1 (55) 2019 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

1 (55) 2019

1 (55) 2019
RATIONALISTIC DOCTRINE OF LAW IN THE GERMAN ENLIGHTENMENT
AZNAGULOVA Guzel Mukhametovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Principal Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The emergence of rationalistic views as a negation of medieval scholasticism was based on the recognition and exaltation of the value of human personality. This determines the specific feature of rationalism, which recognized extreme individualism in the social essence of a person, that idea had been expressed earlier in the doctrines of law of Grotius and Hobbes. These theoretical positions explained the priorities in the interaction and the balance of interests of the individual and society, attempts to harmonize them emphasized the dual nature of rationalistic political science. The deepest roots of dualism in political law theory, rationalistic philosophy in general, are rooted in the artificial separation of nature and society and the dismemberment of the natural and social content in the essence of man. Then the arising contradictions of individual consciousness and prevailing views and attitudes in the existence of human relations resulted in natural law. Therefore, reflection and rational thinking are the indisputable moral foundation of the natural law ideological concept.
Key words: philosophy of law, German Enlightenment, rationalism in law, natural law, jurisprudence of concepts, Wolfe, Pufendorf, legal consciousness, reason.
References
1. Korkunov N.M. Istoriya filosofii prava (History of philosophy of law), Izd. 8-ye. Moscow, Lenand, 2014.
2. Vol'f Kh. Razumnyye mysli o silakh chelovecheskogo razuma i ikh ispravnom upotreblenii v poznanii prirody (Reasonable thoughts about the forces of the human mind and their proper use in the knowledge of nature), per. M. Begicheva. Saint Petersburg, tip. Art i inzh. shlyakhet. kadet. kor-pusa, 1755.
3. Beyme, K. von. Geschichte der politischen Theorien in Deutschland 1300-2000, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften, 2009.
4. Kratkiy ocherk istorii filosofii (A brief sketch of history of philosophy), Izd. 3-ye, pod red. M.T. Iovchuka. T.I. Oyzermana, I.YA. Shchepanova. Moscow, Mysl', 1975.
5. Dario Antiseri i Dzhovanni Reale. Zapadnaya filosofiya ot istokov do nashikh dney (Western phi-losophy from the beginnings to the present day), V 4-kh t. T. 3. Ot Vozrozhdeniya do Kanta (From the Renaissance to Kant), per. i red. S.A. Mal'tsevoy. Saint Petersburg : Pnevma, 2002.
6. Kant I. Sochineniya v shesti tomakh (Works in six volumes). T. 1, pod obshch. red. V.F. Asmusa, A.V. Gulygi, T.I.Oyzermana. Moscow, Mysl', 1963.
7. Kant I. Sochineniya v shesti tomakh (Works in six volumes). T. 2, pod obshch. red. V.F. Asmusa, A.V. Gulygi, T.I. Oyzermana. Moscow, Mysl', 1964.
8. Istoriya politicheskikh ucheniy (The history of political doctrines), uchebnik dlya VUZov, pod obshch. red. V.S. Nersesyantsa. 4-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, Norma, 2007.
9. Novgorodtsev P. Istoricheskaya shkola yuristov (Historical School of Lawyers), V kn. Nemetskaya istoricheskaya shkola prava. Chelyabinsk, Sotsium, 2010.
10. Vol'f KH. Nemetskaya politika. Razumnyye mysli ob obshchestvennoy zhizni lyudey (German politics. Reasonable thoughts about the social life of people). Galle, 1721.
11. Gegel' G.V.F. Fenomenologiya dukha (Phenomenology of the spirit), per. s nem. G.G. Shpeta. 2-ye izd. Moscow, Akademicheskiy proyekt, 2014.
12. Kant I. Kritika chistogo razuma (Criticism of pure reason). Soch. V 6-i t. T. 3, pod obshch. red. V.F. Asmusa, A.V. Gulygi, T.I. Oyzermana. Moscow, Mysl', 1963.
Received: 11.11.2018
SOME ASPECTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION
ARZAMASKIN Nikolay Nikolayevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SMIRNOV Sergey Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The modern state acts in the conditions of globalization. Understanding of the phenomenon of globalization is as ambiguous as the process itself. In order to study the state law reality in the changed conditions, the authors propose to rethink the traditional concept of state sovereignty and use the categories of formal-legal and actual state sovereignty. The authors note that the state might lose both actual state sovereignty and formal-legal state sovereignty. Factors of weakening of state sovereignty are listed, their interrelation is shown.
Key words: sovereignty, globalization, factors of the decline of state sovereignty, challenge to state sovereignty, threat to state sovereignty, “colour revolution”, “soft power”.
References
1. Arzamaskin N.N. Smirnov S.V. Suverenitet sovremennogo gosudarstva v usloviyakh glo-balizatsii (The sovereignty of the modern state in the context of globalization), monografiya. Ul'yanovsk, UlGU, 2012.
2. Krasinskiy V.V. Zashchita gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta (Protection of state sovereignty), mo-nografiya. Moscow, Norma, INFRA, 2018.
3. Marchenko M.N. Gosudarstvennyy suverenitet: problemy opredeleniya ponyatiya i so-derzhaniya (State Sovereignty: Problems of Definition and Content). Pravovedeniye, 2003, No. 1, pp.186-197.
4. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoye obshchestvovedeniye (Legal society studies), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018.
5. Seidov A.V. Vozdeystviye globalizatsii na kontseptsiyu gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta v mezh-dunarodnom prave (The impact of globalization on the concept of state sovereignty in international law), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2004.
6. Smirnov S.V. K voprosu o neobkhodimosti issledovaniya fenomena «nesostoyavshikhsya gosu-darstv» v ramkakh teorii gosudarstva i prava (On the need to study the phenomenon of "failed states" in the framework of theory of state and law). Obrazovaniye. Nauka. Nauchnyye kadry, 2016, No. 4, pp.13-16.
7. Smirnov S.V. Kriptovalyuty kak vyzov gosudarstvennomu suverenitetu sovremennogo gosu-darstva v usloviyakh globalizatsii (Cryptocurrencies as a challenge to state sovereignty of the modern state in the context of globalization). Problemy statusa sovremennoy Rossii: istoriko-pravovoy aspekt, materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (g. Ufa, 5–6 aprelya 2018 g.), otv red F.Kh. Galiyev, V 2-kh ch, Ch. 2. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2018, pp. 29-35.
8. Smirnov S.V. «Tsvetnaya revolyutsiya» kak ugroza gosudarstvennomu suverenitetu v usloviyakh globalizatsii (“Color Revolution” as a Threat to State Sovereignty in the Context of Globalization). Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2016, No. 4 (96), pp. 13-16.
9. Smirnov S.V. Chastnyye voyennyye kompanii kak ugroza gosudarstvennomu suverenitetu so-vremennogo gosudarstva (Private Military Companies as a Threat to the State Sovereignty of the Modern State). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statey Mezhdu-narodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoye go-sudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa, 16–17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiyev, V 2-kh ch, Ch. 2. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2015, pp. 98-102.
10. Chernyak L.YU. Teorii otritsaniya gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta: osnovnyye podkhody (Theo-ries of denial of state sovereignty: main approaches). Akademicheskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2008, No. 1, pp.4-12.
Received: 22.01.2019
THE ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTION OF POLITICS AND LAW: REGIONAL AND FEDERAL LEVEL
VALIKARAMOV Denis Jalilovich
Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GAZIZOVA Leisan Makhmutovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The spheres of impact of politics and law just cross. Many political relations are exercised out of the legal framework (ideological, organizational, the membership relations). Moreover, some legal norms have no political importance at all (traffic regulations, the procedure for drawing up financial documents). At its core, the political mechanism is designed to form or to seize, as well as to exercise political power. In the scientific literature, the narrower concept “state power” acts as a fundamental object of politics. At the same time, it should not be forgotten that the relations concerning politics are realized apart from state activities, for example, in relation to participating in interparty organizations. Law in fact, pursues the opposite objective, it is aimed at an equal, fair protection and realization of the legitimate interests of its various entities in the specific legal relationship that are worked out in detail within the individual branches of law.
Key words: politics, state, law, ideology, political system, legal system, legal system of the Russian Federation, rule-of-law state, civil society, constitutionalism.
References
1. Antanovich N. A. Teoriya politicheskikh sistem (Theory of political systems), uch. posobiye. Minsk, TerraSistems, 2008.
2. Bobylev, A.I. Ponyatiye, printsipy i funktsii prava (The concept, principles and functions of law). Pravo i politika, 2004, No. 4, pp. 4-14.
3. Polyakova T.M. K voprosu o politiko-pravovoy doktrine Rossii (On the issue of the political and legal doctrine of Russia). Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2006, No. 1, pp. 14-19.
4. Khropanyuk V.N. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of State and Law). Moscow, Respublika, 2008.
5. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava : kurs lektsiy (Theory of State and Law: course of lectures), pod red. N.I. Matuzova i A.V. Mal'ko. 2-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, Yurist", 2001.
6. Valikaramov D.D., Nigmatullin O.B. Kontseptual'nyye podkhody k opredeleniyu soderzha-tel'noy kharakteristiki ponyatiya «demokratiya» ili «kak eto dolzhno byt' u nas?» (Conceptual ap-proaches to the definition of a meaningful description of the concept of “democracy” or “how should we have it?”). Nauka i tekhnologii v sovremennom obshchestve, 2015, No. 1 (2), pp. 184-187.
Received: 25.01.2019
CONVERGENCE OF LEGAL AND NORMS THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
ZAKHARTSEV Sergey Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences,St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Legal Science: Past and Present”, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The need for a scientific study of such a problem as the convergence of legal norms between states is due to the emergence of electronic databases, electronic communication on social networks, the Internet and the general computerization of modern society. In today's conditions, in order to get a legal question answered, sometimes it is enough to ask a question in a search system. Most of the laws of these or other countries are kept electronically and freely available, providing guidance or regulatory information. Despite the presence of certain obstacles to the convergence of legal norms between states, the convergence of legal norms is still gradually being implemented. The study of the problems associated with the convergence of legal norms between states suggests that its dynamics will largely depend on the political and economic situation in the world, whose polyvariant nature is obvious.
Key words: philosophy of law, law, comprehensive theory of law, convergence.
References
1. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Konvergentsiya v prave, russkaya mental'nost' i psikhologiya nishchenstva: filosofskaya i filosofsko-pravovaya problema (Convergence in law, the Russian men-tality and the psychology of poverty: philosophical and philosophical-legal problem). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 1, pp. 166-179.
2. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. O zabluzhdeniyakh v ponimanii prava i vazhnosti kompre-khendnogo podkhoda dlya yego poznaniya (On errors in understanding the law and the importance of the comprehensive approach for its knowledge). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2016, No. 5, pp. 83-88.
3. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. O konvergentsii ugolovno-protsessual'nogo prava Rossii i zaru-bezhnykh gosudarstv (On the convergence of criminal procedural law of Russia and foreign coun-tries). Biblioteka kriminalista. Nauchnyy zhurnal, 2015, No. 2 (19), pp. 29-33.
4. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Predlagayem Vashemu vnimaniyu komprekhendnuyu teoriyu poznaniya prava (We offer to your attention comprehensive epistemology of law). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 3, pp. 170-183.
5. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Razmyshlyayem o sushchnosti prava: komprekhendnyy podkhod (We reflect on the essence of law: a comprehensive approach). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2017, No. 1(47), pp. 13-30.
6. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Russkiy mentalitet i pravo (Russian mentality and law). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2018, No. 4, pp. 41-47.
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka (Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Legal science). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2015.
8. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Chto otlichayet cheloveka russkoy kul'tury ot lyubogo drugogo: filosofsko-pravovoy vzglyad (What distinguishes a person of Russian culture from any other: philosophical and legal view). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 1, pp. 23-40.
9. Zor'kin V.D. Filosofiya prava: proshloye, nastoyashcheye, budushcheye (Philosophy of Law: Past, Present, Future). Filosofiya prava v nachale XXI stoletiya cherez prizmu konstitutsionalizma i konstitutsionnoy ekonomiki, pod red. V.V. Mironova i Yu.N. Solonina, sost. P.D. Barenboym, A.V. Zakharov, izdaniye Moskovsko-Peterburgskogo filosofskogo kluba. Moscow, Letniy Sad, 2010, pp 28-45.
10. Kleandrov M.I. Kandidatskaya dissertatsiya yurista: pervyye shagi issledovatelya (Dissertation of a lawyer: the first steps of the researcher), 2-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, MZ-Press. 2004.
11. Romashov R.A. Pravovyye kul'tury Rossii i Zapada: sushchestvuyet li dvustoronnyaya inte-gratsiya? (Legal cultures of Russia and the West: is there a bilateral integration?). Filosofiya prava v Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost', materialy tret'ikh filosof.-pravovykh chteniy pamyati akad. V.S. Nersesyantsa. Moscow, Norma, 2009, pp. 59-74.
12. Smol'kova I.V. Yuridicheskiye aforizmy (Legal aphorisms). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2013.
13. Zakhartsev S.I. Filosofiya i teoriya prava (Philosophy and theory of law), peredmova O.M. Klyuyeva. Kharkiv, Panov A.M., 2015.
14. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. The Philosophy of Law and Legal Science. Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018.
Received: 22.12.2018
THE EXPLANATORY FUNCTION OF THE PLENUM OF THE SUPREME COURT: THEORY AND PRACTICE
KOZHINA Yuliya Alekseyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: mailto:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The creation of clear, correct norms of law is the result of effective rule making. The problem of misinterpretation of sources of the current legislation becomes especially relevant when it is about realization and protection of the individual’s rights. The family legislation is penetrated by estimating categories, which have not found the uniform definition that promotes not only formation of contradictory judicial practice, but also violation of the subjective civil and family rights. In order to ensure the unity of practice application by courts of the Russian legislation, the legislator assigned to the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation the function of explanation, which found its fixing in the resolutions promoting lawful consideration of disputes in essence. Generally, the standard explanation does not contain independent law norms; however, in certain cases the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation departs from explanation function, and is engaged in rule making that in principle contradicts the powers conferred to it by the law.
Key words: legal norms, formation, law enforcement practices, explanations, definitions, rulemaking, omissions, contradictions in the legislation.
References
1. Shashek V. V., Harchenko N. A. Problema yasnosti yazyka zakonodatel'stva i mnozhestvennosti interpretacij tekstov zakonov (The problem of clarity of the language of legislation and the plurality of interpretations of the texts of laws). Molodoj uchenyj, 2016, No. 7, pp. 1191-1196.
2. Ivakina N. Russkij yazyk rossijskogo prava (The Russian language of Russian law). Ros. yusticiya, 2000, No. 7, pp. 26-28.
3. Bespalov Yu.F. Nekotorye problemy zashchity imushchestvennyh prav suprugov (byvshih supru-gov) v Rossijskoj Federacii (Some problems of protecting the property rights of spouses (former spouses) in the Russian Federation). Ros. sud'ya, 2018, No. 6, pp. 30-33.
4. Lopatin V.V., Lopatina L.E. Tolkovyj slovar' sovremennogo russkogo yazyka (Explanatory Dic-tionary of the Modern Russian Language). Moscow, EHKSMO, 2011.
5. Dal' V.I. Tolkovyj slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo yazyka (Explanatory dictionary of the living Great Russian language). V 4 t. T. 4. Moscow, Rus. yaz., 1978.
6. Rossijskaya yuridicheskaya ehnciklopediya (Russian legal encyclopedia). Moscow, Izdatel'skij dom INFRA-M, 1999.
7. Mad'yarova A.V. Raz"yasneniya Verhovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii v mekhanizme ugolovno-pravovogo regulirovaniya (Explanations of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the mechanism of criminal law regulation). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2002.
8. Alekseev S.S. Kak gotovit' zakon (How to make a law). Izvestiya, 1992, 14 dek., pp.11-12.
Received: 20.01.2019
ON ASSESSING THE EVENTS OF FEBRUARY AND OCTOBER 1917 IN TERMS OF THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
KRYZHANOVSKAYA Galina Nikolaevna
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the St. Petersburg Military Institute of National Guard Forces of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KONDRAT Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics of MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, State Counselor of Justice 1st Class, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
What happened in February and October 1917 in the Russian Empire does not let researchers stay in rest even after more than hundred years that passed after these revolutionary events. Some claim it was revolution, others say it was coup d’etat. Some call the year 1917 as the one of national catastrophe, and others as a starting point for building the state of a new type. Objective approach to the analysis of the events associated with the revolution in Russia is impossible without analysis of the content of concepts, which existed at that time and without a study of legal norms, which acted in those years. At the same time revolution is the radical overthrow connected with transition of the government to representatives of the other class, therefore, all those events can be characterized as coup d’etat as well. Using the situation, which developed in 1917, Bolsheviks managed to organize coup d’etat and proclaim the Soviet power. Therefore, one of the main signs of the rule-of law state is mutual responsibility of society and state, state and individual, their coherence by the law. In order to avoid unlawful solutions of the imminent problems, the state machinery has to listen to the inquiries of society, response in time and effectively perform its functions and always work within the law, otherwise, there a revolutionary situation can arise. The opposition, in turn, also has to be constructive, act within the legal framework in order to keep integrity of the state and prevent revolutions.
Key words: revolution, coup d’etat, abdicate, succession to the throne, rule-of-law state.
References
1. Rasporyazheniye Prezidenta RF «O podgotovke i provedenii meropriyatiy, posvyashchennykh 100-letiyu revolyutsii 1917 goda v Rossii» № 412-rp ot 19 dekabrya 2016 goda (Order of the Presi-dent of the Russian Federation “On the preparation and holding of the events dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the revolution of 1917 in Russia” No. 412-rp dated December 19, 2016). Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2016, No. 52 (ch. V), St. 7624. 
2. Akt o prestolonasledii ot 5 (16) aprelya 1797 goda (The act of succession to the throne from April 5 (16), 1797). Polnoye sobraniye zakonov Rossiyskoy imperii, s 1649 goda, Sobraniye 1-ye, T. 24, S 6 noyabrya 1796 po 1798. St. Petersburg, 1830, No. 17910. 
3. Vysochayshe utverzhdonnyye Osnovnyye gosudarstvennyye zakony. 23 aprelya 1906 g. (Highest approved Basic State Laws. April 23, 1906). Polnoye sobraniye zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii, Sobra-niye 3-ye, T. 26 (1906), St. Petersburg, 1909, No. 27805, p. 456 (Utratil silu). 
4. Vysochayshiy Manifest ob otrechenii Nikolaya II v pol'zu brata Mikhaila Aleksandrovicha (The Highest Manifesto on the abdication of Nicholas II in favor of his brother Mikhail Alexandro-vich).GARF, F.601, op.1, d.2470. 
5. Otkaz Velikogo Knyazya Mikhaila Aleksandrovicha ot vospriyatiya verkhovnoy vlasti do re-sheniya Uchreditel'nogo Sobraniya (The refusal of Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich from having the supreme power till the decision of the Constituent Assembly). Sobraniye Uzakoneniy i Raspo-ryazheniy Pravitel'stva, izdavayemoye pri Pravitel'stvuyushchem Senate, 6 marta 1917 g., No. 54, Otdel Pervyy, St. 345. 
6. Vystupleniye sopredsedatelya Rossiyskogo istoricheskogo obshchestva Anatoliya Vasil'yevicha Torkunova na zasedanii Organizatsionnogo komiteta po podgotovke i provedeniyu meropriyatiy, posvyashchennykh 100-letiyu revolyutsii 1917 goda v Rossii (Speech by the Co-Chairman of the Russian Historical Society Anatoly V. Torkunov at a meeting of the Organizing Committee for the preparation and holding of the events dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the revolution of 1917 in Russia). Sayt Rossiyskogo istoricheskogo obshchestva. URL: https://historyrussia.org/polemika/ tri-buna/vystuplenie-sopredsedatelya-rossijskogo-istoricheskogo-obshchestva-a-v-torkunova-na-zasedanii-organizatsionnogo-komiteta-po-podgotovke-i-provedeniyu-meropriyatij-posvyashchennykh-100-letiyu-revolyutsii-1917-goda-v-rossii.html (accessed date: 1.10.2018). 
7. Dnevnik i perepiska Velikogo knyazya Mikhaila Aleksandrovicha. 1915-1918 (7. Diary and cor-respondence of Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich. 1915-1918). Moscow, ProzaiK, 2012. 
8. Dnevniki imperatora Nikolaya II 1894-1918 (Diaries of Emperor Nicholas II. 1894-1918), Tom 2, 1905-1918, Chast' 2, 1914-1918. Moscow, 2013. 
9. Lazarev V.V. Pravo i revolyutsiya (Law and revolution). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovre-mennost', 2017, No. 2, pp. 48-60. 
10. Ot redaktsii. O diskussii, vyzvannoy stat'yey-prezentatsiyey doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, pro-fessora, Zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki Rossiyskoy Federatsii V.V. Lazareva «Pravo i revolyutsiya» (From the editors. On the discussion, caused by the presentation of doctor of law, professor, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation V.V. Lazarev "Law and Revolution"). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 12. 
11. Otrecheniye Nikolaya II. Vospominaniya ochevidtsev, dokumenty (The abdication of Nicholas II. Memoirs of eyewitnesses, documents), pod red. P.Ye.Shchegoleva. Leningrad, Krasnaya gazeta, 1927. 
12. Pervoye zasedaniye Orgkomiteta, posvyashchennoye 100-letiyu Revolyutsii 1917 g. (The first meeting of the Organizing Committee dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Revolution of 1917). Sayt Rossiyskogo istoricheskogo obshchestva. URL: https://historyrussia.org/proekty/100-letie-revolyutsii-1917-goda/pervoe-zasedanie-organizatsionnogo-komiteta-po-podgotovke-i-provedeniyu-meropriyatij-posvyashchennykh-100-letiyu-revolyutsii-1917-goda.html. 
13. Slovar' inostrannykh slov (Dictionary of foreign words). 15-ye izd., ispr. Moscow, Rus. yaz., 1988. 
14. Sotsiologicheskiy entsiklopedicheskiy slovar'. Na russkom, angliyskom, nemetskom, frantsuzs-kom i cheshskom yazykakh (Sociological encyclopedic dictionary. In Russian, English, German, French and Czech), redaktor-koordinator – akademik RAN G.V. Osipov. Moscow, INFRA M-Norma, 1998. 
15. Shul'gin V.V. Dni: zapiski (Days: notes). Belgrad, Izd-vo M.A. Suvorina, 1925. 
16. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva: istoriko-tsivilizatsionnyy podkhod (The es-sence of the rule-of-law state: the historical-civilizational approach). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2012, No. 4 (30), pp. 8-16.
Received: 05.02.2019
DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEAS OF J.K. BLUNTSCHLI
MAZITOV Artur Ildusovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
J.K. Bluntschli was born in 1808. J.K. Bluntschli is a distinguished Swiss legal scholar, one of the founders of the Institute of International Law. He wrote many works on theory of state and law, international law, the genesis and typology of states, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science, a member of Moscow University and many other scientific communities. The fact that the fundamental tenets of his theory were founded during the initial period of his work is of great interest for researchers of the multifaceted creative heritage of J.K. Bluntschli. J.K. Bluntschli became a famous person for his time, not only as a lawyer and as a scholar. During his life, he managed to become a legislator, to work as a civil servant, a legal adviser, an advisor to sovereigns, a clergy and a head of the synod, he became famous as a party leader, an agitator, a popular orator and a publicist, a representative of his people and, at the same time, a reputed statesman, an author of newspapers articles, he became famous as a member of diplomatic conferences, and even a head of a public assembly. However, wherever this talented person appeared and worked, he found positive solution of problems both with regard to legislation, and with regard to teaching law and politics, exercising freedom of conscience and religion, and raising the level of political culture of people.
Key words: Bluntschli, Swiss law, theory of law, political doctrines, political science, international law, natural law, historical theory, natural theory, organic theory.
References
1. Kamarovskiy L.K. Pamyati Blyunchli (In memory of Bluntschli). Moscow, Tipografiya A.I. Ma-montova, 1882.
2. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar' Brokgauza i Yefrona (Encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron). V 86 t. T.2 / sost. S.A. Vengerov. St. Petersburg, Brokgauz-Yefron, 1890.
3. Blyunchli I.K. Istoriya obshchego gosudarstvennogo prava i politiki ot XVI veka po nastoyash-cheye vremya (The history of general state law and politics from the XVI century to the present). St. Petersburg, Izdatel'stvo O.I. Baksta, 1874.
4. Blyunchli I.K. Antropologicheskiye ocherki ucheniy o prave i gosudarstvo (Anthropological es-says on theory of law and state). St. Petersburg, 1867.
Received: 22.07.2018
THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PROBLEMS OF ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS: CONCEPT AND CLASSIFICATION
MOISEEV Alexander Vladimirovich
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
The essential and substantive characteristic of alternative sanctions is impossible without the definition of the concept “alternative sanction” itself and the classification of alternative sanctions. Despite the fact that alternative sanctions are in the norms of the current legislation, they are poorly developed both at the branch and general legal levels as a theoretical and legal construction. The study of alternative sanctions is also complicated due to the lack of a generally accepted concept “sanction of legal liability”. All this necessitates a general theoretical definition of the concept “sanction of legal liability norm”, which is an obligatory structural element of a legal norm, while substantive elements are both negative measures and positive legal liability measures. The main problem of determining alternative sanctions is the fact that on the whole, scholars formulate its concept as an opportunity to choose a type of measure of state and legal impact from the legal liability norm provided for in a particular sanction. The legal nature of alternative sanctions, which is not only a form of sanction of the legal liability norm, but also an independent structural element of the legal norm, remains outside scientists’ attention. In this regard, the need to identify common and distinctive features of the alternative sanction is being updated. Specific features of alternative sanctions include qualitative and quantitative characteristics of measures of state and legal impact, as well as paired relationship between alternative sanctions and mandatory sanctions at the qualitative level of alternativeness. The alternative sanction must be understood as a structural element of a legal liability norm, which gives the right to mandatory choice of a specific measure of state and legal impact among two or more of those listed in this norm, the duration of action and the extent of which are expressed through relatively definitive or absolutely definitive sanctions. Alternative sanctions can be classified both according to some general grounds for classifying the sanctions of legal norms, and such a specific feature of an alternative sanction, as the level of alternativeness.
Key words: sanctions, legal norms, legal liability, alternative, mandatory, absolutely definitive sanctions, levels of alternativeness. 
References
1. Ugolovnyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 13.06.1996 No. 63-FZ (redaktsiya ot 12.11.2018) (Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of June 13, 1996 No. 63-FZ (as amended on November 12, 2017). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1996, No. 25, Art. 2954.
2. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii (chast' pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 No. 51-FZ (redaktsiya ot 03.08.2018) (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (part one) of 11/30/1994, No. 51-FZ (as amended on 08.08.2018). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1994, No. 32, Art. 3301.
3. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii (chast' vtoraya) ot 26.01.1996 No. 14-FZ (redaktsiya ot 29.07.2018) (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part Two) of January 26, 1996 No. 14-ФЗ (as amended on July 29, 2017). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1996, No. 5, Art. 410.
4. Semeynyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 29.12.1995 No. 223-FZ (redaktsiya ot 03.08.2018) (The Family Code of the Russian Federation of December 29, 1995, No. 223-FZ (as amended on August 3, 2018). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1996, No. 1, Art. 16.
5. Trudovoy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 30.12.2001 No. 197-FZ (redaktsiya ot 11.10.2018) (Labor Code of the Russian Federation of December 30, 2001 No. 197-FZ (as amended on October 11, 2018). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2002, No. 1 (Chast' 1), Art. 3.
6. Kodeks administrativnogo sudoproizvodstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 08.03.2015 No. 21-FZ (re-daktsiya ot 19.07.2018) (Code of Administrative Procedure of the Russian Federation of March 8, 2015 No. 21-FZ (as amended on 07.19.2018). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2015, No. 10, Art. 1391.
7. Kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ob administrativnyh pravonarusheniyah ot 30.12.2001 No. 195-FZ (redaktsiya ot 28.11.2018) (Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses of Decem-ber 30, 2001 No. 195-FZ (as amended on November 28, 2017). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Ros-siyskoy Federatsii, 2002, No. 1 (Chast' 1), Art. 1.
8. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 18.12.2001 No. 174-FZ (redaktsiya ot 12.11.2018) (Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation of December 18, 2001 No. 174-FZ (as amended on November 12, 2017). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2002, No. 1 (Chast' 1), Art. 4921.
9. Grazhdanskiy protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 14.11.2002 No. 138-FZ (redaktsiya ot 03.08.2018) (Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation of 14.11.2002, No. 138-FZ (as amended on 03.08.2018). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2002, No. 46, Art. 4532.
10. Federal'nyy zakon ot 27.07.2004 No. 79-FZ (redaktsiya ot 30.10.2018) «O gosudarstvennoy grazhdanskoy sluzhbe Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (Federal Law of July 27, 2004 No. 79-FZ (as amended on 10.30.2018) “On the State Civil Service of the Russian Federation”). Sobranie zakono-datel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2004, No. 31, Art. 3215.
11. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 07.09.2010 No. 1099 (redaktsiya ot 02.03.2018) «O merah po sover-shenstvovaniyu gosudarstvennoy nagradnoy sistemy Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (vmeste s «Polozheniem o gosudarstvennyh nagradah Rossiyskoy Federatsii», «Statutami ordenov Rossiyskoy Federatsii, polozheniyami o znakah otlichiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, medalyah Rossiyskoy Federatsii, pochetnyh zvaniyah Rossiyskoy Federatsii, opisaniyami nazvannyh gosudarstvennyh nagrad Rossiyskoy Federatsii i nagrudnyh znakov k pochetnym zvaniyam Rossiyskoy Federatsii») (Presidential Decree of 07.09.2010, No. 1099 (as amended on 03/02/2018) “On measures to improve the state award system of the Russian Federation” (along with the “Regulations on State Awards of the Russian Federation”, “Statutes of Orders of the Russian Federation, provisions on insignia of the Russian Federation, medals of the Russian Federation, honorary titles of the Russian Federation, descriptions of the mentioned state awards of the Russian Federation and badges to the honorary titles of the Russian Federation "). Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2010, No. 37, Art. 4643.
12. Bazylev B.T. Sushchnost' sanktsiy v sovetskom prave (The essence of sanctions in Soviet law). Pravovedenie, 1976, No. 5, pp. 32-38.
13. Bazylev B.T. Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost' (teoreticheskie voprosy) (Legal responsibility (theoretical issues), Krasnoyarsk, Izdatel'stvo Krasnoyarskogo universiteta, 1985.
14. Baytin M.I. Sushchnost' prava (Sovremennoe normativnoe pravoponimanie na grani dvuh vekov) (The essence of law (Modern normative legal understanding on the verge of two centuries), Saratov, 2001, pp. 416.
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16. Gogin A.A. Teoretiko-pravovye voprosy nalogovoy otvetstvennosti (Theoretical and legal issues of tax liability), Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie nauchnoy stepeni kandidata yuridicheskih nauk, Saratov, 2002. pp. 234.
17. Kurylev S.V. Sanktsiya kak element pravovoy normy (Sanction as an element of a legal norm). Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1964, No. 8, pp. 47-55.
18. Leyst O.Eh. Sanktsiya i otvetstvennost' po sovetskomu pravu (teoreticheskie problemy) (The sanction and responsibility under the Soviet law (theoretical issues), Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1981. pp. 240.
19. Lipinskiy D.A., Musatkina A.A. Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost', sanktsii i mery zashchity (Legal liability, sanctions and protection measures), Monografiya, Samara, 2011, pp. 139.
20. Lipinskiy D.A., Musatkina A.A., Chuklova E.V. Al'ternativnye sanktsii v rossiyskom prave (Al-ternative sanctions in Russian law), Monografiya, Moscow, RIOR: INFRA-M, 2018, pp. 184.
21. Mal'ko A.V. Yuridicheskie pooshchreniya kak raznovidnost' sotsial'nyh sanktsiy (Legal incentives as a form of social sanctions). Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost', 1998, No. 4, pp. 76.
22. Musatkina A.A. Ponyatiye i vidy sanktsiy norm prava (The concept and types of law standards sanctions). Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost': istoriya i sovremennost', monografiya. Gl. 3, otv. red. D.A. Lipin-skiy. Tol'yatti, Izd-vo TGU, 2014, pp. 57-76.
23. Pigolkin A.S. Normy sovetskogo sotsialisticheskogo prava i ih struktura (Norms of Soviet socialist law and their structure). Voprosy obshchey teorii sovetskogo prava, Moscow, 1960, pp. 148-193.
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25. Satina Eh.A. Osnovnye aspekty pravovogo sanktsionirovaniya (Basic aspects of legal authoriza-tion), Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoy stepeni kandidata yuridicheskih nauk, Tambov, 2001, pp. 202.
26. Ssorin S.S. Al'ternativy v ugolovnom prave: ponyatie i vidy (Alternatives in criminal law: con-cept and types). Aktual'nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2011, No. 1, pp. 214-223.
27. Stal'gevich A.K. O krupnyh nedostatkah v sovetskoy yuridicheskoy literature (Major shortcom-ings in the Soviet legal literature). Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1949, No. 1, pp. 35.
28. Tihonova S.S. Nakazaniya kak bazovaya mera gosudarstvennogo prinuzhdeniya v ugolovnom prave: k voprosu o konstruirovanii edinichnyh i al'ternativnyh sanktsiy (Penalties as a basic measure of state coercion in criminal law: on the design of individual and alternative sanctions). Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki, 2012, No. 3 (10), pp. 58-61.
29. Tihonova S.S., Kiseleva I.A., Frolovichev Ya.V. Model' sanktsiy za prestupleniya opredelennoy kategorii: teoriya i zakonotvorcheskaya praktika (Model of sanctions for crimes of a certain category: theory and law-making practice). Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki, 2014, No. 2 (17), pp. 131-133.
30. Utkin V.A. Al'ternativnye sanktsii v Rossii: sostoyanie, problemy i perspektivy (Alternative sanctions in Russia: state, problems and prospects), Moscow, 2013. pp. 66.
31. Utkin V.A. Tendentsii primeneniya al'ternativnyh sanktsiy v Rossii (Trends in the application of alternative sanctions in Russia). Ugolovnaya yustitsiya, 2013, No. 1, pp. 75-80.
32. Hachaturov R.L., Lipinskiy D.A. Obshchaya teoriya yuridicheskoy otvetstvennosti (General theory of legal liability), Monografiya, St. Petersburg, izdatel'stvo R. Aslanova “Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press”, 2007, pp. 950.
Received: 21.01.2019
SPIRITUAL SECURITY IN MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY: THREATS AND WAYS TO OVERCOME THEM
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Foundation for Support of Science and Education in Law Enforcement Activities “University”, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SILANTIEVA Victoria Alexandrovna
Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, 
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The study of the characteristics of the spiritual component of national security in modern Russia, the conditions necessary to ensure it, as well as the existing threats to spiritual security, the forces and means of counteracting them becomes particularly relevant in today's reality. National security reflects the level of stability of the nation from the impact of internal and external factors that pose a threat to its existence. In recent years, the interest to the spiritual component of national security has grown significantly. In connection with this, there is an acute need for a scientific substantiation of the idea of the self-preservation of the peoples of Russia in the form of a system of measures, mechanisms and instruments for ensuring Russia's national security. It is necessary to expand state cultural, ideological, scientific, educational, information and, in some cases, religious resources in order to promote the traditional value system and limit the influence of spiritual values and life priorities alien to the mentality of the Russian nation. The organic composition of independence and reasonable borrowing is a necessary condition for ensuring the spiritual sovereignty of modern Russia.
Key words: national, spiritual security, factors of ensuring national security, system of factors, spirituality, national security, security.
References
1. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 31 dekabrya 2015 goda № 683 "O Strategii natsion-al'noy bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 31, 2015 No. 683 “On the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation”), Sobra-niye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2016, No. 1 (ch. II), St. 212.
2. Aleksandrova A. Kolichestvo nishchikh v Rossii budet uvelichivat'sya s kazhdym godom (The number of beggars in Russia will increase every year). URL: http://www.mk.ru/ econom-ics/2017/12/22/kolichestvo-nishhikh-v-rossii-budet-uvelichivatsya-s-kazhdym-godom.html (accessed date: 07.04.2018).
3. Bespalenko P.N. Dukhovnaya bezopasnost' v sisteme natsional'noy bezopasnosti sovre-mennoy Rossii: problemy institutsionalizatsii i modeli resheniya (Spiritual security in the system of national security of modern Russia: the problems of institutionalization and the model of solution), avtoref. dis. … d-ra polit. nauk. Rostov-na-Donu, 2009.
4. Buyanov V.S. Dukhovnaya bezopasnost' Rossii (Spiritual Security of Russia), Missiya konfessiy, 2017, No. 23, pp. 22-27.
5. Vasil'yev A.I., Sal'nikov V.P., Stepashin S.V. Natsional'naya bezopasnost' Rossii: konstitutsion-noye obespecheniye (National Security of Russia: Constitutional Support). Seriya: «Bezopasnost' cheloveka i obshchestva». St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 1999.
6. Voz'mitel' A.A. Dukhovnaya bezopasnost' (Spiritual security), Stanovleniye yevraziyskoy bezo-pasnosti, pod red. V.N. Kuznetsova. Moscow, 2005.
7. Galiyev F.KH. Pravovaya kul'tura i voprosy vospitaniya uvazhitel'nogo otnosheniya k Konstitutsii strany (Legal culture and issues of education of respectful attitude to the Constitution of the coun-try), Realizatsiya polozheniy Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii v zakonodatel'stve, materialy Mezh-dunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 10-letiyu Konstitutsii Ros-siyskoy Federatsii. CH.1. Chelyabinsk, Izd-vo YUUrGU, 2003, pp. 87-88.
8. Galiyev F.KH. Pravovaya kul'tura: sotsial'no-filosofskiye problemy (Legal Culture: Socio-Philosophical Problems), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 7, pp. 182-191.
9. Zakhartsev S.I., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K., Sal'nikov M.V., Tret'yakov I.L. Suverenitet Rossiyskoy Federatsii: sovremennyye ugrozy i obespecheniye natsional'noy bezopasnosti (Sove-reignty of the Russian Federation: modern threats and ensuring national security), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 12, pp. 69-94.
10. Zakhartsev S.I., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K., Sal'nikov M.V., Tret'yakov I.L. Suverenitet Rossiyskoy Federatsii: sovremennyye ugrozy i obespecheniye voyennoy bezopasnosti (Sovereignty of the Russian Federation: modern threats and ensuring military security), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2017, No. 1, pp. 120-139.
11. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Zashchita prav cheloveka v informatsionnom prostranstve (Protection of human rights in the information space), Strategicheskiye prioritety, 2018, No. 1, pp. 62-70.
12. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Informatsionnoye prostranstvo kak novaya global'naya ugroza chelovechestvu i yego pravam: filosofskiy i pravovoy podkhody (Information space as a new global threat to mankind and its rights: philosophical and legal approaches), Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2015, No. 8, pp. 11-19.
13. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov P.P., Ger O.Ye., Kayzer A.G., Reuf V.M. Sovetskuyu ideologiyu pod-vergli ostrakizmu. A chto vzamen? (politiko-pravovoy aspekt) (The Soviet ideology was ostracized. And what in return? (politico-legal aspect), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 7, pp. 57-75.
14. Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Gosudarstvennyy suverenitet kak kom-pleksnaya problema sovremennosti (State sovereignty as a complex problem of our time), Yuridi-cheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 3, pp. 59-65.
15. Kolyadin A.M. Politicheskaya elita i natsional'no-gosudarstvennaya ideologiya (Political elite and national-state ideology), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2016. No. 12. pp. 178-184.
16. Kolyadin A.M. Sub"yektnost' politicheskogo klassa i yego sotsial'naya znachimost' (The subjec-tivity of the political class and its social significance), monografiya, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2015.
17. Ozhegov S.I. Tolkovyy slovar' russkogo yazyka (Explanatory dictionary of the Russian lan-guage). Moscow, 2012.
18. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoye obshchestvovedeniye (Legal social science), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018.
19. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva. Osnovnyye kontseptsii pravovogo gosu-darstva i ikh analiz (The essence of the rule-of-law state. Basic concepts of the rule-of-law state and their analysis). Saarbryukken, 2012.
20. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyaniye, puti pereosmysleniya (Theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: status, ways of rethinking), Lex Russica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 14-25.
21. Sal'nikov V.P. Nezrimoye vtorzheniye. Negativnoye vozdeystviye informatsii na soznaniye che-loveka (Invisible invasion. The negative impact of information on human consciousness), Zashchita i bezopasnost', 1999, No. 1, pp. 26-27.
22. Sal'nikov V.P., Silant'yeva V.A. Pravovoye regulirovaniye migratsionnykh protsessov v Rossii (Legal Regulation of Migration Processes in Russia), Migratsionnoye pravo, 2017, No. 3, pp. 13-17.
23. Silant'yeva V.A. Politicheskaya sotsializatsiya studencheskoy molodezhi v sovremennykh uslo-viyakh (Political socialization of student youth in modern conditions), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 11, pp. 139-150.
24. Silant'yeva V.A. Regulirovaniye migratsionnykh protsessov kak osnova natsional'noy bezopas-nosti Rossii (Regulation of migration processes as the basis of Russia's national security), Istori-cheskaya i sotsial'no-obrazovatel'naya mysl', 2016, T. 8, No. 3/1, pp. 22-27.
25. Khabibulin A.G., Abdrakhmanov A.I. MVD v informatsionnom pole narastayushchey glo-bal'noy napryazhennosti (Ministry of Internal Affairs in the information field of increasing global tension), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 1, pp. 23-31.
26. Shobodoyeva A.V. Osnovy teorii natsional'noy bezopasnosti (Fundamentals of the theory of na-tional security), kurs lektsiy. Irkutsk, Baykal'skiy gos. un-t ekonomiki i prava, 2015.
Received: 20.01.2018
ON THE RATIO OF THE ORIGIN, THE SOURCE AND THE FORM OF LAW IN MODERN THEORETICAL JURISPRUDENCE
SPIRIN Mikhail Yuryevich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law and International Law of Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Despite their fundamental differences, both monistic and pluralistic approaches to the problem of correlation of the source of law and the form of law possess similar specific features, because they do not assume the possibility of a logical structure of interaction between the origin of law, the source of law and the form of law as the interconnected and interrelated independent categories on the grounds of strong-willed conception of law formation. The law forming factors, which are objectively existing and influencing subjects of legislature are defined by origins of law. The source of law is an external expression (indication outside) of will of the subject of legislative activity at the time of making a decision on creation the norms of law and confirming them within a certain form. At the same time, the form of law should be presented as a formal (formalized) cover of grouped legal norms necessary for the subsequent realization of law and its interpretation. According to it, a linear logical structure of categories incoincident by their value and content “the origin of law” – “the source of law” – “the form of law” can be used for potential unification of theoretical and practical positions on the corresponding problem.
Key words: origin, source, form of law, monistic approach, pluralist approach, will of the subject of law-making, volitional conception of law forming.
References
1. Petrazhitskiy L.I. Teoriya prava i gosudarstva v svyazi s teoriyey nravstvennosti (Theory of law and state in connection with the theory of morality). Ch. 2. Moscow, Yurayt, 2016. 
2. Zivs S. L. Istochniki prava (Sources of law). Moscow, Nauka, 1981. 
3. Baytin M.I. Sushchnost' prava (sovremennoye normativnoye pravoponimaniye na grani dvukh vekov) (The essence of law (modern regulatory legal thinking on the verge of two centuries). Izd. 2-ye, dop. Moscow, Izdat. dom «Pravo i gosudarstvo», 2005. 
4. Vasil'yeva T.A. Ponyatiye i znacheniye istochnika prava (The concept and value of the source of law). Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta im. V.N. Tatishcheva, 2010, No. 73, pp. 37-44. 
5. Bolgova O.S. Osnovnyye istochniki prava (The main sources of law). Izvestiya Rossiyskogo go-sudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. A.I. Gertsena, 2009, No. 92, pp. 48-50. 
6. Izakson R.A. Aktual'nyye problemy istochnikov prava (Actual problems of sources of law). Vestnik Vostochno-Sibirskogo instituta MVD Rossii, 2014, No. 3 (70), pp. 12-20. 
7. Aleksandrova M.A. Resheniya Konstitutsionnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii kak istochnik ros-siyskogo prava (Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation as a source of Rus-sian law), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2017. 
8. Gadzhinova F.M. Istochniki prava i ikh sistema v sovremennom rossiyskom prave (Sources of law and their system in modern Russian law), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2004. 
9. Drobyshevskiy S.A., Dantseva T.N. Formal'nyye istochniki prava (Formal sources of law). Moscow, Norma, 2011.
10. Rudkovskiy V.A. Teoriya istochnikov prava: diskussionnyye momenty (Theory of sources of law: debatable moments). Vestnik Saratovskoy gosudarstvennoy yuridicheskoy akademii, 2015, No. 6 (107), pp. 23-28. 
11. Rudkovskiy V.A. Istochniki prava: problemy teorii (Sources of law: problems of theory). Vektor nauki TolGU. Seriya: Yuridicheskiye nauki, 2016, No. 4 (27), pp. 73-75. 
12. Kalinin A.YU., Komarov S.A. Forma (istochnik) prava kak kategoriya v teorii gosudarstva i pra-va (Form (source) of law as a category in theory of state and law). Pravovedeniye, 2000, No. 6, pp. 3-10. 
13. Marchenko M.N. Istochniki prava (Sources of law). Moscow, Prospekt, 2005. 
14. Marchenko M.N. Istochniki prava (Sources of law). 2-ye izd., pererab. Moscow, Norma, 2014. 
15. Petrov K.V. Ob istochnikakh i formakh prava v postsovetskom pravovedenii (On the sources and forms of law in the post-Soviet jurisprudence). Leningradskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2009, No. 1 (15), pp. 61-75. 
16. Reutov V.P. Tipy pravoponimaniya i problema istochnikov i form prava (Types of law and the problem of sources and forms of law). Vestnik Permskogo universiteta, 2010, No. 2 (8), pp. 54-70. 
17. Drobyshevskiy S.A., Dantseva T.N. Formal'nyye istochniki prava (Formal sources of law). Moscow, Norma, 2011. 
18. Ivanyuk O.A. Istochniki prava: problema opredeleniya (Sources of law: the problem of defini-tion). Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2007, No. 9 (129), pp. 142-150. 
19. Lapayeva V.V. Razlichnyye tipy pravoponimaniya: analiz nauchno-prakticheskogo poten-tsiala (Different types of legal understanding: analysis of scientific and practical potential). Zakonodatel'stvo i ekonomika, 2006, No. 4, pp. 5-15. 
20. Miroshnik S.V. Istochnik prava i forma prava: sootnosheniye ponyatiy (The source of law and the form of law: relationship of concepts). Probely v rossiyskom zakonodatel'stve, 2013, No. 5, pp. 35-37. 
21. Korkunov N.M. Lektsii po obshchey teorii prava (Lectures on the general theory of law). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press, 2003. 
22. Kashanina T.V. Struktura prava (Structure of law). Moscow, Prospekt, 2013. 
23. Ivanyuk O.A. Istochniki prava: problema opredeleniya (Sources of law: the problem of defini-tion). Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2007, No. 9 (129), pp. 142-150.
Received: 24.01.2019
THE CAUSES OF CONTRADICTIONS IN LAW INTERPRETATIVE ACTIVITIES
TEREKHOV Evgeniy Mikhailovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of State Law Disciplines of the Balakovo Branch of the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The increasing demand for certain forms of legal activity is explained by the enhanced need for them in the process of the state law development of society and the formation of the rule-of-law state in our country. One of such forms is law interpretative activity, which is hardly studied in modern law science, which indicates that its potential is undervalued for the further improvement of the rule-of-law state in Russia, and also indicates the relevance of researches in this direction. Undoubtedly, in order to achieve their goals and objectives, law interpretative activities must be of high quality, but it is not always possible to achieve it, and it has its own well-explained reasons. Therefore, the problem of the emergence of various undesirable results of law interpretative activities, which lead to negative legal consequences and reduce their general condition, requires a lot of research attention. The results of such researches can be useful in general for increasing the efficiency of law interpretative activities, and in particular for improving the official interpretation of legal norms.
Кey words: legal activities, law interpretative activities, interpretation of law, interpretative act, interpretive practice, Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.
References
1. Vystupleniye V.V. Putina pri predstavlenii yezhegodnogo Poslaniya Prezidenta RF Federal'nomu Sobraniyu RF 8 iyulya 2000 goda (Putin’s report while delivering the annual Address of the Presi-dent of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on July 8, 2000). Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2000, 11 iyulya.
2. Lebedeva N. Mama mozhet. Kogda v Rossii voydut v modu mnogodetnyye sem'i? (Mama can do it. When will large families come into vogue in Russia?). Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2017, 30 noyabrya.
3. Resheniye Federal'noy antimonopol'noy sluzhby RF ot 24.07.2015 g. po delu № K-889/2015 «O narushenii zakonodatel'stva RF o kontraktnoy sisteme v sfere zakupok» (Decision of the Federal Antimonopoly Service of the Russian Federation of July 24, 2015 in case No. K-889/2015 “On vi-olation of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the procurement contract system”). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/ online.cgi?req =doc&base = RGSS&n=24920#00610308084872 44625 (accessed date: 16.04.2018).
4. Pis'mo Minekonomrazvitiya RF ot 19.09.2016 g. № D28i-2590 «Ob ob"yedinenii v odin lot proyektnykh i izyskatel'skikh rabot (Letter of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation of September 19, 2016 No. D28i-2590 “On merging design and survey works into one lot). URL: http://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/71423206/ (accessed date: 16.04.2018).
5. Petrushev V.A. Problemy ofitsial'nogo normativnogo tolkovaniya prava v RF (Problems of the official regulatory interpretation of law in the Russian Federation). Akademicheskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2000, No. 2, pp. 4-8.
6. Zaloilo M.V., Ibragimova Yu.E. Sovremennyye problemy tolkovaniya prava (Modern problems of interpretation of law). Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava. 2016, No. 8 (236), pp. 78-95.
7. Semeynyy kodeks RF ot 29.12.1995 g. № 223-FZ (s izm. ot 29.12.2017 g. № 438-FZ) (The Fami-ly Code of the Russian Federation of December 29, 1995, No. 223-FZ (as amended on December 29, 2017, No. 438-ФЗ). Rossiyskaya gazeta, 1996, 27 yanvarya.
8. Pigolkin A.S. Tolkovaniye normativnykh aktov v SSSR (Interpretation of regulations in the USSR). Moscow, Gosyurizdat, 1962.
9. Garnik L.Yu. K voprosu o problemakh praktiki tolkovaniya norm prava (On the issue of the prac-tice of interpretation of law norms). Vestnik Nizhegorodskoy akademii MVD Rossii, 2015, No. 1 (29), pp. 231-236.
10. Zakon Sankt-Peterburga ot 29.09.2005 g. № 497-71 «Ob ofitsial'nom tolkovanii punktov 1, 3, 4 stat'i 17 Zakona Sankt-Peterburga «Ob Ustavnom Sude Sankt-Peterburga»» (Law of St. Petersburg of September 29, 2005 No. 497-71 «On the official interpretation of paragraphs 1, 3, 4 of Article 17 of the Law of St. Petersburg “On the Statutory Court of St. Petersburg”»). Sankt-Peterburgskiye ve-domosti, 2005, 6 oktyabrya.
Received: 22.07.2018
DISCRIMINATION OF SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES AS A DYSFUNCTION OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM
CHERNYKH Alexey Victorovich
Candidate of Law, First Vice-Rector of Moscow State Academy of Choreography, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The technological potential, which is mentioned in the Address of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of March 1, 2018, which is an essential element of social development, cannot be understood outside the terms associated with the concept of “technology”. However, it is necessary to state its uncertainty, which is especially pronounced in the legal sphere of social life. Considering the reality of discrimination against the background of “production” technologies of social technologies and based on their understanding as methods of influencing social relations, using special knowledge and skills in activities carried out in the course of positive social practice, aimed, in particular, at the fight against unlawful phenomena, it is necessary to recognize that they now need special attention of specialists. The antipodes of “social” are “antisocial” technologies as a way to use specially acquired knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out illegal activities, which makes it particularly important to create positive social technologies, as well as to identify and destroy antisocial technologies.
Key words: technological potential, technology, social and asocial technologies, legal regulation of technologies.
References
1. Informatsionno-pravovoye obespecheniye Garant (Information and legal support Guarant). Gruppa kompaniy «IRBiS».
2. Pavlovich O.N., Kharlampovich G.D. Osnovy tekhnologicheskikh proizvodstvennykh protsessov (Basics of technological production processes), Kurs lektsiy. Yekaterinburg, GOU VPO UGTU-UPI, 2005. 
3. Dubrovina N.A. Tekhnologicheskiy potentsial Samarskoy oblasti kak pokazatel' ekono-micheskogo razvitiya “kreativnoy ekonomiki” (Technological potential of the Samara region as an indicator of the economic development of “creative economy”). Ekonomicheskiye nauki, 2011, No. 1 (74), pp. 66-69. 
4. Ignatyuk N.A. Osnovy publichnogo ekonomicheskogo prava Rossii (Fundamentals of public eco-nomic law of Russia: textbook), uchebnoye posobiye. Yustitsinform, 2014. 
5. Ashmarina Ye.M., Ruchkina G.F. Ekonomicheskoye pravo kak innovatsionnaya tekhnologiya rossiyskoy pravovoy nauki (Economic Law as an Innovative Technology of Russian Legal Science). Voprosy ekonomiki i prava, 2011, No. 7, pp. 27 53.
6. Tumanyan YU.R., Ishchenko-Padukova O.A., Movchan I.V. Kriticheskiye sotsial'nyye tekhnolo-gii v sisteme ekonomicheskoy politiki (Critical social technologies in the system of economic policy). URL: http:// politi-kihttps://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kriticheskie-sotsialnye-tehnologii-v-sisteme-sovremennoy-ekonomicheskoy-politiki. 
7. Gazeta «Kommersant» (The newspaper "Kommersant"). URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/ doc/3805709. 
8. Poyasnitel'naya zapiska k proyektu ukaza Prezidenta RF "Ob utverzhdenii prioritetnykh napravle-niy razvitiya nauki, tekhnologiy i tekhniki Rossiyskoy Federatsii i perechnya kriticheskikh tekhno-logiy Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (Explanatory note to the draft decree of the President of the Russian Federation “On approval of the priority directions of development of science, technology and tech-nic of the Russian Federation and the list of critical technologies of the Russian Federation”). URL: http://portal.tpu.ru/departments/otdel/ontp/spr/Tab/prior_2011.htm. 
9. Legal Information Institute. URL: https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/31/800.209. 
10. Europeasn Commission. URL: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/industry/policy/key-enabling tech-nologies_en. 
11. Reznik YU. Chelovek i yego sotsial'nyye praktiki (Man and his social practices). URL: http://www.intelros.ru/pdf/chelovek/2008_4/6.pdf. 
12. Sotsial'nyye tekhnologii: opredeleniye, vidy, instrumentariy (Social technologies: definition, types, tools). URL: http://fb.ru/article/45214/sotsialnyie-tehnologii-opredelenie-vidyi-intsrumentariy.
Received: 22.01.2019
THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM
YARMIEVA Irina Tauzirovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The topical objective of the legal doctrine in the Russian Federation at the current stage of its development is the reference to the fundamental issues of functioning and development of the legal system. The legal system plays a significant role in developing the rule-of-law state. In scientific community, there is no unified approach in regard to the category of «legal system» as well as the structure of the legal system. The system-structural method of knowledge should be used together with considering the functions of the legal system. The functions of the legal system cover the main directions of the system impact on the external social environment. The main functions of the legal system are integrative, regulatory and protective ones. The achievements can be used in references in conducting further analysis of the structure and functions of the legal system.
Key words: law, legal system, social system, functions, structure, elements, system of law, classification, development, tendencies.
References
1. Aznagulova G.M. Pravotvorcheskaya praktika v pravovoy sisteme obshchestva (Law-making practice in the legal system of society). Novyy vzglyad. Mezhdunarodnyy nauchnyy Vestnik, 2014, No. 3, pp. 308-318. 
2. Gubaydullin A.R. Funktsii prava i pravovoy sistemy obshchestva (Functions of law and the legal system of society). Uchenyye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya, Gumanitarnyye nauki, 2013, T. 155, No. 4, pp. 27-36. 
3. Kartashov V.N. Vvedeniye v obshchuyu teoriyu pravovoy sistemy obshchestva (Introduction to the general theory of the legal system of society), tekst lektsiy. Ch. 1. Yaroslavl', Izd-vo Yarosl. un-ta, 1995. 
4. Kartashov V.N. Funktsii pravovoy sistemy obshchestva: opredeleniya i klassifikatsii (Functions of the legal system of society: definitions and classifications). Yaroslavskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet im. P.G. Demidova, 2009, No. 4, pp. 29-32. 
5. Malyshev B.V. Pravovaya sistema: elementnyy sostav i struktura (Legal system: the elemental composition and structure). Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2013, No. 2, pp. 30-35. 
6. Marchenko M.N. O priznakakh «sistemy» i sistemnom kharaktere prava (On the signs of the "sys-tem" and the systemic nature of law). Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta. Seriya «Yuridicheskiye nauki», 2010, No. 1, pp. 41-54. 
7. Matuzov N.I. Pravovaya sistema i lichnost' (Legal system and personality). Saratov, Izd-vo Sarat. un-ta, 1987. 
8. Novoselov V.I., Tikhomirov YU.A. Upravlencheskoye resheniya (Management decisions). Moscow, 1972. 
9. Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava (Problems of the theory of state and law), uchebnik, pod red. V.M. Syrykh. Moscow, Eksmo, 2008. 
10. Reutov V.P. O sootnoshenii funktsiy i struktur v pravovoy sisteme (On the ratio of functions and structures in the legal system). Vestnik Permskogo universiteta, 2001, No. 1, pp. 7-20. 
11. Reutov V.P. Funktsional'naya priroda sistemy prava (The functional nature of the legal system). Perm' , Izd-vo Perm. gos. un-ta, 2002. 
12. Rossiyskoye gosudarstvo i pravovaya sistema: sovremennoye razvitiye, problemy, per-spektivy (The Russian state and legal system: modern development, problems, perspectives). pod red. Yu.N. Starilova. Voronezh, Izd-vo Voronezh. un-ta, 1999. 
13. Skakun O.F. Obshcheye sravnitel'noye pravovedeniye: osnovnyye tipy (sem'i) pravovykh sis-temstran mira (General comparative law: the main types (families) of legal systems of the world). Kiyev, In Yure, 2008. 
14. Filosofskiy slovar' (Philosophical Dictionary), pod red. I.T. Frolova. Moscow, Politizdat, 1988.
Received: 20.02.2019
THE MAIN ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE AVIATION SUPERVISION AND FLIGHT SAFETY CONTROL IN RUSSIA AT THE PRESENT TIME
KORSHUNOV Alexey Sergeevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Civil Law of the St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, Chief State Inspector of the Administration of State Aviation Supervision and Supervision over Transport Security for the North-West Federal District of the Federal Service for Supervision of Transport, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the conditions of increasing the volume of civil and cargo air transportation, the issues related to the organizational and legal problems of state aviation supervision and flight safety control in modern Russia become particularly relevant. The study of these problems suggests that in Russia, based on taking into account domestic historical experience, effective and positive world examples, a separate department, independent of aviation departments should be determined or established; this department can be responsible for ensuring flight safety in the country, control over compliance with air laws and global legal and technical standards. Such a department could also organize investigations of accidents at all levels and, in order to improve flight safety, it could develop specific recommendations and suggestions.
Key words: state aviation supervision, regulatory and supervisory, activities, flight safety, civil aviation, historical experience, effective example, standards, recommended practice.
References
1. Ismagilov R.F., Ger O.Ye., Chislov A.I. Osobennosti liberalizatsii aviaperevozok v stranakh YEAES (Features of air transport liberalization in the EEU countries). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2016, No. 4, S, 128-132. 
2. Knivel' A.YA. Gotova li Rossiya k proverke IKAO? (Is Russia ready to check ICAO?). AviaSoyuz, 2014, No. 2. 
3. Tasun V.N. Bezopasnost' poletov trebuyet sovershenstvovaniya sistemy upravleniya GA (Flight safety requires the improvement of the CA management system). Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2014, 2 sentyabrya. 
4. Khalygov N.G., Khalygov N.B., Mursakulov N.N., Khalygov Kh.N. Bezopasnost' na aviatsi-onnom transporte: predpoletnyy dosmotr passazhirov i ikh ruchnoy kladi (Safety on aviation trans-port: preflight inspection of passengers and their hand luggage). Mir politki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 10, pp. 173-184. 
5. Khalygov N.G., Khalygov N.B., Mursakulov N.N., Khalygov Kh.N. Rol' ICAO, IATA i ACI v obespechenii aviatsionnoy bezopasnosti (The role of ICAO, IATA and ACI in ensuring aviation se-curity). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2016, No. 6, pp. 184-189. 
6. Khalygov N.G., Khalygov N.B., Mursakulov N.N., Khalygov Kh.N. Terrorizm na aviatsion-nom transporte: tipy ugroz i ikh istochniki (Terrorism in aviation transport: types of threats and their sources). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 10, pp. 143-154.
Received: 22.01.2019
STATE ADMINISTRATION IN THE FIELD OF HOUSING STOCK MODERNIZATION IN RUSSIAN CITIES
PROKOFIEV Konstantin Georgievich
Candidate of Law, Acting Rector of Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PETROV Petr Alekseevich
Deputy General Director of OOO Lider Consult Pravo, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SELIVERSTOV Ilya Nikolaevich
Investigator of the Kingisepp Interdistrict Investigative Department of the Investigative Division of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation in the Leningrad Region, Kingisepp, Leningrad Region, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The main strategic background of the complex of methods, principles and subjects of state administration of the operation and maintenance of the housing stock of Russian cities is a goal-setting block, so far it is necessary to single out the main, priority goal, which determines the unity of the entire set of technical, economic, legal, social and moral goals. This priority goal of the entire polysubject control system for the operation and maintenance of the housing stock is the goal of modernizing the latter, and this paper is devoted to it.
Key words: state, administration, housing stock, administrative law, civil law, moral.
References
1. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka (Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Legal science). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2015. 
2. Korobko V.I. Ekonomika gorodskogo khozyaystva (Economy of urban economy). Moscow, Akademiya, 2006. 
3. Masley S.E. Kompetentsiya organov mestnogo samoupravleniya v zhilishchnoy sfere (Compe-tence of local governments in the housing sphere), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Omsk, 2006. 
4. Osnovy upravleniya v organakh vnutrennikh del (Fundamentals of administration in internal af-fairs bodies), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2006. 
5. Ofitsial'nyy sayt Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii V.V. Putina (The official website of the Presi-dent of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin). URL: www.kremlin.ru (accessed date: 31.12.2018). 
6. Okhotskiy Ye.V. Teoriya i mekhanizmy sovremennogo gosudarstvennogo upravleniya (Theory and mechanisms of modern government). Moscow, Yurayt, 2013. 
7. Perov V.A. Razvitiye sistemy upravleniya kapital'nym remontom i modernizatsiyey zhilishchnogo fonda gorodov Rossii (Development of a system for the management of capital repairs and mod-ernization of the housing stock of Russian cities). St. Petersburg, 2011. 
8. Rudchenko I.I. Pravovoye regulirovaniye kommunal'nogo obsluzhivaniya: grazhdansko-pravovoy aspekt (Legal regulation of public services: civil law aspect). Krasnodar, 2008.
Received: 25.01.2019
LEGAL GLOBALIZATION OF PROPERTY RELATIONS:TRENDS AND DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
ALEYNIKOVA Anastasia Borisovna
Assistant Professor of the Department of Justice of the Penza State University, Lawyer, Deputy Head of Penza Region Branch «Aleynikov and Partners» Interregional Bar Association of the City of Moscow, Penza, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
When considering the impact of the universal globalization of social relations on national legal systems, it is impossible to ignore the Russian legal system. From this point of view, it becomes relevant to study the specifics of globalization phenomena characteristic to the sphere of law: their prerequisites, essential features, etc., while special attention should be paid to studying the characteristics of the impact of globalization processes on the legal regulation of property relations. Without a doubt, global law has not yet developed into a system that includes a stable set of “its own” norms, a certain circle of subjects, and its jurisdiction. Nevertheless, it is not quite possible to agree with the fact that it is impossible to talk about universally recognized sources of global law - humanity in many areas of law already has generally accepted (global) norms and adheres to them. However, a global (world) constitution or code of precedent, on the basis of which global and national norms could be differentiated, has not yet been adopted, a global judicial system, etc., has not been formed, although elements of all this are already evident. For states that have recently undergone a transitional period, it is important to fix exclusively legal mechanisms for the redistribution of property rights, where interested groups appeal to power, use it, or seek protection, creating systems of power patronage over property. This way in new market economies seems traditional, but political decisions on property signal that the government goes beyond the legal limits of its participation in the process of redistribution of property rights. Therefore, the question arises of the need for comprehensive legal regulation of property relations in the context of globalization.
Key words: property relations, globalization, complex legal regulation, redistribution mechanisms, judicial system.
References
1. Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 14.07.2015 № 21-P (Decree of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of July 14, 2015 No. 21-P). Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2015, No. 30, St. 4658. 
2. Boyko A.I. Sistemnaya sreda ugolovnogo prava (The system environment of criminal law), avto-ref. dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2008. 
3. Ryazanova O.Ye. Transformatsiya instituta sobstvennosti v usloviyakh globalizatsii ekonomiki (Transformation of the institution of property in a globalized economy), avtoref. dis. … d-ra ekon. nauk. Moscow, 2009. 
4. Korshunov N.M. Konvergentsiya chastnogo i publichnogo prava: problemy teorii i praktika (Convergence of private and public law: problems of theory and practice). Moscow, Norma: INFRA-M, 2011. 
5. Marchenko, M.N. Gosudarstvo i pravo v usloviyakh globalizatsii : monografiya (State and law in the context of globalization: a monograph). Moscow, Prospekt, 2013. 
6. Sergeyevskiy N.D. Russkoye ugolovnoye pravo (Russian criminal law), posobiye k lektsiyam. Chast' obshchaya. 11 izd. Petrograd : Tip. M.M. Stasyulevicha, 1915. 
7. Androsov I.V. Osobennosti transformatsii otnosheniy sobstvennosti v usloviyakh krizisnykh eta-pov tsiklichnosti razvitiya rynochnoy ekonomiki (Features of the transformation of property relations in the crisis stages of the cyclical nature of the development of a market economy). Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnyye nauki, 2010, Vyp. 83, No. 3, pp. 9-17. 
8. Bekbergeneva D. Ye. Otnosheniya sobstvennosti i ikh rol' v zhizni obshchestva (Property relations and their role in the life of society). Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2012, No. 13 (149), pp. 38-42. 
9. Yeletskiy N.D. Interesy Rossii v usloviyakh globalizatsii otnosheniy sobstvennosti i upravleniya (Russia's interests in the context of globalization of property and management relations). Arktika i Sever, 2018, No. 32, pp. 82-94. 
10. Yeremin A. R., Yefremova A.S. Globalizatsiya kak tendentsiya razvitiya sovremennogo prava (Globalization as a development trend of modern law). Sotsial'no-politicheskiye nauki, 2014, No. 4, pp. 34-36. 
11. Zvonarova O.S. Formirovaniye global'nogo prava kak megatendentsiya sovremennogo mirovogo razvitiya : tezisy doklada na teoretiko-metodologicheskom seminare sektora teorii prava i gosu-darstva IGP RAN 22 iyunya 2012 g. (Formation of global law as a megatrend of modern world de-velopment: theses of a report on the theoretical and methodological seminar of theory of law and state sector of the Institute of Civil Engineering of the Russian Academy of Sciences on June 22, 2012). URL: http://www.igpran.ru/about/subjects/theory_of_law/events/Zvonareva.thesises.pdf 
12. Zor'kin V. RF nuzhny izmeneniya v khozyaystvenno-ekonomicheskikh otnosheniyakh (Russia needs changes in economic relations). Rossiyskaya gazeta (Federal'nyy vypusk), 2012, 6 yanv. 
13. Luk'yanov S., Drapkin I. Global'nyye tsepochki sozdaniya stoimosti: effekty dlya integriruyush-cheysya ekonomiki (Global value chains: effects for an integrating economy). Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnyye otnosheniya, 2017, No. 4, pp. 16-25. 
14. Luttseva K.A., Osadchaya T.G. Vektor razvitiya ekonomicheskikh otnosheniy sobstvennosti v usloviyakh virtualizatsii ekonomiki (The vector of development of economic property relations in a virtualized economy). Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskiye yavleniya i protsessy, 2011, No. 11, pp. 127-133. 
15. Makuyev R.Kh. Nesostoyatel'nost' idei «ogranichennogo» suvereniteta (The failure of the idea of "limited" sovereignty). Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2008, No. 9, pp. 21-34. 
16. Nikiforov V.A. Mezhdunarodnoye torgovoye pravo v usloviyakh globalizatsii (International trade law in the context of globalization). Uchenyye zapiski Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo universi-teta. Seriya: Gumanitarnyye i sotsial'nyye nauki, 2008, No. 1, pp. 233-238. 
17. Khaustova M.G. Tendentsii razvitiya prava v usloviyakh globalizatsii (Trends in the development of law in the context of globalization). Problemy zakonnosti, 2013, No. 124, pp. 1-9. 
18. Yakovyuk I. V. Stvvshchnoshennia derzhavnoho suvereshtetu i nadderzhavnoi orhashzatsi vlady: postanovka pitannia, Orhashzatsii ta pravovi problemy zabezpechennia derzhavnoho suvereshtetu : mater. mizhnar. nauk.-prakt. konf. (Kharkyv, 27 ber., 2009). Kharkyv: Vyd. SPD FO Vapniarchuk N. Moscow, 2009, pp. 12-23. 
19. Michele Lee. Franchising in China: Legal Challenges When First Entering the Chinese Market, 19 AM. U. INT'L L. REv. 949. 
20. Luttwak Edward. The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge, MA/London: Belk-nap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009. Pp. xi, 498. 
21. Declaracion de Lideres del G20 Construyendo consenso para un desarrollo equitativo y sostenible G20. URL: https://www.g20.org/sites/ default/ files/declaracion_de_lideres_de_buenos_aires.pdf. 
22. Aznagulova G.M., Komarov S.A. Pravovaya politika natsional'nykh gosudarstv v usloviyakh globalizatsii i integratsii: stat'ya (Legal policies of national states in the context of globalization and integration: article). Sovremennyye global'nyye vyzovy i natsional'nyye interesy : materialy XV Lik-hachevskikh chteniy. St. Petersburg, 2015, pp. 527-529. 
23. Komarov S.A., Lapteva I.V., Titenkov D.I. Prava cheloveka i pravovaya infil'tratsiya idey Ye-vropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka v pravovuyu sistemu Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Human rights and legal infiltration of the ideas of the European Court of Human Rights into the legal system of the Russian Federation), monografiya. 2-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Ryazan', Kontseptsiya, 2015.
Received: 28.01.2019
PROBLEMS OF RECONCILIATION OF THE PARTIES IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Enforcement proceedings in all states, including the Russian Federation, have their own specifics, due, on the one hand, to the peculiarities of the national legal system, and, on the other hand, to the existing practice and legal conscience. The settlement agreement in the framework of enforcement proceedings is a special measure to resolve the disputed situation. A bailiff, possessing appropriate knowledge and sufficient information in a particular case, can reconcile different points of view and opposing interests, trying to achieve results in the interests of both parties. The court bailiff must be given the right to conduct conciliation procedures, as well as the right to approve the settlement agreement in enforcement proceedings. This will lead to the activation of conciliation procedures, the acceleration of the settlement agreement in the framework of enforcement proceedings and the settlement of disputes between the parties of enforcement proceedings.
Key words: reconciliation of the parties, enforcement proceedings, settlement agreement, bailiff, enforcement officer.
References
1. Proyekt programmy Minyusta Rossii ot 16.02.2011 «Dolgosrochnaya programma povysheniya effektivnosti ispolneniya sudebnykh resheniy na 2011–2020 gody» (The draft program of the Minis-try of Justice of Russia dated February 16, 2011 “A long-term program to improve the effectiveness of the execution of court decisions for the years 2011–2020”). URL: http://docs.pravo.ru/document/ view/10963602/5775593/ (accessed date: 31.03.2014). 
2. Federal'nyy zakon ot 2 oktyabrya 2007 goda № 229-FZ «Ob ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 14 oktyabrya 2014 goda № 307-FZ ) (Federal Law of October 2, 2007 No. 229-FZ “On Enforcement Proceedings” (as amended and added as of October 14, 2014 No. 307-FZ). Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2007, No. 41, Art. 4849. 
3. Tonkushina N.V. Primiritel'nyye protsedury i al'ternativnyye metody razresheniya pravovykh konfliktov na stadii ispolneniya sudebnykh resheniy (Conciliation procedures and alternative me-thods for resolving legal conflicts at the stage of execution of court decisions). Byulleten' Minister-stva yustitsii RF, 2009, No. 6, pp. 15-17. 
4. Que fait l'huissier de justice? Site Chambre Nationale des Huissiers de Justice. Belgique. URL: http://www.gerechtsdeurwaarders.be/index.php/fr/l-huissier-de-justice/activites (accessed date: 31.03.2014). 
5. Van den Oever V. Linksom of rechtsom: de gerechtsdeurwaarder als mediator. Gerechtsdeur-waarder, 2010, No. 2, pp. 9. URL:http://www.public-i-writers.nl/uploads/Gerechtsdeurwaarder_ nr2_ 2eproef.pdf (accessed date: 31.03.2014). 
6. Kuzbagarova V.A. Primireniye storon v ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve (Reconciliation of the parties in enforcement proceedings), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. St. Petersburg, Izd-vo SPbGU, 2005.
Received: 20.02.2019
THE EVOLUTION OF THE IDEAS OF FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRIMINAL LAW IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE LATTER HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY
MINEEVA Tatyana Germanovna
Doctor of Law, Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Legal Science: Past and Present”, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
One of the most discussed issues in the Russian polemic in the late nineteenth century was the question of freedom of religion, and therefore, the change of criminal law doctrine in relation to crimes related to religion. Polar opinions among the educated part of the population and conservative sentiments of the bureaucracy and the Russian Orthodox Church made this topic a point of conflicts of political positions and personal ambitions. The paper presents the materials of discussions about freedom of religion, examples from Western European history of changing criminal law as a result of the development of philosophical and political views of society.
Key words: freedom of conscience, freedom of religion, criminal law.
References
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2. Belogrits-Kotlyarevskiy L.S. Prestupleniya protiv religii. Otvet I.Ya. Foynitskomu (Crimes against religion. Answer to I.Ya. Foinitsky). Yaroslavl', 1887.
3. Dorskaya A.A. Gosudarstvennoye i tserkovnoye pravo Rossiyskoy imperii: problemy vza-imodeystviya i vzaimovliyaniya (State and ecclesiastical law of the Russian empire: problems of in-teraction and mutual influence). St. Petersburg, Izdatel'stvo RGPU im. A.I. Gertsena, 2004.
4. Kistyakovskiy A.F. O prestupleniyakh protiv very (On crimes against the faith). Nablyudatel', 1882, No. 10, Oktyabr'.
5. Kistyakovskiy A.F. Elementarnyy uchebnik obshchego ugolovnogo prava (Elementary textbook of general criminal law). Izd. 3. Kiyev, 1872.
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7. Korkunov N.M. Sravnitel'nyy ocherk gosudarstvennogo prava inostrannykh derzhav (Compara-tive essay of state law of foreign countries). St. Petersburg, Tip. M.M. Stasyulevicha. 1890.
8. Mor T. Utopiya (Utopia). Moscow, Ladomir-Nauka, 1999.
9. Poznyshev S.V. Religioznyye prestupleniya s tochki zreniya religioznoy svobody (Religious crimes in terms of religious freedom). Moscow, 1906.
10. Protokoly ugolovnogo otdeleniya Sankt-Peterburgskogo yuridicheskogo obshchestva za 1881 g. (Protocols of the criminal department of the St. Petersburg Law Society for 1881). Zhurnal grazhdanskogo i ugolovnogo prava, 1882, May, pp. 9–11.
11. Pustoroslev P.P. Konspekt lektsiy po osobennoy chasti Russkogo Ugolovnogo prava (Summary of lectures on the special part of Russian Criminal Law). Vyp. 1. Yur'yev, 1902.
12. Sergiyevskiy N.D. K ucheniyu o prestupleniyakh religioznykh (To the doctrine of religious crimes). Zhurnal Ministerstva yustitsii, 1906, No. 4.
13. Sergiyevskiy N.D. Russkoye ugolovnoye pravo (Russian criminal law). Izd. 2. St. Petersburg, 1890.
14. Sobraniye uzakoneniy i rasporyazheniy pravitel'stva, izdavayemoye pri Pravitel'stvu-yushchem Senate (The collection of laws and orders of the government issued by the Governing Senate). 1905. 2 iyulya. № 117. Otdel 1. St. 1035.
15. Tagantsev N.S. Lektsii po russkomu ugolovnomu pravu (Lectures on Russian criminal law). Chast' obshchaya. Vyp. 2. St. Petersburg, 1888.
16. Chernyavskiy A. Religioznyye prestupleniya (iz lektsiy N. S. Tagantseva) (Religious crimes (from N. S. Tagantsev's lectures). St. Petersburg, 1905.
17. Bluntschli A. Geschichte des Rechts der religiosen Bekenntnissfreiheit. Elherfeld,1867.
18. Browne T. Religio medici. Cambridge. Univ. Press, 1956.
19. Hinschius. Staat und Kirche // Handbuch des offentlichen Rechts.
20. Martens W. Die Beziehungen der Ueberordnung, Nebenordnung und Unterordnung zwischen Kirche und Staat. 1877.
Received: 22.07.2018
ENFORCEMENT TO PROSTITUTION AS A SPECIAL KIND OF COMPULSION TO ACTIONS OF SEXUAL NATURE
PANTYUKHINA Inga Vladimirovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Criminal law and Procedure of the Ryazan State University named for S.A. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The doctrinal provisions research and the judicial practice analysis of application of Article 240 of the RF CC (the Russian Federation Criminal Code) led to the justification of necessity to divide the ways of involvement in prostitution into two groups. The first is composed of actions because of which the victims voluntarily are engaged in prostitution, the second are those, which have forced character. During the research of practice there have also been revealed actions directed to renew the occupation in prostitution, which correspond neither to involvement in prostitution, nor to enforcement to continuation of it. Their commission is qualified according to Article 240 of the RF CC, in that its broad interpretation and application are considered. In this regard, it is offered to include the enforcement to renew the prostitution occupation in the CC. The research of essence of enforcement to prostitution led to a conclusion that, firstly, it breaks sexual freedom of an individual, pushing public morality towards the background that indicates the necessity of changing the location of this encroachment in the internal structure of the RF CC. Still more protection priority shift towards sexual freedom of an individual is seen in violent involvement or enforcement to prostitution. Comparative analysis of forced and violent involvement in prostitution with signs of sex offenses allowed revealing their similarities, and most important, the unity of criminal and legal protection objects. In this regard, the author suggests excluding the specified crimes from Article 240 of the RF CC, and to include them in Chapter 18 of the RF CC, placing them in Article 133 of the RF CC, updating its name. Among crimes against public morality, it is offered to keep involvement in prostitution, which is not accompanied by enforcement or violent involvement in it.
Key words: public morality, prostitution, involvement in prostitution, enforcement to prostitution, violence, sexual offences, compulsion, acts of sexual nature.
References
1. Ganiyev Sh.A. Pravovoy analiz ponyatiya «zanyatiye prostitutsiyey» (Legal analysis of the con-cept of “engaging in prostitution”). Economics, management, law: socio-economic aspects of devel-opment: Collection of scientific articles. Roma, Italy, 29 yanvarya 2016 g. : tezisy doklada na konfe-rentsii. Rim : Edizioni Magi, 2016, pp. 124-127.
2. Gertel' Ye.V. Vidy psikhicheskogo nasiliya (Types of mental violence). Nauchnyy vestnik Omskoy akademii MVD Rossii, 2012, No. 3.
3. Gertel' Ye. Razgranicheniye ponyatiy «nasiliye» i «prinuzhdeniye» v ugolovnom prave (Distinc-tion between the notions of “violence” and “coercion” in criminal law). Ugolovnoye pravo, 2010, № 5.
4. Dal' V.I. Tolkovyy slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo yazyka (Explanatory dictionary of the living Great Russian language). V 4 t. T. 2. Moscow, 1996.
5. Yefremova T.O. Novyy slovar' russkogo yazyka (New dictionary of the Russian language). T. 2. Moscow, 2000.
6. Kadnikov B.N., Smirnov Yu.P. K voprosu ob ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti za vovlecheniye v za-nyatiye prostitutsiyey ili prinuzhdeniye k prodolzheniyu zanyatiya prostitutsiyey (On the issue of criminal liability for engaging in prostitution or forcing to continue prostitution). Vestnik Moskovs-kogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2015, No. 3.
7. Kurilova Ye.N. Prestupleniya v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnikh: vovlecheniye v zanyatiye pros-titutsiyey (Crimes against minors: involvement in prostitution). Sovremennyye tendentsii razvitiya nauki i tekhnologiy, 2016, No. 1-7.
