelter Arbitral Tribunal Decision 11 March 1941, American Journal of International Law, vol. 35 (1941), pp. 684–736.
  5. Bhrat H. Desahi, Institutionalizing International Environmental Law (New York: Transnational Publishers Inc., 2004), p. 71.
  6. Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers and William W. Behrens III, The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind (London: Pan Books Ltd, 1972), p. 23.
  7. Economic Development and the Conservation of Nature, G.A. Resolution 1831 (XVII), UN GAOR, 17th Session, Supp. no. 17, UN Doc. A/RES/1831 (XVII) (1962).
  8. Founex Report on Development and Environment, submitted by a Panel of Experts Convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 4–12 June 1971, Founex, Switzerland. Quoted in Desahi, Institutionalizing International Environmental Law, pp. 75–76 (emphasis added).
  9. Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 70.
  10. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.
  11. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 31 ILM 874 (1992).
  12. Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consenus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests, A/CONF.151/6/Rev.1, 13 June 1992.
  13. Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro, 5 June 1992, entered into force 29 December 1993, 1760 UNTS 79; 31 ILM 818 (1992).
  14. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Rio de Janeiro, 9 May 1992, entered into force 21 March 1994, 31 ILM 849 (1992).

INTERNATIONAL LAW AS A STIMULATOR OF REALIZATION OF RULE-OF-LAW STATE IDEA

SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HPE Bashkir State University, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Ufa,Russia

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PUDAKOV Eugene Rustamovich

Candidate of sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the chair of Criminal Law, Procedure and Forensics of the Bashkir Institute of Social Technologies (branch) of the AL and SR (Moscow), interim of the head of the Institution PKUIR-13 Russian Federal Penitentiary Service for the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia     

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IAMALOVA Elvira Nailevna

Candidate of political science, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Ethics, Culturology and Public Relations

of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia

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MIRZOEV Ashurali Kendzhaevich

Degree seeking student of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Tajik National University

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POLSTOVALOV Oleg Vladimirovich  

Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HPE "Bashkir State University", Ufa, Russia

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ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК