№2 (60) 2020 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

№2 (60) 2020

№2 (60) 2020

СТАТЬИ

DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.2
ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF UNIVERSAL DNA REGISTRATION OF CITIZENS
AMINEV Farit Gizarowich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Chairman of the Public Council for Expert Activities in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Honored Lawyer of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia.
ANISIMOV Vladimir Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of  the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
Studying the practice of crime investigation indicates the need to use a forensic registration system, including a database of DNA profiles of human biological material (genomic registration) in order to increase the effectiveness of the fight against crime. Aim: the analysis of regulatory issues, technical support of genomic registration, as well as the problems of the organizational nature of the functioning of DNA counts alongside with developing ways to solve them. Methods: empirical methods of observation, comparison, description, interpretation, interpretation of legal norms, supported by the results of a survey of Ufa residents. Results: this research of various approaches, including the attitude of various segments of the population towards the idea of universal genomic registration of citizens of the Russian Federation, makes it possible to develop ways to improve the quality of detection and investigation of crimes through the thoughtful organization of forming, accumulating, processing and using a system of universal genomic registration of the population of Russia.
Key words: genomic registration; detection and investigation of crimes; single nucleotide polymorphism; organizational problems; personal identification.
References
1. Aminev F.G. O neobkhodimosti prinyatiya federal'nogo zakona «O vseobshchey genomnoy registratsii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii» v tselyakh uluchsheniya kachestva raskrytiya i rassledovaniya prestupleniy (On the need to adopt the federal law “On universal genomic registration in the Russian Federation” in order to improve the quality of the disclosure and investigation of crimes). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2019, No. 3 (57), pp. 94-98.
Received: 10.06.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.3
GENOMIC RESEARCHES AND GENOMIC EDITING IN TERMSOF FORMING EFFECTIVE LEGAL REGIME
BORODIN Sergey Sergeevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
INYUSHKIN Andrey Alekseevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. Articles in the Scopus / Web of Science database: DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-13397-9_54; DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-29586-8_67; DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-319-75383-6_29; DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-32015-7_4. 
Theuse of modern technology has created new opportunities for genetic researches and product creation through genome editing. At the same time, the use of these technologies without ensuring the foundations of the rule of law, including moral issues, creates a significant risk of infringement of public and private interests. Aim: to analyze the regulation of transferring and processing of personal data, including those related to genetic information, and the creation of new results of intellectual activity and products created by genome editing. Methods: methods of formal and dialectical logic, description methods, comparative legal methods. Results: the study allows us to identify the main currently used options for protecting privacy secrets during genetic researches and formulate a proposal on securing at the international level the minimum requirements for data placement, including the use of virtual computers and data management in the cloud. It is proposed to use databases as the main object of intellectual property for the formation of the legal regime. It is concluded that judicial practice is formed in the direction of considering researches and certain manipulations with genetic material precisely from the position of a balance of public interests (morality) and private non-property interests (respect for private and family life), regardless of the assessment of any property interests in relation to the relevant objects.
Key words: genomic researches; databases, legal regime, computer modeling; private life; personal data; public interests.
References
1. Inyushkin A.A., Inyushkin A.N. Informatsiya o tsirkadiannykh genykh: pravovyye aspekty vnedreniya v grazhdanskiy oborot. Pravo i sovremennyye tekhnologii v meditsine (Information about circadian genes: legal aspects of implementation in civil circulation. Law and modern technology in medicine), otv. red. A.A. Mokhov, O.V. Sushkova. Moscow, 2019, pp. 184-188. 
2. Levushkin A.N. Grazhdansko-pravovoy rezhim genov kak ob"yektov grazhdanskikh prav (Civil legal regime of genes as objects of civil rights). Lex russica, 2019, No. 6, pp. 100-109. 
3. Shugurova I.V. Napravleniya garmonizatsii zakonodatel'stva v oblasti intellektual'noy sobstvennosti v gosudarstvakh – uchastnikakh SNG (Directions of harmonization of legislation in the field of intellectual property in the CIS member states), Sovremennoye pravo, 2014, No. 10, pp. 131-139.
4. Adams J. Genetics: Big hopes for big data. Nature, 2015, Vol. 527, pp. 108-109. 
5. Berger B. and Cho H. Emerging technologies towards enhancing privacy in genomic data sharing, Genome Biology, 2019, 20. Available at: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13059-019-1741-0 (accessed date: 21.05.2020).
6. Borovska P. Big Data Analytics and Genetic Research // International Conference on Big Data, Knowledge and Control Systems Engineering, 7-8 December 2017, Sofia, Bulgaria. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/323735972_Big_Data_Analytics_and_Genetic_Research (accessed date: 21.05.2020).
7. Chassang G. The impact of the EU general data protection regulation on scientific research, Ecancermedicalscience, 2017, January. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312251732_The_impact_of_the_EU_general_data_protection_regulation_on_scientific_research (accessed date: 21.05.2020).
8. Chow-White P.A. and Green S. Data Mining Difference in the Age of Big Data, International Journal of Communication, 2013, No. 7, pp. 556-583.
9. Frizzo-Barker J. and Chow-White P. From Patients to Petabytes: Genomic Big Data, Privacy, and Informational Risk, Canadian Journal of Communication, 2014, November, pp. 615-625.
10. He K.Y. Et al. Big Data Analytics for Genomic Medicine, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2017, 18, 412. Available at: https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343946 (accessed date: 21.05.2020).
11. Maggon Harsh. Legal Protection of Databases: An Indian Perspective, Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, 2006, Vol. 11, pp. 140-144.
12. Molnar-Gabor F. et al. Computing patient data in the cloud: Practical and legal considerations for genetics and genomics research in Europe and internationally, Genome Medicine, 2017, June. Available at:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317929677_Computing_patient_data_in_the_cloud_Practical_and_legal_
considerations_for_genetics_and_genomics_research_in_Europe_and_internationally (accessed date: 21.05.2020).
13. Quinn P. and Quinn L. Big genetic data and its big data protection challenges, Computer Law & Security Review, 2018, June Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326411177_Big_genetic_data_and_its_big_data_protection_challenges (accessed date: 21.05.2020).
Received: 15.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.4
LEGAL REMEDIES FOR PREVENTING DISCRIMINATION ON GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS IN THE INSURANCE SPHERE
KRYUKOVA Elena Sergeevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
The article analyzes the norms of Russian and foreign legislation regarding the prohibition of discrimination on genetic characteristics in the insurance sector. The article reviews the problem of increasing the risks of insurance companies to have large payments in the future and the unaccounted load on the remaining insured persons due to the lack of complete and reliable genetic information about the insurance body. Aim: a comprehensive analysis of Russian legislation in terms of the possibility of insurers using genetic information about the insured. Methods: empirical methods of comparison, description, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic. Private scientific methods are used: legal-dogmatic and the method of interpretation of legal norms. Results: the conclusions about the need to detail international principles in the mentioned sector and the regulation of the procedure for providing genetic information to third parties are substantiated. The author proposes a differentiated approach regarding the possibility of access to data on the human genome within the framework of various types of insurance. The article emphasizes that health insurance should be based on the concept of solidarity regardless of the genetic characteristics of insured persons, and as a result, the regulatory framework that ensures the regime of confidentiality of genetic information needs to be strengthened and specified.
Key words: discrimination on genetic characteristics; personal insurance; medical insurance; tariffs; insurance risks; genetic information; insurance premium.
References
1. Knoppers B.M. Genetika, genomika i prava cheloveka (Genetics, genomics and human rights). Sud'ya, 2017, No. 12, pp. 26-31. 
2. Belykh S.V. Dogovor strakhovaniya: ponyatiye, priznaki, vily (Insurance contract: concept, signs, types). Grazhdanskoye pravo, 2015, No. 5. pp. 3-8. 
3. Bogdanova Ye.Ye. Pravovyye problemy i riski geneticheskoy revolyutsii: geneticheskaya informatsiya i diskriminatsiya (Legal issues and risks of the genetic revolution: genetic information and discrimination). Lex Russica, 2019, No. 6, pp. 18-29. 
4. Isayeva D.R. Diskriminatsiya v trudovykh i neposredstvenno svyazannykh s nimi otnoshe-niyakh (Discrimination in labor and relations directly related to them). Sovremennyye nauchnyye issledovaniya i razrabotke, 2017, No. 4 (12), pp. 133-136. 
5. Kurova N.N., Yudin Ye.V. Osobennosti regulirovaniya meditsinskogo strakhovaniya v za-rubezhnykh stranakh (Features of regulation of medical insurance in foreign countries). Advokat, 2015, No. 7, pp. 55-59. 
6. Maleina M.N. Rol' pravovykh printsipov v ustranenii i minimizatsii riskov primeneniya genomnykh tekhnologiy (The role of legal principles in eliminating and minimizing the risks of using genomic technologies). Lexrussica, 2019, No. 8, pp. 121-128. 
7. Minnullina G.Z. Metodologiya postroyeniya strakhovykh tarifov v usloviyakh izmeneniya dinamiki imushchestvennogo strakhovaniya (The methodology of making insurance rates in the face of changing dynamics of property insurance), dis. kand. ekon. nauk. Moscow, 2000. 
8. Mitrichev I.A. Ponyatiye lichnogo strakhovaniya v rossiyskom prave (The concept of personal insurance in Russian law). Menedzhment i Pravo, 2017, No. 3-4, pp .45-48. 
9. Ovchinnikova Yu.S. Pravovaya priroda strakhovoy premii: osnovnyye cherty (The legal nature of the insurance premium: the main features). Pravo i ekonomika, 2018, No. 8, pp. 37-42. 
10. Rabochiye tetradi po bioetike. Vyp. 3 : Bioeticheskiye problemy genomiki i etnogenetiki (Workbooks on bioethics. Vol. 3: Bioethical problems of genomics and ethnogenetics), sb. nauchnykh statey, pod red. B.G. Yudina. Moscow, izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta, 2006. 
11. Tetushkin Ye.A. Geneticheskaya diskriminatsiya pri strakhovanii i trudoustroystve (Genetic discrimination in insurance and employment). Genetika, 2000, No. 7, pp. 887-899. 
12. Trifonov B.I. Prakticheskiye aspekty rascheta tarifa v riskovykh vidakh strakhovaniya (Practical aspects of tariff calculation in risky types of insurance). Strategiya biznesa, 2016, No. 3, pp. 22-25. 
13. Cheshko V.F., Kulinichenko V.L. Nauka, etika, politika: sotsial'no-kul'turnyye aspekty sovremennoy genetiki (Science, ethics, politics: socio-cultural aspects of modern genetics). Kiyev, Parapan, 2004. 
14. Shakhov V.V. Strakhovaniye (Insurance), uchebnik dlya vuzov. Moscow, YUNITI.
15. Walker J. Genetic discrimination and Canadian law. Ottawa, Canada, Library of. Parliament, 2014.
16. Joly Y. Knoppers, B.M. Godard B. Genetic information and life insurance: a `real' risk? European Journal of Human Genetics, 2003, Volume 11, No. 8, pp. 561-564.
Received: 15.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.5
APPLICATIONS OF GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES WHILE PROVIDING SERVICES FOR SURROGACY: PROBLEMS OF JUDICIAL PROTECTION OF RIGHTS
LEVUSHKIN Anatoly Nicolаevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Civil Law of the Russian State University of Justice, Moscow, Russia. 
ALBOROV Suliko Viktorovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Lecturer of the Department of Civil Law of the Moscow Region State University, Moscow, Russia. 
At the present stage of the formation of the rule of law and a developed civil society in Russian medical practice, the possibility of using genes and genetic technologies related mainly to the sphere of private life for surrogacy and protecting the rights of citizens while providing such services is of particular relevance. A scientific school in the field of medicine has already been formed in the world, aimed at implementing genetic technologies and genomic research with assisted reproductive technologies. Aim: scientific and practical understanding of the problems of judicial protection of rights in the sphere of applying genetic technologies while providing surrogacy services and some trends in legal regulation of surrogacy. The methodological base of this work is general scientific methods of cognition of legal phenomena, such as synthesis, the method of analogy, formal logic, and others, as well as the private scientific methods of studying contractual regulation. Results: It is proved that modern society has existed for a long time in the era of genetic technologies. The practice of introducing such developments is aimed at the implementation and protection of human rights while providing surrogacy services in medical activities. The problems of judicial protection of the rights of subjects of legal relations of surrogate motherhood are identified. In legal relations of childbearing, in which a donor of genetic material took part, the need to protect the rights of a given person has been proved when he is charged with parent duties, although his actions were not aimed at giving birth to a child.
Key words: rights of citizens; genetic technologies; genes; medical activities; donor; assisted reproductive technologies; surrogacy; problems of judicial protection. 
References
1. Alborov S.V. Mnogoaspektnyy podkhod k surrogatnomu materinstvu kak sotsial'no-pravovomu yavleniyu v kontekste obespecheniya semeynykh tsennostey (A multidimensional approach to surrogate motherhood as a socio-legal phenomenon in the context of ensuring family values). Yuridicheskoye obrazova-niye i nauka, 2018, No. 9, pp. 22-27. 
2. Alborov S.V. Pravovoye i individual'noye regulirovaniye surrogatnogo materinstva (Legal and individual regulation of surrogacy), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, RGUP, 2019. 
3. Lebedeva O.Yu. Problemy, voznikayushchiye pri ustanovlenii proiskhozhdeniya detey, rozhdonnykh pri pomoshchi metodov vspomogatel'noy reproduktsii: obzor zakonodatel'stva i pravoprimenitel'noy praktiki stran Yevropy, Kanady i SSHA (Problems arising in establishing the origin of children born with the help of assisted reproduction methods: a review of legislation and law enforcement practices in Europe, Canada and the USA). Semeynoye i zhilishchnoye pravo, 2013, No. 5, pp. 32-35. 
4. Levushkin A.N. Grazhdansko-pravovoye regulirovaniye genomnykh tekhnologiy i oborotosposobnost' genov kak ob"yektov grazhdanskikh prav (Civil regulation of genomic technologies and turnover of genes as objects of civil rights). Grazhdanskoye pravo, 2019, No. 5, pp. 26-29. 
5. Levushkin A.N. Grazhdansko-pravovoy rezhim genov kak ob"yektov grazhdanskikh prav (Civil legal regime of genes as objects of civil rights). Lex russica, 2019, No. 6, pp. 100-109. 
6. Levushkin A.N. Nerodivshiyesya deti: uchet interesov i prav v grazhdanskom oborote i meditsinskoy praktike (Unborn children: taking into account interests and rights in civilian circulation and medical practice). Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2019, No. 6, pp. 18-23. 
7. Levushkin A.N. Pravovyye aspekty meditsinskogo obsledovaniya lits, vstupayushchikh v brak, v stranakh SNG (Legal aspects of medical examination of persons entering into marriage in the CIS countries). Meditsinskoye pravo, 2011, No. 3, pp. 41-43. 
8. Mokhov A.A. Meditsinskaya deyatel'nost' – vid sotsial'nogo predprinimatel'stva (Medical activity is a type of social entrepreneurship). Meditsinskoye pravo, 2016, No. 1, pp. 6-10. 
9. Mokhov A.A. Printsip predostorozhnosti v biomeditsine (The precautionary principle in biomedicine). Meditsinskoye pravo, 2017, No. 1, pp. 5-10.
10. Linda S. Anderson. Protecting Parent-Child Relationships: Determining Parental Rights of Same-Sex Parents Consistently Despite Varying Recognition of Their Relationship. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers. cfm?abstract_id=1113012 (accessed date: 26.04.2020).
Received: 15.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.6
THE PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF SUBJECTS OF GENETIC INFORMATION IN THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE IN TERMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SOCIETY
MINBALEEV Alexey Vladimirovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Expert of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of the Department of Information Law and Digital Technologies of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL). 
An urgent task of modern state is to find an optimal balance between providing society with socially important information and protecting the confidentiality of limited access information. In regard to genetic information, it is very important today to find such a balance and to determine the mechanisms for protecting the rights of owners of such information. Aim: to analyze the problems of protecting the rights of subjects of genetic information in the rule-of-law state in terms of the development of information society. Methods: empirical methods of comparison, description, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic. Private scientific methods are used: legal-dogmatic and the method of interpretation of legal norms. Results: in the article, the author considers the development of the right to genetic information as a process caused by the development of ideas of the rule-of-law state. The author concludes that the protection of the right to genetic information is largely due to its legal nature. The legislation and various points of view on the nature of genetic information are analyzed. The author makes a conclusion that it is an independent type of personal data along with publicly available personal data, general personal data, special categories of personal data and biometric personal data. The extension of the personal data regime to genetic information is an important tool for protecting the rights of its owners, since it allows any subject of personal data to declare the inadmissibility of free circulation of data, and to impose a ban on its further use. The author concludes that when regulating relations in the field of genomic information as a type of personal data, the Federal law “On state genomic registration in the Russian Federation” should be considered as special in relation to the Federal law “On personal data”.
Key words: protection of rights; genetic information; personal data; rule-of-law state; information society.
References
1. Zor'kin V.D. Civilizaciya prava i razvitie Rossii (Civilization of law and the development of Russia), monografiya. 2-e izd.. ispr. i dop. Moscow, Norma, INFRA-M, 2016.
2. Cifrovoe pravo (Digital law), uchebnik, pod obshch. red. V.V. Blazheeva, M.A. Egorovoj. Moscow, Prospekt, 2020. 
3. Polyakova T.A., Minbaleev A.V., Krotkova N.V. Novye vektory razvitiya informacionnogo prava v usloviyah civilizacionnogo krizisa i cifrovoj transformacii (New vectors of information law development in the conditions of civilizational crisis and digital transformation), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2020, No. 5, pp. 75-87.
4. Aktual'nye problemy informacionnogo prava (Actual problems of information law), uchebnik, kollektiv avtorov, pod red. I.L. Bachilo, M.A Lapinoj, 2-oe izd. pererab. Moscow, YUSTICIYA, 2019.
5. Nersesyanc V.S. Istoriya idej pravovoj gosudarstvennosti (History of ideas of legal statehood). Moscow, 1993. 
6. Rassolov I.M., Chubukova S.G. Problemy pravovogo rezhima geneticheskoj informacii (Problems of the legal regime of genetic information), Rossijskaya pravovaya sistema v usloviyah chetvertoj promyshlennoj revolyucii. XVI Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferenciya (Kutafinskie chteniya): materialy konferencii, v 3 ch. Ch. 3. Moscow, RG-Press, 2019, pp. 351-358.
7. Bogdanova E.E. Pravovye problemy i riski geneticheskoj revolyucii: geneticheskaya informaciya i diskriminaciya (Legal problems and risks of the genetic revolution: genetic information and discrimination). Lex russica, 2019, No. 6, pp. 18–29.
8. Boltanova E.S., Imekova M.P. Geneticheskaya informaciya v sisteme ob"ektov grazhdanskih prav (Genetic information in the system of civil rights objects). Lex russica, 2019, No. 6, pp. 110-121.
9. Rassolov I. M., Chubukova S. G., Mikurova I. V. Analiz vozmozhnogo primeneniya k regulirovaniyu otnoshenij po povodu geneticheskoj informacii institutov personal'nyh dannyh, lichnoj tajny, vrachebnoj tajny (The analysis of possible application to the regulation of relations concerning genetic information, personal data, personal secrets, medical secrets), Lex Russica, 2020, No. 4 (161), pp. 143-151.
10. Kulemin N., Popov S., Gorbachyov A. Proekt Zenome: Belaya kniga genomnaya platforma na blokchejne (Zenome project: White paper genomic platform on the block chain). Available at: https://zenome.io/download/ whitepaper_ru.pdf/ (accessed date: 15.04.2020).
11. Sushkova O.V. Intellektual'naya sobstvennost' i geneticheskie tekhnologii: problemy i perspektivy razvitiya v zarubezhnyh stranah (Intellectual property and genetic technologies: problems and prospects of development in foreign countries). Pravo i sovremennye tekhnologii v medicine, monografiya, otv. red. A.A. Mohov, O.V. Sushkova. Moscow, RG Press, 2019, pp. 84-89.
Received: 15.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.7
THE PROBLEMS OF DETERMINING THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE EMBRYO AND PARTHENOGENETIC STEM CELLS IN LIGHT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC ENGINEERING
PESTRIKOVA Anastasia Alexandrovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Public Educational Institution of Higher Education “Samara Humanitarian Academy”, Samara, Russia. 
At the present stage of the development of genetic engineering, the question is raised about the legal status of a human embryo in connection with the commercialization and patenting of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells. Aim: the article considers the main directions of developing criteria for distinguishing between cellular substances included in the definition of a human embryo, taking into account the latest achievements in the field of genetic engineering and judicial practice of the European Union. Methods: the author uses a comparative analysis of the main scientific achievements in the field of genetic engineering and emerging international practice of legal research in this field. Results: the author proves the importance of distinguishing between the definition of the concept of an embryo in terms of biology and genetics, and the consolidation of legal status and the need for legal protection, in order to avoid abuse of law and evasion of law in the commercial use of human stem cells and human embryos.
Key words: embryo; stem cells; parthenogenesis; reproductive cloning; somatic cloning; totipatency; legal status of the embryo; somatic rights. 
References
1. Pestrikova A.A. Sozdaniye embrionov – tsel' i dal'neysheye ispol'zovaniye, kak osnovaniya opredeleniya ikh pravovogo statusa (Creation of embryos - the purpose and further use as the basis for determining their legal status). Natsional'naya assotsiatsiya uchenykh, 2015, VII (12), pp. 23-26. 
2. Pestrikova A.A. Gennaya inzheneriya: problemy pravovogo regulirovaniya (Genetic engineering: problems of legal regulation). Uspekhi sovremennoy nauki, 2019, T. 2, No. 3, pp. 64-69.
3. Ach J. S., B. Schöne‐Seifert & L. Siep. 2006. Totipotenz und Potentialität. In Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik 11. L. Honnefelder & D. Sturma, ed. Berlin, Boston, De Gruyter, pp. 261-321.
4. Advena‐Regnery Barbara, Hans-Georg Dederer, Franziska Enghofer,Tobias Cantz and Thomas HeinemannFraming the Ethical and Legal Issues of Human Artificial Gametes in Research, Therapy, and Assisted Reproduction: A German Perspective. Bioethics, 2018, Vol. 32, Issue 5, pp. 314-326.
5. Chen Z. et al. Birth of Parthenote Mice Directly from Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cells 2009. DOI: 10.1002/stem.158.
Schickl H., Braun M., Dabrock P. Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells // https://doi.org/10.1111/bioe.12334 // https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/ 10.1111/bioe.12334.
6. iPS Cells Produce Viable Mice through Tetraploid Complementation, X. Zhao [et al]. Nature, 2009. DOI: 10.1038/nature08267.  
Received: 10.02.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.8
AWARENESS AS A MANDATORY FEATURE OF CONSENT TO HUMAN GENOME RESEARCHES (TREATMENT, DIAGNOSTICS)
(IN TERMS OF THE PROPER PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS)
POVAROV Iurii Sergeevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
One of the key factors in assessing the coordination of the third-party interference in a citizen’s private life (including when implementing activities related to the human genome) is his awareness of the actual and (or) legal aspects of such interference; however, many aspects of relevant information procedures remain blank or debatable. Aim: to identify the causes and significance (first of all, from the point of view of observing the principle of respect for the individual) of entrenchment  in international legal acts and Russian legislation the requirement of informed consent of the subject; analysis of approaches to determining the content and volume of information provided, as well as to interpreting the provision on reporting data in an accessible form; studying the specifics of informing in extraordinary situations (refusal to receive information, etc.). Methods: general theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic; private scientific methods such as comparative legal, legal dogmatic, the method of interpreting legal norms. Results: it is established that the main factors for introducing the sign of informed consent are the nature of the protected goods and the qualification of the citizen as a weak (vulnerable) side; the appropriateness of using the categories of “necessity” and “sufficiency” is justified in determining the completeness of the disclosed information; a close relationship between the signs of awareness and voluntariness of consent is disclosed, which, however, does not cancel their autonomy.
Key words: personal autonomy; human genome; medical intervention; personal data; informed consent. 
References
1. Aleksandrova O.Yu. Problemy realizatsii prava patsiyenta na informirovannoye dobrovol'noye soglasiye pri meditsinskom vmeshatel'stve (vozmozhnyye puti resheniya) (Problems of realizing the patient’s right to informed voluntary consent during medical intervention (possible solutions)). Vestnik Esteticheskoy Meditsiny, 2009, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 82-87.
2. Afanas'yeva Е.G. Pravo na informirovannoye soglasiye kak osnova yuridicheskogo statusa patsiyenta (The right to informed consent as the basis of the legal status of the patient). Sovremennoye meditsinskoye pravo v Rossii i za rubezhom, sbornik nauchnykh trudov, otv. red. O.L. Dubovik, Yu.S. Pivovarov. Moscow, Institut nauchnoy informatsii po obshchestvennym naukam RAN, 2003, pp. 138-156.
3. Bogdan V.V. Printsip informirovaniya kak neobkhodimaya sostavlyayushchaya realizatsii prav grazhdan na okhranu zdorov'ya pri okazanii platnykh meditsinskiy uslug (The principle of informing as a necessary component of the realization of the rights of citizens to protect their health in the provision of paid medical services). Pravovyye i sotsial'no-ekonomicheskiye problemy sovremennoy Rossii: teoriya i praktika, sbornik stat'yey 5 mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Penza, Penzenskiy gos. agrarnyy universitet, 2016, pp. 18-23.
4. Boyarinova V.I. Pravovaya priroda informirovannogo dobrovol'nogo soglasiya na meditsinskoye vmeshatel'stvo (Legal Nature of Informed Voluntary Consent for Medical Intervention). Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Seriya «Pravo». 2019, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 115–124. DOI: 10.24147/ 1990-5173.2019.16(4).115-124. 
5. Dolzhnikov A.V. Konstitutsionnyy printsip sorazmernosti: mezhdistsipli-narnyy podkhod (The constitutional principle of proportionality: an interdisciplinary approach). Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Yuridicheskiye nauki, 2020, No. 47, pp. 6-27. DOI: 10.17072/1995-4190-2020-47-6-27.
6. Erofeev S.V., Erofeeva I.S. Printsip informirovannogo soglasiya patsiyenta: obzor zarubezhnoy meditsinskoy i yuridicheskoy praktiki (The principle of patient informed consent: a review of foreign medical and legal practice). Meditsinskoye pravo, 2006, No. 3, pp. 42-48.
7. Kazakova E.B., Zimina M.Yu. Doktrina informirovannogo soglasiya patsiyenta: sravnitel'no-pravovoy analiz zarubezhnoy i rossiyskoy meditsinskoy i yuridicheskoy praktiki (Patient Informed Consent Doctrine: A Comparative Legal Analysis of Foreign and Russian Medical and Legal Practices). Nauka. Obshchestvo. Gosudarstvo, 2014, No. 1 (5), pp. 117-128.
8. Kazakova E.B., Mironova M.Yu. Istoriya razvitiya instituta informirovannogo soglasiya i sovremennoye pravovoye regulirovaniye dannogo instituta (The history of the development of the institute of informed consent and the modern legal regulation of this institution). Istoriya gosudarstva i prava (History of state and law), 2012, No. 21, pp. 35-37.
9. Kushchenko V.V. Informirovannoye soglasiye patsiyenta na meditsinskoye vmeshatel'stvo (Informed patient consent for medical intervention). Ratsional'naya farmakoterapiya v kardiologii, 2005, No. 2, pp. 96-98.
10. Malikov A.Ya. Informirovannoye soglasiye patsiyenta na uchastiye v biomeditsinskom issledovanii (Informed consent of the patient to participate in a biomedical research). Uchenyye zapiski SPbGMU im. akad. I.P. Pavlova, 2008, Vol. XV, No. 4, pp. 3-5.
11. Moiseeva E.Yu., Chernus N.Yu., Krasilnikov S.E. Informirovannoye dobrovol'noye soglasiye na meditsinskoye vmeshatel'stvo pered lecheniyem onkologicheskikh zabolevaniy metodami, obespechivayushchimi sokhraneniye reproduktivnoy funktsii (Voluntary Informed Consent to Medical Intervention before Treatment of Oncological Diseases Using Methods Ensuring Fertility Preservation). Sotsial'noye i pensionnoye pravo, 2018, No. 4, pp. 46-51.
12. Pishchita A.N., Klimov A.E. Informirovannoye dobrovol'noye soglasiye v meditsine (pravovoy aspekt) (Informed voluntary consent in medicine (legal aspect)). Vestnik RUDN. Seriya «Meditsina», 2006, No. 1 (33), pp. 112-118.
13. Radosteva Yu.V. Zashchita genomnoy informatsii v virtual'nom prostranstve (Protection of genomic information in virtual space). Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2019, No 3, pp. 42-45.
14. Rusanov K.I. Informirovannoye dobrovol'noye soglasiye na meditsinskoye vmeshatel'stvo: poisk balansa interesov vracha i patsiyenta (Informed voluntary consent to medical intervention: a search for a balance of interests between doctor and patient). Vestnik Ural'skogo instituta ekonomiki, upravleniya i prava, 2019, No 4, pp. 97-101.
15. Sergeev V.V., Gorlova E.V. Informirovanie o riske, svyazannom s metodami okazaniya meditsinskoi pomoshchi (Informing about the risk associated with medical care practice). Iuridicheskii vestnik Samarskogo universiteta, 2019, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 65-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18287/ 2542-047X-2019-5-1-65-70.
16. Stambolsky D.V., Bryzgalina E.V., Efimenko A.Yu., Alasania K.Yu., Shkomova E.M., Gavrilenko S.M., Varkhotov T.A., Matskeplishvili S.T. Informirovannoye soglasiye na polucheniye i ispol'zovaniye kletochnogo materiala cheloveka: normativno-pravovoye i eticheskoye regulirovaniye (Informed consent to the receipt and use of human cellular material: juristic and ethical regulation). Rossiyskiy kardiologicheskiy zhurnal, 2018, No. 23 (12), pp. 84-90. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.15829/1560-4071-2018-12-84-90.
17. Beauchamp T.I., Childress J.F. Principles of biomedical Ethics. 4th ed. New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1994. 
18. McCormick Thomas R. Principles of Bioethics // https://depts.washington. edu/bhdept/ethics-medicine/bioethics-topics/articles/principles-bioethics.
Received: 11.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.9
FEATURES OF FORMING AND IMPLEMENTING PROFESSIONAL SELECTION PROGRAMS WITH THE USE OF GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR ANALYZING HUMAN ADAPTATION POTENTIAL
RUZANOVA Valentina Dmitrievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
BELYAKOV Vladimir Ivanovich
Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia.
In the context of forming the genetic profile of Russia’s population, including through the implementation of genetic passportization, the problem of expanding the scope of application of the results of genetic technologies in the direction of their use in the system of measures related to recruiting becomes actual. Aim: the substantiation of the legal possibility of using genetic analysis data for professional selection and determination of the main directions for further improvement of legislation in this area. Methods: empirical methods of comparison, description, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic. Private scientific methods are used: legal-dogmatic and the method of interpretation of legal norms. Results: the study reveals the importance of the analysis of the genetic correspondence of the individual to the position and the nature of the work performed and to determine the place of such analysis in the system of professional selection; substantiate the need to create specialized genetic passports and characterize their content; formulate proposals for the formation of a regulatory framework related to genetic passportization; identify the main directions of improving labor legislation; argue the idea of the possibility of extending the experience of applying genetic data in the recruiting system to the procedure for selecting specialists for night work performed.
Key words: genetic technologies; normative legal act; legislation; genetic passportization; genetic passport; professional selection; adaptive potential; circadian biorhythms.
References
1. Vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya sovremennykh dostizheniy psikhogenetiki v interesakh pro-fessional'nogo psikhologicheskogo otbora v Vooruzhennykh silakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii (The possibilities of using modern achievements of psychogenetics in the interests of professional psychological selection in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation), N.V. Zelenina [i dr.]. Vestnik Rossiyskoy Voyenno-meditsinskoy akademii, 2016, No. 3 (55), pp. 245-250. 
2. Zandanova O.V., Korytova Ye.V. Kadrovyy otbor personala v organizatsii (Personnel staff selection in an organization). Nauka i biznes: puti razvitiya, 2016, No. 4 (58), pp. 48-51. 
3. Informirovannoye soglasiye na polucheniye i ispol'zovaniye kletochnogo materiala cheloveka: normativno-pravovoye i eticheskoye regulirovaniye (Informed consent to receive and use human cellular material: legal and ethical regulation), D.V. Stambol'skiy [i dr.], Rossiyskiy kardiologicheskiy zhurnal. 2018, No. 12, pp. 84-90.
4. Kuz'mina V.Ye., Belyakov V.I. Osnovy adaptologii, uchebnoye posobiye (The basics of adaptology: a training manual), Izd. 2-ye. Samara, Izd-vo Samarskiy universitet, 2013. 
5. Maksimova N.L. Professional'nyye riski rabotnikov s nochnym rezhimom truda (Occupational risks of night workers). Mir pedagogiki i psikhologii, 2016, No. 2 (2), pp. 22-31. 
6. Mosse I.B. Molekulyarno-geneticheskiye tekhnologii v sporte vysshikh dostizheniy (Molecular genetic technologies in sports of the highest achievements). Nauka v Olimpiyskom sporte, 2015, No. 1, pp 43-51. 
7. Petrov A.Ya. Okhrana truda: o novoy kontseptsii instituta trudovogo prava Rossii (Labor protection: on a new concept of the institute of labor law of Russia). Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki, 2016, No. 1, pp. 58-71. 
8. Povarov YU.S. Geneticheskaya pasportizatsiya naseleniya: voprosy pravovogo regulirovaniya (Genetic passportization of the population: issues of legal regulation), Pravovoye regulirovaniye genomnykh issledovaniy: vzglyad molodezhi. I Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya, g. Samara, 26 iyulya 2019g., sbornik nauchnykh statey. Samara, Izd-vo OOO «Insoma-press», 2019, pp. 58-62. 
9. Popova O.V. Geneticheskiy pasport cheloveka i vozmozhnosti yego polucheniya grazhdanami Rossii (The genetic passport of a person and the possibility of obtaining it by citizens of Russia). Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2019, No. 7 (175), pp. 14-19. 
10. Rassolov I.M., Chubukova S. G. Vnutriotraslevyye printsipy obrabotki geneticheskoy in-formatsii (Intra-industry principles of processing genetic information). Aktual'nyye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2019, No. 5 (102), pp. 98-110. 
11. Sorokin G.A., Frolova N.M. Otsenka professional'nogo riska pri rezhime truda s nochnoy rabotoy (Assessment of occupational risk during night work), Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya. 2014, No. 9, pp. 32-37. 
11. Todradze K.N., Novikov N.N. Nochnoy dozor. Rabota v nochnoye vremya (The night watch. Night work). Bezopasnost' i okhrana truda. 2017, No. 4, pp. 40-46. 
12. Tsvetkova N.A., Kulakova S.V. Issledovaniye stressoustoychivosti i zhiznestoykosti sotrudnikov ugolovno-ispolnitel'noy sistemy (The study of stress resistance and resilience of workers of the penal system). Psikhologiya i pravo, 2019, T. 9, No. 2, pp. 112-129.
13. Analysis of the infection status of the health care workers in Wuhan during the COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional study, L. Zheng [et al]. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2020, pp. 1-13.
14. Costa G. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions, Safety Health Work, 2010, Vol. 1, pp. 112-123.
15. Ethics and Occupational Health in the Contemporary, S. Iavicoli [et al]. World of Work International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018, Vol. 15, pp. 1-17.
16. Gronfier C. Modulation of Human Clocks, Wake, and Sleep, A.S. Prayag [et al]. Clocks Sleep, 2019, Vol. 1 (1), pp. 193-208.
17. Influence of the A/T polymorphism of the FTO gene and sport specializations on the body composition of young Russian athletes, O.I. Parfenteva [and etc.]. Anthropol. Anz., 2019, Vol. 76 (5), pp. 401-408.
18. Shift work and long work hours and their association with chronic health conditions: A systematic review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses, A.S. Riverа [et al]. PLOS ONE, 2020, pp. 1.
19. Zhanq R., Wang X., Ni L. et al. COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment. Life Sci, 2020, Vol. 250, pp. 1-5.
Received: 15.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.10
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AS A THREAT TO RUSSIA'S NATIONAL SECURITY
KHOLOPOVA Elena Nikolaevna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure, Criminalistics and Legal Informatics of the Law Institute of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia. Articles in the database "Scopus" / "Web of Science": DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2018-4-3. 
MASALSKAYA Vitaliya Olegovna
Assistant to the Kaliningrad Transport Prosecutor, 2nd Class Jurist, Master of Law of the Law Institute of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia. 
The urgent task of the Russian Federation at the present stage is to counter the growing threats of using weapons of mass destruction, including biological weapons, in accordance with the “The Fundamentals of the State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Field of Chemical and Biological Security for the Period up to 2025 and beyond”. The adopted “Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Genetic Technologies for 2019-2027” defines the need to develop an appropriate regulatory framework for ensuring the safe use of genetic engineering methods that allow the creation of a new generation of biological weapons that can be used for various purposes, which is a hidden threat to Russia's national security. Aim: to prove that biological weapons pose a threat to Russia's national security, so it is necessary to develop special areas of protection against their use. Methods: the authors use the analysis of international documents, legislation of the Russian Federation, theoretical provisions on the problems of biological weapons, biotechnologies, including their generalization, comparison, critical assessments of experts. Results: the possibilities of using various types of biological weapons against the Russian Federation created abroad on the basis of the latest achievements in the field of genomics, proteomics, genetic engineering of pathogens, ecopathogens, as well as organic and inorganic chemistry, indicate the need to develop a national targeted program to counter biological weapons in the main priority areas. Strengthening the national security of the Russian Federation is determined by the creation of the latest biotechnologies for countering biological weapons.
Key words: threat to national security; weapons; mass destruction; biological; security; bioterrorism.
References
1. Atlas RM. The medical threat of biological weapons. Crit Rev Microbiol, 1998, (24), pp. 157-168. 
2. Bogach V.V., Besednova N.N. Bioterrorizm: mify i real'nost'. Glava 6. Bio-terrorizm segodnya (Bioterrorism: myths and reality. Chapter 6. Bio-terrorism today). Dal'nevostochnyy zhurnal infektsionnoy patologii, 2005, No. 7, pp.128-139.
3. Zhirovov D. A., Gerasimovich N. S., Leonova Ye. N. Biologicheskoye oruzhiye, kak odno iz vidov oruzhiya massovogo porazheniya (Biological weapons as one of the types of weapons of mass destruction). Aktual'nyye problemy aviatsii i kosmonavtiki. Tekhnicheskiye nauki, 2011, No. 7, pp. 255-256. 
4. Shcherbakov G. Istochniki i osnovnyye ugrozy dlya natsional'noy bezopasnosti (Sources and main threats to national security). Yadernoye rasprostraneniye, 2003, No. 47, pp. 50-59. 
5. Fedorov L.A. Sovetskoye biologicheskoye oruzhiye: istoriya, ekologiya, politika (Soviet biological weapons: history, ecology, politics). Moscow, MSoES, 2005. 
6. Bol'shoy yuridicheskiy slovar' (Large legal dictionary), V.N. Dodonov, V.D. Yermakov, M.A. Krylov i dr. Moscow, Infra-M, 2001. 
7. Voyenno-morskoy slovar' (Naval Dictionary), V.N. Chernavin. Moscow, Voyenizdat MO SSSR, 1990. 
8. Sinyakin I.I. Terrorizm s ispol'zovaniyem oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya: mezhdunarodno-pravovyye voprosy protivodeystviya (Terrorism with using weapons of mass destruction: international legal issues of counteraction). Moscow, Norma, 2012.
Received: 10.06.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.11
MODERN MOLECULAR GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICINE:ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
KHUSAINOVA Rita Igorevna
Doctor of Sciences (Biology), Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics of the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of the Ufa Federal Research Center, Deputy Director for Laboratory and Diagnostic Work of the State Budgetary Institution of  Health Care “Republican Medical Genetic Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, Ufa, Russia. 
AKHTYAMOVA Evgenia Viktorovna
Associate Professor, Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law, Bashkir State University, Ufa, 
Russia. 