8. Prigovor Abakanskogo gorodskogo suda Respubliki Khakasiya ot 12 maya 2014 g. po delu № 1-265/2014 (The verdict of the Abakan city court of the Republic of Khakassia of May 12, 2014 in case No. 1-265 / 2014). Sudakt. URL: https://www.sudact.ru/regular/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
9. Prigovor Avtozavodskogo rayonnogo suda g. Tol'yatti Samarskoy oblasti ot 19 avgusta 2011 g. po delu 1-№/11 (The verdict of the Avtozavodsky District Court of Tolyatti of the Samara Region, dated August 19, 2011, in case No. 1/11). Sudakt. URL: https://www.sudact.ru/regular/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
10. Prigovor Borovskogo rayonnogo suda Kaluzhskoy oblasti ot 29 iyunya 2012 g. po delu № 1-77/2012 (The verdict of the Borovsky District Court of the Kaluga Region of June 29, 2012 in case No. 1-77 / 2012). Sudakt. URL: https://www.sudact.ru/regular/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
11. Prigovor Industrial'nogo rayonnogo suda g. Barnaul ot 20 noyabrya 2017 g. po delu № 1-339/2017 (The verdict of the Industrial District Court of Barnaul on November 20, 2017 in case No. 1-339/2017). Sudakt. URL: https://www.sudact.ru/regular/ (accessed date: 17.01.2019).
12. Prigovor Kamyshinskogo gorodskogo suda Volgogradskoy oblasti ot 6 iyulya 2012 g. po delu № 1-283/2012 (The verdict of the Kamyshin city court of the Volgograd region dated July 6, 2012 in case No. 1-283 / 2012). Sudakt. URL: https://www.sudact.ru/regular/ (accessed date: 17.01.2019).
13. Prigovor Malopurginskogo rayonnogo suda Udmurtskoy Respubliki ot 15 iyulya 2013 g. po delu № 1-94(13) (The verdict of the Malopurginsky district court of the Udmurt Republic dated July 15, 2013 in case No. 1-94 (13). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
14. Prigovor Nyaganskogo gorodskogo suda Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga ot 14 noyabrya 2014 g. po delu № 1-216/2014 (The verdict of the Nyagansky City Court of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous district of November 14, 2014 in case No. 1-216 / 2014). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
15. Prigovor Petropavlovska-Kamchatskogo gorodskogo suda Kamchatskogo kraya ot 26 iyunya 2018 g. po delu № 1-322/2018 (The verdict of the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky City Court of the Kamchatka Territory of June 26, 2018 in case No. 1-322 / 2018). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
16. Prigovor Petropavlovska-Kamchatskogo gorodskogo suda Kamchatskogo kraya ot 22 maya 2018 g. po delu № 1-288/2018 (The sentence of the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky City Court of the Kamchatka Territory of May 22, 2018 in case No. 1-288 / 2018). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
17. Prigovor Sverdlovskogo rayonnogo suda g. Kostromy Kostromskoy oblasti № 1-374/2013 ot 25 sentyabrya 2013 g. po delu № 1-374/2013 (The verdict of the Sverdlovsk District Court of Kostroma of the Kostroma region No. 1-374 / 2013 dated September 25, 2013 in case No. 1-374 / 2013). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
18. Prigovor Sovetskogo rayonnogo suda g. Krasnoyarsk ot 20 dekabrya 2017 g. po delu № 1-444/2017 (The verdict of the Soviet District Court of Krasnoyarsk dated December 20, 2017 in case No. 1-444 / 2017). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
19. Prigovor Sovetskogo rayonnogo suda g. Krasnoyarsk ot 16 maya 2018 g. po delu № 1-300/2018 (The verdict of the Soviet District Court of Krasnoyarsk dated May 16, 2018 in case No. 1-300 / 2018). Sudakt. URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ (accessed date: 18.01.2019).
20. Ushakov D.N. Tolkovyy slovar' sovremennogo russkogo yazyka (Explanatory dictionary of the modern Russian language). Moscow, 2005.
Received: 22.01.2019
WAYS OF ENLARGING LAWYER’S POWERS WHILE PROVING IN RUSSIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PANKINA Inga Yuryevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure, Forensics and Legal Informatics of Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia.
 E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The quality of the lawyer’ work depends on his abilities, knowledge, professional experience and some other factors, but, nevertheless, the most important help is the range of the lawyer’ powers and, more particularly, the right to collect evidence by the lawyer. Within this article the problem of the lawyer’s work on collecting evidence will be considered, specific proposals on improvement the process of collecting evidence by the lawyer in criminal process will be made. The area of the criminal procedural legislation, regulating lawyer’s powers on collecting evidence is the most sensitive and the weakest spot for criticism by analysts. The process of collecting evidence by the lawyer within the framework of criminal procedure has to be regulated maximum, as far as it is possible, fully and accurately for realization of several criminal trial principles, including such as the presumption of innocence, providing the suspect with the right to defense, competitiveness of the parties, who have to operate not only at the stage of judicial proceedings, but also at the stage of preliminary investigation.
Key words: protection function, preliminary investigation, proving process, lawyer’s powers, lawyer investigation.
References
1. Doktrinal'naya model' ugolovno-protsessual'nogo dokazatel'stvennogo prava Rossiyskoy Federat-sii i kommentarii k ney (The doctrinal model of criminal procedural law of evidence of the Russian Federation and comments on it), pod red. A.S. Aleksandrova. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2015.
2. Dolya Ye.A. O dokazyvanii i dokazatel'stvakh (On proving and evidence). Ugolovno-protsessual'nyy kodeks RF: god pravoprimeneniya i prepodavaniya, materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, 2014, pp. 174-178.
3. .Konin V.V. Taktika professional'noy zashchity podsudimogo v sude pervoy instantsii (Tactics of professional defense of the defendant in the court of first instance), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Kaliningrad, 2003.
4. Kontseptsiya ugolovno-protsessual'nogo zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii (The concept of criminal procedure legislation of the Russian Federation). Gosudarstvo i pravo. Moscow, Nauka, 1992. No. 8, pp. 46-55.
5. Lupinskaya P.A. Sobiraniye dokazatel'stv. Ugolovno-protsessual'noye pravo Rossiyskoy Federat-sii (Collecting evidence. Criminal Procedure Law of the Russian Federation), uchebnik. pod. red. P.A. Lupinskoy. Moscow, 2013.
6. Martynchik Ye.G. Pravovyye osnovy advokatskogo rassledovaniya: sostoyaniye i perspektivy formirovaniya novogo instituta i modeli (Legal Basis of Attorney Investigation: State and Prospects of Forming a New Institute and Model). Advokatskaya praktika. Moscow, Yurist, 2012, No. 1, pp. 21-29.
7. Postanovleniye Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii №29 ot 30.06.2015 g. «O praktike primeneniya sudami zakonodatel'stva, obespechivayushchego pravo na zashchitu v ugolov-nom sudoproizvodstve» (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation No. 29 of June 30, 2015 “On the practice of the application by courts of legislation ensuring the right to protection in criminal proceedings”). Ofitsial'nyy sayt Rossiyskoy gazety. URL: https://rg.ru/2015/07/10/verhovniy-sud-dok.html.
8. Proyekt obshchey chasti UPK RF (podgotovlennyy GPU Prezidenta RF) (The draft of the general part of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation (prepared by the Presidential Ad-ministration of the Russian Federation). Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 1994, No. 9.
Received: 28.01.2019
“TEAM INVESTIGATION” IN THE CONTEXT OF GENERAL PROBLEMS OF THE INVESTIGATIVE BRANCH OF MODERN RUSSIA
TARASOV Aleksandr Alekseevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
The analysis of development of legal framework of the so-called “team (or group) investigation” since the middle of 1980s (under the Code of Criminal Procedure of RSFSR of 1960) till present (under the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation of 2001 with subsequent changes) allows to reveal general tendency to detailed regulation of relationship between investigators (and since 2010 interrogators as well) included in the investigation group (team). Such specification covered relations between investigators and the head of the investigation team, investigators themselves, between them and the persons carrying out operative detective activities for the same criminal case. Total reform of 2007 in the Russian preliminary investigation and accompanying changes in the structure of the investigative machine and prosecution led to weakening of the prosecutor’s role in law enforcement of preliminary investigation with simultaneous strengthening of the departmental beginning in its production. Such situation led to the actual reduction of procedural independence of any investigator, but especially it concerned the investigators participating in the investigation groups, but not accepting cases to their production. Common problems of the modern investigative organ of the country, in general, have negatively affected also the activity of the investigation teams, especially interdepartmental, and therefore significantly lowered research interest to this problem.
Key words: investigation group, investigation team, interrogation team, preliminary investigation, preliminary inquiry, prosecutor, head of the investigative body.
References
1. Tarasov A.A. Rassledovaniye prestupleniy gruppoy sledovateley: protsessual'nyye i taktiko-psikhologicheskiye problem (Investigation of crimes by a group of investigators: procedural and tac-tical and psychological problems). Samara : Izd-vo «Samarskiy universitet», 2000. 
2. Rukovodstvo dlya sledovateley (Guide for investigators), pod obshch. red. V.V. Mozyakova. Moscow, Izd-vo «Ekzamen», 2005. 
3. Sheyfer S.A. Dosudebnoye proizvodstvo v Rossii: etapy razvitiya sledstvennoy, sudebnoy i pro-kurorskoy vlasti (Pre-Trial Proceedings in Russia: Stages of Development of the Investigative, Judi-cial, and Prosecutorial Authorities), monografiya. Moscow, Norma: INFRA-M, 2013. 
4. Chigrin D.A. Gosudarstvennoye obvineniye v rossiyskom ugolovnom protsesse: problemy formi-rovaniya i podderzhaniya (sravnitel'no-pravovoye issledovaniye) (Public prosecution in the Russian criminal procedure: problems of formation and maintenance (comparative legal research), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Samara, 2018. 
5. Ugolovno-protsessual'noye pravo. Aktual'nyye problemy teorii i praktiki (Criminal procedure law. Actual problems of theory and practice), uchebnik dlya magistratury, pod red. V.A.Lazarevoy, A.A.Tarasova. 3-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, Izd-vo Yurayt, 2016. 
6. Rukovodstvo po rassledovaniyu prestupleniy (Guidelines for the investigation of crimes), nauch.-prakt. posobiye, otv. red. A.V. Grinenko. 2-ye izd., peresmotr. i dop. Norma, 2008. 
7. Proshlyakov A.D., Akhmatov I.I. Ponyatiye, priznaki i sistema ugolovno-protsessual'nykh pra-vootnosheniy (The concept, characteristics and system of criminal procedure legal relations), mono-grafiya, pod red. d-ra yurid. nauk., prof. V.S. Balakshina. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018.
Received: 12.02.2019
THE STRUCTURE OF PRIVATE FORENSIC METHODOLOGY: HISTORY OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS.PART II
MAKARENKO Ilona Anatolievna 
Doctor of Law, Professor, Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
EKSARHOPULO Alexey Alekseevich 
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ZAYNULLIN Ruslan Ildarovich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Director for Science of the Institute of Law, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Contemporary forensic methodology completes the course of forensics, giving its recommendations exclusively to the subjects of preliminary investigation and taking its own place in the system of science with its relatively isolated subject and cognitive means. Among its basic provisions, first of all one can distinguish the structure of private forensic methodology. Today, it is obvious that the study and analysis of legal science historical achievements and the practice of fighting crime, which have become the basis for solving  preliminary investigation tasks, and, on this basis, the definition of prospects for the private forensic methodology development are urgent. The basic element of any private (typical) method of investigation is its structure, because it expresses the most rational sequence of the investigator’s work in a criminal case. The structure has a direct practical meaning; it assists the implementation of theoretical provisions and practical recommendations of science, ensuring the most effective organization of investigative work.
Key words: forensic methodology, historical background, structure of the private forensic methodology, investigation of certain types of crimes, formation of forensic methodology, investigation stages.
References
1. Belkin R.S. Kurs kriminalistiki: obshchaya teoriya kriminalistiki (The course of forensics: general theory of forensics), V 3 t, T. 1. Moscow, Yurist", 1997. 
2. Gross G. Rukovodstvo dlya sudebnykh sledovateley kak sistema kriminalistiki (A guide for judi-cial investigators as the forensic system), 4-ye izd., dop. St. Petersburg, 1908. 
3. Vozgrin I.A. Kriminalisticheskaya metodika rassledovaniya prestupleniy (Forensic crime investi-gation technique). Minsk, 1983. 
4. Linovskiy V.A. Opyt istoricheskikh rozyskaniy o sledstvennom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve v Rossii (The experience of historical investigations on investigative criminal proceedings in Russia). Moscow, «LeksEst», 2001. 
5. Anushat E. Iskusstvo raskrytiya prestupleniy i zakony logiki (The art of detecting crimes and the laws of logic). Moscow, LeksEst, 2001. 
6. Chernova N. Posle pytok. Kak zhivut te, kto pobedil v Strasburgskom sude, i te, po vine kotorykh Rossiya tam proigrala (After tortures. How do those who won in the Strasbourg court live and those through whose fault Russia lost there). Novaya Gazeta, 2008, 31 iyulya. 
7. Larin A.M. Prezumptsiya nevinovnosti (Presumption of innocence). Moscow, Nauka, 1982. 
8. Vladimirov L.Ye. Ucheniye ob ugolovnykh dokazatel'stvakh (The doctrine of criminal evidence). Tula, Avtograf, 2000. 
9. Vyshinskiy A.YA. Teoriya sudebnykh dokazatel'stv v sovetskom prave (Theory of judicial evi-dence in Soviet law). Moscow, Gosyurizdat, 1950.
10. Hans Gross. Criminal investigation: a practical textbook for magistrates, police officers and lawyers. Gale, Making of Modern Law, 2010. 
11. Joachim Ciupka, Gunter Spies. Die gedankliche Arbeit des Kriminalisten bei der Rekonstruktion von Ereignisorten. Fachhochschule fur Verwaltung und Rechtspflege Berlin, 2008. 
Received: 12.10.2018
TO THE ISSUE OF THE CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OF JUVENILES (CASE STUDY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN)
MALIKOV Boris Zufarovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TAZETDINOV Radmil Rinatovich
Postgraduate of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The urgent task of the criminal law doctrine is to solve problems related to the implementation of the criminal responsibility of juveniles in its various forms: punishment, probation, release from punishment with the use of compulsory educational measures, and the use of humane measures of criminal law coercion. In practice, not all types of punishments are applied equally: deprivation of the right to be engaged in certain activities, correctional works, restriction of freedom are used extremely rarely. This is due, among other things, to the wide possibility of applying probation to minors. However, the most humane forms of implementation of criminal responsibility, expressed in releasing from punishment and putting in a closed special educational institution, are applied restrictedly, due to the lack of relevant provisions in criminal law. In addition, temporary detention centers for juvenile law-breakers of internal affairs bodies have the conditions for applying the specified sector of preventive work as a compulsory educational measure.
Keywords: juvenile, criminal responsibility, punishment, compulsory educational measures, closed special educational institutions.
References
1. Minimal'nyye standartnyye pravila Organizatsii Ob"yedinennykh Natsiy, kasayushchiyesya ot-pravleniya pravosudiya v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnikh (Pekinskiye pravila): prinyaty rezolyut-siyey 45/112 General'noy Assamblei ot 14 dek. 1990 g. Konventsii i soglasheniya (The United Na-tions Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules): adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/112 of 14 December 1990. Conventions and Agreements). Ofit-sial'nyy sayt Organizatsii Ob"yedinennykh natsiy. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_ conv/conventions/beijing_rules (accessed date: 10.10.2018). 
2. Rukovodyashchiye printsipy Organizatsii Ob"yedinennykh Natsiy dlya preduprezhdeniya pre-stupnosti sredi nesovershennoletnikh (Er-Riyadskiye rukovodyashchiye printsipy): prinyaty rezo-lyutsiyey 45/112 General'noy Assamblei ot 14 dek. 1990 g. Konventsii i soglashenii (United Nations guidelines on juvenile crime prevention (Riyadh guidelines): adopted by General Assembly resolu-tion 45/112 of 14 December 1990. Convention and Agreement). Ofitsial'nyy sayt Organizatsii Ob"yedinennykh natsiy. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/ juve-niles_deinquency_prevention (accessed date: 10.10.2018). 
3. Kashuba Yu.A. Pravovoy status nesovershennoletnikh, osuzhdennykh k lisheniyu svobody (The legal status of minors sentenced to imprisonment), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Rost. n/D, 1997. 
4. Orlov V.V. Osvobozhdeniye ot ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti nesovershennoletnikh: voprosy i real'nost' (Release from criminal liability of minors: issues and reality), monografiya. Lipetsk : Lipetskiy gos. ped. un-t, 2007. 
5. Polosukhina O.V. Uslovnoye osuzhdeniye k lisheniyu svobody v otnoshenii nesovershenno-letnikh (Probation in respect of minors), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Ryazan', 2013. 
6. Seredin A.A. Osvobozhdeniye nesovershennoletnikh ot ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti s pri-meneniyem prinuditel'nykh mer vospitatel'nogo vozdeystviya (The release of minors from criminal liability with the use of compulsory educational measures), monografiya, pod red. M.D. Davitadze. Voronezh : VI MVD Rossii, 2006. 
7. Abzemilova Z.R. Problemy primeneniya nakazaniya i inykh mer ugolovno-pravovogo kha-raktera k nesovershennoletnim: po materialam Respubliki Bashkortostan (Problems of application of pu-nishment and other measures of a criminal law character to minors: according to case study of the Republic of Bashkortostan), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2008. 
8. Valeyev A.KH. Uslovnoye osuzhdeniye nesovershennoletnikh (Probation of minors), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Chelyabinsk, 2003. 
9. Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoy statistiki (Federal State Statistics Service). URL: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/ (ac-cessed date: 10.10.2018). 
10. Svedeniya ITS MVD po RB o sostoyanii prestupnosti i pravoporyadka v Respublike Bash-kortostan (po itogam 2017 goda) (Information of the IC of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Bashkortostan on the state of crime and law and order in the Republic of Bashkortostan (at year-end of 2017). Ufa, 2018. Dokument opublikovan ne byl. 
11. Federal'nyy zakon "O vnesenii izmeneniy v otdel'nyye zakonodatel'nyye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii v svyazi s prinyatiyem Federal'nogo zakona O vnesenii izmeneniy v Ugolovnyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Ugolovno-protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii po voprosam sovershenstvovaniya osnovaniy i poryadka osvobozhdeniya ot ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti" ot 03.07.2016 № 326-FZ (Federal Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law On Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation on the improvement of the grounds and procedure for releasing from criminal liability” of 07/03/2016 No. 326-FZ). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_200705/ (accessed date: 10.10.2018). 
12. Federal'nyy zakon "O vnesenii izmeneniy v Ugolovnyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Ugolov-no-protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii po voprosam sovershenstvovaniya osnovaniy i po-ryadka osvobozhdeniya ot ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti" ot 03.07.2016 N 323-FZ (Federal Law “On Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation on the improvement of the grounds and procedure for releasing from criminal liability” dated 03.07.2016 No. 323-FZ). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/ cons_doc_LAW_200696/ (accessed date: 10.10.2018). 
13. Sudebnaya statistika Upravleniya Sudebnogo Departamenta v Respublike Bashkortostan (Judi-cial statistics of the Office of the Judicial Department in the Republic of Bashkortostan). URL: http://usd.bkr.sudrf.ru/modules.php?name=stat&rid=14 (accessed date: 10.10.2018). 
14. Prozumentov L.M. Sistema mer preduprezhdeniya retsidivnoy prestupnosti nesover-shennoletnikh nuzhdayetsya v sovershenstvovanii (The system of measures to prevent recurrent crime of minors needs to be improved). Kriminologiya: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, St. Petersburg, 2011, No. 4 (23), pp. 73-80. 
15. Federal'nyy zakon ot 24.06.1999 № 120-FZ «Ob osnovakh sistemy profilaktiki bez-nadzornosti i pravonarusheniy nesovershennoletnikh» (Federal Law of June 24, 1999 No. 120-FZ “On the Basics of the System for the Prevention of Non-Supervision and Juvenile Offenses”). URL: http://base.garant.ru/12116087/ (accessed date: 10.10.2018). 
16. Finansovo-ekonomicheskoye obosnovaniye proyekta federal'nogo zakona «O vnesenii iz-meneniy v otdel'nyye zakonodatel'nyye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii v chasti rasshireniya perechnya kategoriy nesovershennoletnikh, pomeshchennykh v tsentry vremennogo soderzhaniya dlya nesovershennoletnikh pravonarushiteley organov vnutrennikh del» (Financial and economic substantiation of the draft federal law “On making changes to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation in terms of expanding the list of categories of minors placed in temporary detention centers for juvenile offenders of the internal affairs bodies”). URL: http://www.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc&base=PRJ&n=126722 &rnd=F95DF34477E02FD9CBB3FAACB7CAF3CF&dst=100022&fld=134#016990418010391295 (accessed date: 03.12.2018). 
17. Otchet o rezul'tatakh raboty TSVSNP MVD po RB za 2017 god (Report on the performance of temporary detention centers for juvenile offenders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Republic of Bashkortostan for 2017). Ufa, 2017. Dokument opublikovan ne byl. 
18. Svedeniya FKU UII UFSIN Rossii po RB (po itogam 2017 goda) (Information of the Federal Governmental Institution “Corrective Service of the Directorate of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia in the Republic of Bashkortostan” (according to the results of 2017). Ufa, 2018. Dokument opublikovan ne byl. 
19. Red'kina Ye.A. K voprosu ob effektivnosti uslovnogo osuzhdeniya nesovershennoletnikh (On the issue of the effectiveness of crime punishment of minors). Izvestiya IGEA, 2006, No. 6, pp. 105-107. 
20. Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii po mezhvedomstvennomu vzaimodeystviyu organov i uchre-zhdeniy sistemy profilaktiki beznadzornosti i pravonarusheniy nesovershennoletnikh po voprosam okazaniya pomoshchi osuzhdennym nesovershennoletnim, otbyvayushchim nakazaniya, ne svya-zannyye s lisheniyem svobody, i nesovershennoletnimi, osvobozhdayushchimsya iz mest lisheniya svobody (Methodical recommendations on interdepartmental cooperation of bodies and institutions of the system for preventing neglect and juvenile delinquency on assistance to convicted juveniles serving sentences not related to deprivation of liberty and minors released from prisons), pod red. N.V. Seroshtanovoy. Moscow: ANO «TSNPRO», 2016. 
21. Karpov K.N. Inyye mery ugolovno-pravovogo kharaktera kak sredstvo protivodeystviya sover-sheniyu prestupleniy (Other criminal law measures as a means of countering crimes commission), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Omsk, 2011.
Received: 22.01.2019
JUDICIAL AUTHORITY IN THE MECHANISM OF NATIONAL SECURITY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
FOMIN Aleksey Aleksandrovich 
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of Saint Petersburg State University of Economics, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
It is possible to assess the essence of the judiciary, its main features, its place in the political and legal life of society, the importance in the system of human rights institutions by what functions are carried out by the judiciary and with what degree of efficiency. One of the aspects of the functional purpose of the judicial system – ensuring national security – remains out of the field of fundamental and in-depth research. Meanwhile, national security is a sphere of public relations in which layers of contradictions are concentrated, which grow not only into interpersonal, private conflicts that are resolved in the course of justice, but also conflicts of a public nature that pose a threat to national interests related to the maintenance of the regime of lawful legality in the sphere of governance, stability of state power, sovereignty, territorial integrity. Judicial activities in the field of strengthening national security require scientific rethinking and further development in the course of judicial and legal reform in the Russian Federation.
Key words: national security, judicial authority, state legal mechanism.
References
1. Balykova Ye.I. Instituty sudebnoy vlasti v sisteme politiko-pravovogo obespecheniya natsion-al'noy bezopasnosti (The institutions of the judiciary in the system of political and legal support of national security), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Rostov-na-Donu, 2007. 
2. Balykova Ye.I. Instituty sudebnoy vlasti v sisteme obespecheniya natsional'noy bezopasnosti (The institutions of the judiciary in the system of ensuring national security). Filosofiya prava, 2007, No. 4, pp. 146-148. 
3. Yershov V.V., Mikhalkin N.V. Sudebnaya vlast' i yeye reforma kak faktor natsional'noy bezopas-nosti Rossii (The judiciary and its reform as a factor of national security of Russia). Zakon i pravo, 2002, No. 7, pp. 7-13. 
4. Zagaynova S.K. Sudebnyye akty v mekhanizme realizatsii sudebnoy vlasti v grazhdan-skom i ar-bitrazhnom protsesse (Judicial acts in the mechanism of implementation of the judiciary in the civil and arbitration process). Moscow, Volters Kluver, 2007. 
5. Safonova V.Ye. Gosudarstvennoye yedinstvo i territorial'naya tselostnost' v sudebnykh reshe-niyakh: mezhdunarodnyye i konstitutsionno-pravovyye aspekty (State unity and territorial integrity in court decisions: international and constitutional legal aspects). Moscow, Rossiyskaya akademiya pravosudiya, 2008. 
6. Safonov V.Ye. Sudebnaya vlast' i natsional'naya bezopasnost' v istoricheskom izmerenii (Judicial power and national security in historical dimension). Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2009, No. 4, pp. 14-15. 
7. Sudebnaya reforma v Rossii na rubezhe XX?XXI vekov (Judicial reform in Russia at the turn of the XX-XXXI centuries), monografiya, pod red. V.A. Terekhina. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2017. 
8. Terekhin V.A. Sud v gosudarstvenno-pravovom mekhanizme obespecheniya prav i svobod che-loveka: teoriya i praktika (The court in the state legal mechanism of ensuring human rights and free-doms: theory and practice), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2013. 
9. Fomin A.A. Sudebnaya vlast' pri demokratii (Judicial power in a democracy). Leningradskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2016, No. 2, pp. 57-63. 
10. Khomyakov A.I. Voyennyye sudy v svete novoy gosudarstvennoy politiki v oblasti natsional'noy bezopasnosti, mezhdunarodnykh i rossiyskikh trebovaniy k ikh deyatel'nosti (Military courts in the light of the new state policy in the field of national security, international and Russian requirements for their activities). Pravo i bezopasnost', 2009, No. 3, pp. 3-7. 
11. Charyyev M.R. Sudebnaya vlast' v sisteme obespecheniya gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti Ros-siyskoy Federatsii (Judicial power in the system of ensuring state security of the Russian Federa-tion). Rossiyskiy sud'ya, 2006, No. 3, pp. 7-12.
Received: 12.02.2019
CURRENT PROBLEMS OF THE INSTITUTION OF SYNDICATED LENDING IN MODERN RUSSIAN LAW
ARZAMASKIN Alexei Nikolayevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Leading Legal Adviser of the Department of Legal Support of Transactions of the Bank of Russia Legal Department of the Main Administration of the Central Bank for the Central Federal District, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Currently, syndicated lending and its legal support attracts the attention of not only the scientific community, but also practitioners in the field of banking, financial and civil law. Due to the complex structure and special regulatory mechanism, syndicated lending transactions are the subject of ongoing discussions and disputes. If in international practice this type of lending has a rich history, then in Russian law this institution is just beginning its development. The emergence of the institution of syndicated lending in Russia is a big step in the development of economic relations, the implementation of significant projects and the attraction of a significant amount of investment in a variety of areas. At the same time, it should be said that the lack of a proper level of legal support for the institution of syndicated lending in Russian law calls into question the possibility of its effective application in the current realities.
Key words: banking law, syndicated lending, institution of syndicated lending, legal support of the institution of syndicated lending.
References
1. Popkova L.A. Pravovaya konstruktsiya sinditsirovannogo kredita: monografiya (The legal con-struction of a syndicated loan). Moscow, «Prospekt», 2018.
2. Rasporyazheniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 02.06.2016 № 1083-r (red. ot 30.03.2018) «Ob utverzhdenii Strategii razvitiya malogo i srednego predprinimatel'stva v Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2030 goda» (vmeste s «Planom meropriyatiy («dorozhnoy kartoy») po realizatsii Strategii razvitiya malogo i srednego predprinimatel'stva v Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2030 goda») (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 02.06.2016 No. 1083-p (as amended on 03.30.2018) “On approval of the Strategy for the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030” (together with the “Action Plan” (“road map” ) on the imple-mentation of the Strategy for the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030 ”). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus» (accessed date: 01.11.2018).
3. Federal'nyy zakon ot 31.12.2017 № 486-FZ «O sinditsirovannom kredite (zayme) i vnesenii iz-meneniy v otdel'nyye zakonodatel'nyye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (Federal Law of 31.12.2017 No. 486-FZ “On Syndicated Credit (Loan) and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Rus-sian Federation”). Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2018, 9 yanvarya.
4. Instruktsiya Banka Rossii ot 16.01.2004 № 110-I (red. ot 28.04.2012) «Ob obyazatel'nykh norma-tivakh bankov» (vmeste s «Metodikoy rascheta kreditnogo riska po uslovnym obyaza-tel'stvam kre-ditnogo kharaktera», «Metodikoy rascheta kreditnogo riska po srochnym sdelkam», «Metodikoy opredeleniya sinditsirovannykh kreditov», «Metodikoy opredeleniya urovnya riska po sinditsirovan-nym kreditam») (Zaregistrirovano v Minyuste Rossii 06.02.2004 № 5529) (Bank of Russia Instruc-tion No. 110-I dated January 16, 2004 (as amended on April 28, 2012) “On Mandatory Bank Ratios” (together with the “Credit Risk Calculation Methodology for Credit Contingencies”, “Credit Risk Calculation Methodology for urgent transactions”, “The methodology for determining syndicated loans”, “Methods for determining the level of risk for syndicated loans”) (Registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on 06.02.2004 No. 5529). Vestnik Banka Rossii, 2004, № 11 (735), 11 fev.
5. Instruktsiya Banka Rossii ot 28.06.2017 № 180-I (red. ot 03.09.2018) «Ob obyazatel'nykh norma-tivakh bankov» (vmeste s «Metodikoy rascheta kreditnogo riska po uslovnym obyaza-tel'stvam kre-ditnogo kharaktera», «Metodikoy rascheta kreditnogo riska po PFI», «Metodikoy opredeleniya urovnya riska po sinditsirovannym ssudam», «Poryadkom rascheta normativa maksimal'nogo raz-mera riska na odnogo zayemshchika ili gruppu svyazannykh zayemshchikov (N6) po sdelkam, so-vershayemym na vozvratnoy osnove», «Metodikoy rascheta riska izmeneniya stoimosti kreditnogo trebovaniya v rezul'tate ukhudsheniya kreditnogo kachestva kontragenta», «Poryadkom raspredele-niya pribyli (chasti pribyli)») (Zaregistrirovano v Minyuste Rossii 12.07.2017 № 47383) (Bank of Russia Instruction No. 180-I dated June 28, 2017 (as amended on September 3, 2017) “On Mandatory Bank Ratios” (together with the “Credit Risk Calculation Method for Contingent Liabili-ties of a Credit Exercise”, “The Credit Risk Calculation Methodology PFI”, “Methodology for determining the level of risk for syndicated loans”, “The procedure for calculating the standard maximum risk for one borrower or a group of related borrowers (H6) for transactions made on a returnable basis”, “The method of calculating the risk of changes in the value of the loan requirement as a result of deterioration in the credit quality of the counterparty”, “Procedure for the distribution of profits (part of the profits)”) (Registered in the Ministry of Justice of Russia 12/7/2017 No. 47383). Vestnik Banka Rossii. 2017. № 65-66 (1899-1900). 4 avg.
6. Federal'nyy zakon ot 07.05.1998 № 75-FZ (red. ot 29.07.2018) «O negosudarstvennykh pension-nykh fondakh» (Federal Law of 07.05.1998 No. 75-FZ (as amended on 07.29.2018) “On non-state pension funds”). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus» (accessed date: 01.11.2018).
7. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii (chast' pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 № 51-FZ (red. ot 03.08.2018) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 01.09.2018) (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part One) of 11/30/1994 No. 51-FZ (as amended on 08/03/2018) (as amended and added, entered into force on 01/09/2018). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus» (accessed date: 01.11.2018).
8. Arbitrazhnyy protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 24.07.2002 № 95-FZ (red. ot 03.08.2018) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 04.08.2018) (Arbitration Procedure Code of the Russian Federation No. 95-FZ of July 24, 2002 (as amended on August 3, 2018) (as amended and added, entered into force on August 4, 2018). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus» (accessed date: 01.11.2018).
9. Federal'nyy zakon ot 22.04.1996 № 39-FZ (red. ot 03.08.2018) «O rynke tsennykh bumag» (Fed-eral Law of April 22, 1996 No. 39-ФЗ (as amended on August 3, 2018) “On the securities market”) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 16.10.2018).
Received: 28.01.2019
“EASTERN DIRECTION” IN THE SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES OF THE LAW FACULTY OF THE BURYAT STATE UNIVERSITY
GARMAEV Yuri Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure and Forensics of the Buryat State University, Head of the Laboratory of Comparative Law in the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
RADNAEVA Elvira Lvovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Dean of the Law Faculty, Head of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology of the Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KHYSHIKTUYEV Oleg Valentinovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of International Law of the Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the scientific and educational activities of the Law Faculty of the Buryat State University where specialized scientific structures are created, the Eastern vector of development is a key vector. Therefore, the regular VII (seventh) International Research to Practice Conference “The State and Legal Systems of the Countries of the Asia-Pacific Region: the Establishment of a Polycentric World Order and the Potential of International Law and Comparative Law” was devoted to problems related to the East. During the conference, special attention was paid to the cooperation of the Buryat State University with scientific organizations and universities of such countries as the People’s Republic of China and the Mongolian People’s Republic.