MINNIAHMETOV Ildar Ramilevich
Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Researcher at the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the State Budgetary Institution of  Health Care “Republican Medical Genetic Center”, Ufa, Russia. 
SULTANOVA Regina Ildarovna
Biologist of the State Budgetary Institution of  Health Care “Republican Medical Genetic Center”, Ufa, Russia. 
Currently, the methods of molecular diagnostic technologies are being developed, improved and implemented in clinical practice, ensuring the progress of medicine. The strategy of the new direction - personalized medicine is diseases prevention and treatment based on the results of molecular genetic researches at the earliest stages of disease, however, the use of genetic testing raises a number of ethical, legal and social issues that require legislative regulation. Information obtained as a result of a genetic test allows us to predict future health status and assess the risks of pathological conditions, but can also be used by third parties to discriminate and infringe on human rights, as well as contain unexpected findings, affecting the family and descendants of the examined person. Aim: analysis and synthesis of theoretical knowledge and practical experience of legal regulation of the issues of preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnostics; the use of genomic technologies for DNA typing of hereditary diseases and current trends in the improvement of regulatory legal acts in this field of research. Methods: empirical methods of comparison, description, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic. Private scientific methods are used: legal-dogmatic and the method of interpretation of legal norms. Results: the experience of legal regulation of the genetic research regime both in the countries of the world and in national legislation is studied. It is concluded that the national regulatory framework needs to improve the legal regime of DNA testing. Some ways to resolve regulatory issues of DNA testing are identified.
Key words: prenatal diagnosis; preimplantation diagnostics; genetic testing; sex selection; legislative regulation.
References
1. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoye regulirovaniye predimplantatsionnoy geneticheskoy diagnostiki (pgd) i tendentsii razvitiya rossiyskogo zakonodatel'stva v sfere vspomogatel'nykh reproduktivnykh tekhnologiy (International legal regulation of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and trends in the development of Russian legislation in the field of assisted reproductive technologies), N.A. Altynnik [et al]. Genom, 2019, No. 6 (151), pp. 9-14. 
2. Akhtyamova Ye.V., Alsynbayeva E.M., Khusainova R.I. Pravovoye reguliro-vaniye preimplantatsionnoy i prenatal'noy geneticheskoy diagnostiki v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: problemy i perspektivy (Legal regulation of preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnostics in the Russian Federation: problems and prospects). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2019, No. 3 (57), pp.86-93. 
3. Prenatal'naya diagnostika. Meditsinskaya laboratornaya diagnostika: programmy i algoritmy: rukovodstvo dlya vrachey (Prenatal diagnosis. Medical laboratory diagnostics: programs and algorithms: a guide for doctors), V.S. Baranov [et al]. GEOTAR-Media, 2014, No. 3, pp. 308-346. 
4. Opyt pravovogo regulirovaniya protsedury preimplantatsionnoy gene-ticheskoy diagnostiki (PGD) v Federativnoy Respublike Germaniya (Experience in legal regulation of the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany), V.V. Komarova [et al]. Problemy prava, 2019, No. (71), pp. 102-108. 
5. Svitnev K.N. Yuridicheskiy status embriona v mezhdunarodnom prave (pravoprimenitel'naya praktika) (The legal status of the embryo in international law (law enforcement practice). Meditsinskoye pravo, 2009, No. 3, pp. 31-36. 
6. Chogovadze A.G. Osobennosti zakonodatel'nogo regulirovaniya preim-plantatsionnoy i prenatal'noy geneticheskoy diagnostiki v razlichnykh stranakh (Features of legislative regulation of preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnostics in various countries). Kletochnaya transplantologiya i tkanevaya inzheneriya, 2012, No. 7 (2), pp.112-118. 
7. Khayat S.Sh., Kurilo L.F., Chernykh V.B. Vspomogatel'nyye reproduktivnyye tekhnologii i pravovaya problema vybora pola ploda (Assisted reproductive technologies and the legal problem of fetal sex choice). Andrologiya i genital'naya khirurgiya, 2019, No. 20 (2), pp. 64-68.
Received: 10.06.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.12
CURRENT ISSUES OF LEGAL REGULATION OF HUMAN GENOME DATABASES CREATING AND FUNCTIONING
CHEMERIS Alexey Viktorovich
Doctor of Sciences (Biology), Professor, Chief Researcher of the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Federal State Budget Scientific Institution of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia. 
ANISIMOV Vladimir Alexandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
AMINEV Farit Gizarovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Chairman of the Public Council for Expert Activity in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Honored Lawyer of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. 
The relevance of the article is due, on the one hand, to the active introduction of genomic research technologies into everyday life and the accumulation of a significant amount of genetic information while providing medical care and other genome screening and sequencing services by private and state organizations. On the other hand, it is relevant due to the beginning of the implementation of large-scale government projects to create an information-analytical system for storing and processing genetic data. In these circumstances, the issues of developing an effective legal regulation of creating and functioning of human genome databases are of particular importance. Aim: to study the requirements of international and national standards for statutory regulation of relations connected to genomic researches, as well as to collecting, processing, storing and using genetic information. Methods: in the study formal logical and general scientific methods of scientific knowledge are used; private scientific (comparative legal, formal dogmatic) methods are used. Results: Based on these requirements, the current national legislation is assessed, an urgent need is defined to adopt a special federal law on the protection of genomic information, which enshrines the necessary rules on procedures for forming relevant databases, the procedure for storing and using the resulting genomic information, as well as the legal regime of the information contained in the database.
Key words: human genome; genomic research; DNA database; international standards; genomic registration; personal data.
References
1. Levushkin A.N. Grazhdansko-pravovoy rezhim genov kak ob"yektov grazhdanskikh prav (Civil legal regime of genes as objects of civil rights). Lex russica, 2019, No. 6, pp. 100-109. DOI: doi.org/10.17803/1729-5920.2019. 151.6.100-109. 
2. Kubitovich S.N. DNK kak nositel' informatsii neogranichennogo kruga lits (DNA as an information carrier of an unlimited circle of persons). Vestnik ekonomicheskoy bezopasnosti, 2017, No. 4, pp. 184-188. 
3. Rassolov I.M., Chubukova S.G., Mikurova I.V. Biometriya v kontekste personal'nykh dannykh i geneticheskoy informatsii: pravovyye problemy (Biometry in the context of personal data and genetic information: legal problems). Lex russica, 2019, No. 1, pp. 108-118. DOI: doi.org/10.17803/1729-5920. 2019.146.1.108-118. 
4. Ruzanova V.D. Voprosy pravovoy okhrany genomnoy informatsii (Issues of legal protection of genomic information). Pravovoye regulirovaniye v sfere genomnykh issledovaniy: vzglyad molodozhi, sbornik nauchnykh statey I Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Samara, Izdatel'stvo: OOO "Insoma-press", 2019, pp. 10-13. 
5. Serova O.A., Belaya O.V. Problemy sistematizatsii printsipov bioetiki: etiko-pravovyye aspekty (Problems of systematizing the principles of bioethics: ethical and legal aspects). Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2019, No. 5 (173), pp. 49-51.
Received: 10.06.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.13
APPROACHES TO LEGAL REGULATION OF GENETIC TESTING IN THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
CHUBUKOVA Svetlana Georgievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Information Law and Digital Technologies of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Moscow, Russia. 
The relevance of legal regulation of genetic testing is determined by the fact that genetic data can be used not only for the good, but also for discrimination against a person. Aim: To analyze the approaches of different countries to the development of legal regulation of genetic testing and the use of genetic data. Methods: empirical methods of comparison, description, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic; private scientific methods: comparative legal and the method of interpretation of legal norms. Results: Two approaches are identified in legal regulation of the use of genetic data. The first approach involves limiting the freedom of contract in the field of employment or insurance, introducing general prohibitions on human rights discrimination on the grounds of genetic characteristics or creating special legal rules for insurance companies and employers. The second approach is to enact comprehensive privacy laws to protect genetic data from collection, use and disclosure without the consent of the parties involved. It is concluded that only an integrated approach to legal regulation of genetic researches and the use of genetic information, including the introduction of general prohibitions on discrimination on the ground of genetic characteristics in human rights legislation, the creation of special legal norms for insurance companies and employers, the establishment of a strictly controlled regime for genetic data use will ensure the protection of the rights of subjects of genetic data and the bio-security of the state.
Key words: genetic testing; genetic information; rule-of-law state; discrimination; personal data; genetic data banks.
References
1. Bogdanova E.E. Pravovyye problemy i riski geneticheskoy revolyutsii: geneticheskaya informatsiya i diskriminatsiya (Legal problems and risks of the genetic revolution: genetic information and discrimination). Lex Russica, 2019, No. 6 (151), pp. 18-29.
2. Volotovsky I., Poleshko A. CRISPR/CAS9 – sistema redaktirovaniya genomov. Proryv v meditsinskoy biologii i gennoy terapii? (CRISPR/CAS9-genome editing system. A breakthrough in medical biology and gene therapy?). Science and innovation, 2017, No. 12, pp. 59-64.
3. Paltsev M.A. Personifitsirovannaya meditsina (Personalized medicine). Science in Russia, 2011, No. 1, pp. 12-17. 
4. Savchenko V. Genom cheloveka: eticheskiye vyzovy i riski (Human Genome: ethical challenges and risks). Science and innovation. 2010. No. 12 (94), pp. 36-40.
5. Pravovyye osnovy bioekonomiki i biobezopasnosti (Legal bases of bio economics and Biosafety), monograph, ed. by A.A. Mokhov, O.V. Sushkova. Moscow, Prospect, 2020.
6. Shugurov M.V. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoy printsip nauchnykh issledovaniy i globalizatsii nauchno-tekhnologicheskogo progressa (International legal principle of scientific research and globalization of scientific and technological progress). The Russian justice, 2012, No. 2, pp. 17-21.
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Received: 15.05.2020
DOI: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.14
INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS DURING GENOMIC RESEARCHES
SHIPOVA Ekaterina Andreevna
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Entrepreneurial, Labor and Corporate Law, Faculty of Law named after M. M. Speransky, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia. 
International and regional human rights law offers a normative basis for researches conducted with human participation. Despite the fact that the goal of conducting medical researches, including genomic researches, is to obtain new knowledge, it should never prevail over human rights and freedoms. This principle goes through all international legal acts relating to bio-medical researches and the human genome. Aim: analysis of the existing regulatory and ethical framework for conducting genomic researches at the international level. Methods: empirical methods are used: comparison, analysis and synthesis, generalization, description; special methods: comparative legal, logical, systemic. Results: the study examines the basic regulatory and ethical framework for conducting genomic researches at the international level. The basic principles of the protection of human rights and freedoms during genomic research are formulated, which are enshrined in international regulatory and ethical acts.
Key words: genomic researches; protection of human rights; legal regulation; ethical and legal standards; international legal acts; bioethics.
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Received: 15.05.2020
 
AKHTYAMOVA Evgenia Viktorovna
Associate Professor, Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law, Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. 
ALBOROV Suliko Viktorovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Lecturer of the Department of Civil Law of the Moscow Region State University, Moscow, Russia. 
AMINEV Farit Gizarowich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Chairman of the Public Council for Expert Activities in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Honored Lawyer of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia.
ANISIMOV Vladimir Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of  the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
BELYAKOV Vladimir Ivanovich
Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia.
BORODIN Sergey Sergeevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
INYUSHKIN Andrey Alekseevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. Articles in the Scopus / Web of Science database: DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-13397-9_54; DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-29586-8_67; DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-319-75383-6_29; DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-32015-7_4. 
CHEMERIS Alexey Viktorovich
Doctor of Sciences (Biology), Professor, Chief Researcher of the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Federal State Budget Scientific Institution of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia. 
CHUBUKOVA Svetlana Georgievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Information Law and Digital Technologies of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Moscow, Russia. 
KHOLOPOVA Elena Nikolaevna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure, Criminalistics and Legal Informatics of the Law Institute of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia. Articles in the database "Scopus" / "Web of Science": DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2018-4-3. 
KHUSAINOVA Rita Igorevna
Doctor of Sciences (Biology), Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics of the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of the Ufa Federal Research Center, Deputy Director for Laboratory and Diagnostic Work of the State Budgetary Institution of  Health Care “Republican Medical Genetic Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, Ufa, Russia. 
KRYUKOVA Elena Sergeevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
LEVUSHKIN Anatoly Nicolаevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Civil Law of the Russian State University of Justice, Moscow, Russia. 
MASALSKAYA Vitaliya Olegovna
Assistant to the Kaliningrad Transport Prosecutor, 2nd Class Jurist, Master of Law of the Law Institute of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia. 
MINBALEEV Alexey Vladimirovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Expert of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of the Department of Information Law and Digital Technologies of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL).
MINNIAHMETOV Ildar Ramilevich
Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Researcher at the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the State Budgetary Institution of  Health Care “Republican Medical Genetic Center”, Ufa, Russia. 
PESTRIKOVA Anastasia Alexandrovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Public Educational Institution of Higher Education “Samara Humanitarian Academy”, Samara, Russia. 
POVAROV Iurii Sergeevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
RUZANOVA Valentina Dmitrievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Civil and Business Law, Samara National Research University, Samara, Russia. 
SULTANOVA Regina Ildarovna
Biologist of the State Budgetary Institution of  Health Care “Republican Medical Genetic Center”, Ufa, Russia. 
SHIPOVA Ekaterina Andreevna
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Entrepreneurial, Labor and Corporate Law, Faculty of Law named after M. M. Speransky, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia. 
 

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

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