Key words: Buryat State University, research to practice conference, comparative law, countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Russia and Mongolia, Eastern vector of development, international cooperation, protection of the rights of foreign citizens.
References
1. Khabriyeva T.Ya. Rossiya v Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskom regione (Russia in the Asia-Pacific re-gion). Globalizatsiya i integratsionnyye protsessy v Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskom regione (pravovoye i ekonomicheskoye issledovaniye), monografiya, N.M. Bevelikova (i dr.), pod red. T.Ya. Khabriyevoy. Moscow, 2014, pp. 5-6. 
2. Tikhomirov Yu.A. Sravnitel'noye pravovedeniye: razvitiye kontseptsiy i obshchestvennoy praktiki (Comparative law: the development of concepts and social practice). Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2006, No. 6, pp. 3-15. 
3. Radnayeva E.L. Nezavisimyy Kazakhstan kak flagman razvitiya yevraziyskoy idei (Independent Kazakhstan as the flagship of the Eurasian idea development). Respublika Kazakhstan i yevra-ziyskoye prostranstvo: sovremennost' i perspektivy razvitiya. Astana, Yevraziyskiy natsional'nyy un-ivreistet im. L.N. Gumileva, 2016, Ch. 1, p. 18. 
4. Tikhomirov Yu.A. Sravnitel'noye pravovedeniye: razvitiye kontseptsiy i obshchestvennoy praktiki (Comparative law: the development of concepts and social practice). Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2006, No. 6, p. 8. 
5. Damirli M.A. Sravnitel'no-pravovaya germenevtika: kognitivnyye vozmozhnosti (Comparative Legal Hermeneutics: Cognitive Opportunities). Porivnyal'ne pravoznavstvo: suchasniy stan i pers-pektivi rozvitku: Zbirnik naukovikh prats', za red. Yu.S. Shemshuchenka, I.S. Gritsenka, M.B. Buchka; upor. O.V. Kresin. Kiyev, 2010, p. 45. 
6. Yuridicheskaya pamyatka dlya grazhdan Mongolii na territorii Rossii (Legal information for citi-zens of Mongolia in Russia), sost. Yu.P. Garmayev, E.L. Radnayeva, Ye.I. Popova, N. Gantulga. Ulan-Ude, Izdatel'stvo Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2016, Vyp. 1.
Received: 30.01.2019
CONGRATULATIONS ON A NEW FUNDAMENTAL BOOK
Review of the monograph by S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov  «Philosophy and Legal Science»
М.: Yurlitinform, 2019. 424 p. 
RAYANOV Fanis Mansurovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE 
“Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
References
1. Zakhartsev S.I. Nekotoryye problemy teorii i filosofii prava (Some problems of theory and phi-losophy of law), monografiya, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. Moscow, Norma, 2014. 
2. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka (Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Legal science). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2015. 
3. Zakhartsev S.I., Salnikov V.P. The Philosophy of Law and Legal Science. Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018. 
4. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya i yuridicheskaya nauka (Philosophy and legal science). monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2019. 
5. Zakhartsev S.I. K voprosu ustanovleniya ob"yektivnoy istiny v prave (On the question of establishing objective truth in law). Biblioteka kriminalista. Nauchnyy zhurnal, 2014, No. 4 (15), pp. 16-23. 
6. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Eticheskiye problemy v yuridicheskoy nauke i konvergentsiya (Ethical problems in legal science and convergence). Biblioteka kriminalista. Nauchnyy zhurnal, 2015, No. 5 (22), pp. 9-15. 
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Indeksy tsitirovaniya i naukometriya: plyusy i minusy (Citation indices and scientometrics: pros and cons). Biblioteka ugolovnogo prava i kriminologii, 2016, No. 2 (14), pp. 180-185. 
8. Zakhartsev S.I. Integral'naya yurisprudentsiya: nekotoryye voprosy diskussii (Integral jurispru-dence: some questions of the discussion). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2012, No. 8, pp. 158-162. 
9. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Komprekhendnaya teoriya poznaniya prava (Comprehensive epistemology of law). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 8, pp. 11-26. 
10. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo: razumnost' i bessmyslennost' (Law: rationality and mea-ninglessness). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 9, pp. 17-22. 
11. Zakhartsev S.I. Filosofiya prava: nekotoryye razmyshleniya po povodu predmeta (Philosophy of Law: Some Thoughts on the Subject). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2012, No. 7, pp. 122-131. 
12. Zakhartsev S.I. Pravo i istina (Law and Truth). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2012, No. 9, pp. 146-152. 
13. Zakhartsev S.I. Filosofiya prava i dialektika (Philosophy of law and dialectics). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2012, No. 11, pp. 180-189. 
14. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Chelovek i klon. Yest' li predely biomeditsinskikh eks-perimentov nad chelovecheskim sushchestvom? (Man and clone. Are there limits to biomedical ex-perimentation on a human being?). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2013, No. 11, pp. 163-170. 
15. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Konvergentsiya v prave, russkaya mental'nost' i psikhologiya nishchenstva: filosofskaya i filosofsko-pravovaya problema (Convergence in law, the Russian men-tality and the psychology of poverty: philosophical and philosophical legal problem). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 1, pp. 166. 
16. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoy progress i tsennosti prava (Legal progress and legal values). Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015, No. 9, pp. 17-31. 
17. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Problema monizma-plyuralizma v filosofii (The problem of mon-ism-pluralism in philosophy). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 10, pp. 196-209. 
18. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya prava kak filosofsko-spetsializirovannaya nauka (Phi-losophy of law as a philosophical and specialized science). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 11, pp. 195-203. 
19. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofy i problemy prava: vnimaniye yavno nedosta-tochnoye (nekotoryye razmyshleniya) (Philosophers and problems of law: attention is clearly inadequate (some reflections). Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 12, pp. 11-27. 
20. Zakhartsev S.I. Global'nyye problemy chelovechestva i gipoteza kataklizmov i krugovorota zhizni na Zemle (Global problems of mankind and the hypothesis of cataclysms and the circle of life on Earth). Kontekst i refleksiya: filosofiya o mire i cheloveke, 2015, No. 4-5, pp. 9-23. 
21. Zakhartsev S.I. Vozvrashchayas' k diskussii o proiskhozhdenii prava (Returning to the discussion about the origin of law). Kontekst i refleksiya: filosofiya o mire i cheloveke, 2015, No. 6, pp. 279-293. 
22. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravovoy progress: filosofskiy i filosofsko-pravovoy podkhody (Legal progress: philosophical and philosophical-legal approaches). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2015, No. 1, pp. 13-30. 
23. Zakhartsev S. I., Sal'nikov V. P. Informatsionnoye prostranstvo kak novaya global'naya ugroza chelovechestvu i yego pravam: filosofskiy i pravovoy podkhody (Informational Space as a New Global Threat to Humanity and Its Rights: Philosophical and Legal Approaches). Pravovoye pole so-vremennoy ekonomiki, 2015, No. 8, pp. 11-19. 
24. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Kak poznat' pravo? My predlagayem komprekhendnyy podkhod (How to know the law? We propose a comprehensive approach). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy eko-nomiki, 2015, No. 9, pp. 17-30. 
25. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Tezisno o filosofskikh problemakh poznaniya vselennoy i Zemli (Thesis on the philosophical problems of knowledge of the universe and the Earth). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2015, No. 10, pp. 171-180. 
26. Kerimov D.A. V razvitiye diskussii o filosofii i prave. Retsenziya na monografiyu S.I. Zakhart-seva i V.P. Sal'nikova «Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka». – M.: Yurlitinform, 2015. – 264 s. (In the development of the discussion of philosophy and law. Review of the mono-graph by S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov “Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Legal science”. – M .: Yurlitinform, 2015. – 264 p.). Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2015, No. 1, pp. 78-85. 
27. Kuznetsov E.V., Maslennikov D.V., Pokrovskiy I.F., Ekimov A.I. Angliyskaya versiya rossiyskogo izdaniya S.I.Zakhartsev, V.P. Salnikov. The Philosophy of Law and Legal Science. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018 (The English version of the Russian edition of S.I. Zakhartsev, V.P. Salnikov. The Philosophy of Law and Legal Science. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018). Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2018, No. 9, pp. 191-194. 
28. Rokhlin V.I., Zakhartsev S.I., Mironov M.A., Stukanov A.P. Institut reabilitatsii v rossiyskom zakonodatel'stve: vozniknoveniye, razvitiye, ponyatiye, perspektivy (Institute of rehabilitation in Russian legislation: the emergence, development, concept, perspectives), pod red. V.I. Rokhlina. St. Petersburg, 2007. 
29. Sal'nikov V.P., Sal'nikov M.V. Pravovaya kul'tura i politiko-pravovyye traditsii v kontekste ab-solyutnykh tsennostey (Legal culture and political and legal traditions in the context of absolute val-ues). Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2014, No. 4 (84), pp. 70-86.
Received: 12.02.2019
PROMINENT LEGAL SCHOLARS OF KAZAKHSTAN OF THE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES. SELECTED PORTRAITS
TLEPINA Sholpan Valerevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of International Law of the Faculty of Law of L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Received: 15.12.2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Aznagulova G.M.
Rationalistic Doctrine of Law in the German Enlightenment
Arzamaskin N.N.
Smirnov S.V.
Some Aspects of the Evolution of the Concept of State Sovereignty in the Context of Globalization
Valikaramov D.J.
Gazizova L. M.
The Analysis of the Interaction of Politics and Law: Regional and Federal Level
Zakhartsev S.I.
Salnikov V. P.
Convergence of Legal Norms and the Rule-of-Law State
Kozhina Yu.A.
The Explanatory Function of the Plenum of the Supreme Court: Theory and Practice
Kryzhanovskaya G.N.
Kondrat I.N.On Assessing the Events of February and October 1917 in Terms of the Rule-of-Law State
Mazitov A.I.
Development of the Ideas of J.K. Bluntschli
Moiseev A.V.
Theoretical and Legal Problems of Alternative Sanctions: Concept and Classification
Romanovskaya V.B
Salnikov M.V.
Silantieva V.A.
Spiritual Security in Modern Russian Society: Threats and Ways to Overcome them Spirin M.Yu.On the Ratio of the Origin, the Source and the Form of Law in Modern Theoretical Jurisprudence
Terekhov E.M.
The Causes of Contradictions in Law Interpretative Activities Chernykh A.V.Discrimination of Social Technologies as a Dysfunction of the Legal System
Yarmieva I.T.
The Structure and Functions of the Legal System
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
Korshunov A.S.
The Main Organizational and Legal Problems of the Development of State Aviation Supervision and Flight Safety Control in Russia at the Present Time
Prokofiev K.G.
Petrov P.A.
Seliverstov I.N.State Administration in the Field of Housing Stock Modernization in Russian Cities
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW
CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCEDURE
Aleynikova A.B.
Legal Globalization of Property Relations: Trends and Directions of Development
Murzabulatov U.M.
Problems of Reconciliation of the Parties in Enforcement Proceedings
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Mineeva T.G.
Romanovskaya V.B.
Salnikov V.P.
The Evolution of the Ideas of Freedom of Conscience and their Impact on the Development of Criminal Law in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the XIX Century
Pantyukhina I.V.
Enforcement to Prostitution as a Special Kind of Compulsion to Actions of Sexual Nature
Pankina I.Yu.
Ways of Enlarging Lawyer’s Powers while Proving in Russian Criminal Procedure
Tarasov A.A.
“Team Investigation” in the Context of General Problems of the Investigative Branch of Modern Russia
FORENSICS
FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITIES 
Makarenko I.A.
Eksarhopulo A.A.
Zaynullin R.I.
The Structure of Private Forensic Methodology: History of Formation and Development Prospects. Part II
Malikov B.Z.
Tazetdinov R.R.
To the Issue of the Criminal Responsibility of Juveniles (Case Study of the Republic of Bashkortostan)
Fomin A.A.Judicial Authority in the Mechanism of National Security of the Russian Federation
BANKING AND MONETARY LAW
Arzamaskin A.N.Current Problems of the Institution of Syndicated Lending in Modern Russian Law
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY
Garmaev Y.P.
Radnaeva E. L.
Khyshiktuyev O.V.“Eastern Direction” in the Scientific Activities of the Law Faculty of the Buryat State University
REVIEWS
Rayanov F.M.
Galiev F.Kh.
Congratulations on a New Fundamental Book. Review of the Monograph by S. I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov “Philosophy and Legal Science”. М.: Yurlitinform, 2019. 424 p. 
Tlepina Sh.V.Prominent Legal Scholars of Kazakhstan of the XX - Early XXI Centuries. Selected Portraits
TO THE AUTHORS
AZNAGULOVA Guzel Mukhametovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Principal Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ARZAMASKIN Nikolay Nikolayevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SMIRNOV Sergey Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory and History of State and Law of the Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
VALIKARAMOV Denis Jalilovich
Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GAZIZOVA Leisan Makhmutovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ZAKHARTSEV Sergey Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences,St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Legal Science: Past and Present”, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KOZHINA Yuliya Alekseyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: mailto:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KRYZHANOVSKAYA Galina Nikolaevna
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the St. Petersburg Military Institute of National Guard Forces of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KONDRAT Ivan Nikolaevich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics of MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, State Counselor of Justice 1st Class, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MAZITOV Artur Ildusovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">
MOISEEV Alexander Vladimirovich
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University, Togliatti, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Foundation for Support of Science and Education in Law Enforcement Activities “University”, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SILANTIEVA Victoria Alexandrovna
Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SPIRIN Mikhail Yuryevich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law and International Law of Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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TEREKHOV Evgeniy Mikhailovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of State Law Disciplines of the Balakovo Branch of the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
DISCRIMINATION OF SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES AS A DYSFUNCTION OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM
CHERNYKH Alexey Victorovich
Candidate of Law, First Vice-Rector of Moscow State Academy of Choreography, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">
YARMIEVA Irina Tauzirovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KORSHUNOV Alexey Sergeevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Civil Law of the St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, Chief State Inspector of the Administration of State Aviation Supervision and Supervision over Transport Security for the North-West Federal District of the Federal Service for Supervision of Transport, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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PROKOFIEV Konstantin Georgievich
Candidate of Law, Acting Rector of Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PETROV Petr Alekseevich
Deputy General Director of OOO Lider Consult Pravo, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SELIVERSTOV Ilya Nikolaevich
Investigator of the Kingisepp Interdistrict Investigative Department of the Investigative Division of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation in the Leningrad Region, Kingisepp, Leningrad Region, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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ALEYNIKOVA Anastasia Borisovna
Assistant Professor of the Department of Justice of the Penza State University, Lawyer, Deputy Head of Penza Region Branch «Aleynikov and Partners» Interregional Bar Association of the City of Moscow, Penza, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ALEYNIKOVA Anastasia Borisovna
Assistant Professor of the Department of Justice of the Penza State University, Lawyer, Deputy Head of Penza Region Branch «Aleynikov and Partners» Interregional Bar Association of the City of Moscow, Penza, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MINEEVA Tatyana Germanovna
Doctor of Law, Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the journal “Legal Science: Past and Present”, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PANTYUKHINA Inga Vladimirovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Criminal law and Procedure of the Ryazan State University named for S.A. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PANKINA Inga Yuryevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure, Forensics and Legal Informatics of Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TARASOV Aleksandr Alekseevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
MAKARENKO Ilona Anatolievna 
Doctor of Law, Professor, Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
EKSARHOPULO Alexey Alekseevich 
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ZAYNULLIN Ruslan Ildarovich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Deputy Director for Science of the Institute of Law, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MALIKOV Boris Zufarovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TAZETDINOV Radmil Rinatovich
Postgraduate of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
FOMIN Aleksey Aleksandrovich 
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of Saint Petersburg State University of Economics, St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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ARZAMASKIN Alexei Nikolayevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Leading Legal Adviser of the Department of Legal Support of Transactions of the Bank of Russia Legal Department of the Main Administration of the Central Bank for the Central Federal District, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GARMAEV Yuri Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure and Forensics of the Buryat State University, Head of the Laboratory of Comparative Law in the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
RADNAEVA Elvira Lvovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Dean of the Law Faculty, Head of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology of the Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KHYSHIKTUYEV Oleg Valentinovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of International Law of the Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
RAYANOV Fanis Mansurovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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TLEPINA Sholpan Valerevna
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of International Law of the Faculty of Law of L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК