1 (51) 2018 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

1 (51) 2018

1 (51) 2018
Inside

  • From Law to the Rule-of-Law State
  • Information Technology and International Law
  • Legal Nihilism as an Antipode of Technological Culture
  • Development of National Agrarian Law

Feature

Modern Problems of State and Law

THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Voronin B.A.Difficult Path of Forming and Developing National Agrarian Law 
Salnikov V.P.
From Law to the Rule-of-Law State
Enikeev R.N.
From Legal Organization of Social Life to the Rule-of-Law State
Romanovskaya V.B.
Salnikov M.V.
Gorbunov M.D.
Minimum Content of Law and Its Connection with Morality in the Neo-Positivist Concept of Herbert Hart (Approaches to the Research)
Apolskiy E.A.
The Doctrines of the Rule-of-Law State in the Works of Russian Pre-Revolutionary State Law Scientists of the Early 20th Century
Kashapov U.A.
The Development of Russian Legal Science and Anthropological Paradigms in the XV - XVIII Centuries
Pakhomova E.A.
Salnikov M.V.
Fomichev M.N.
Points of Weakness of the Modern Russian Libertarian Legal Concept
Chernykh A.V.
Legal Nihilism As an Antipode of Technological Culture
Ismagilov I.R.
Theoretical and Methodological Problems of the Development of Political and Legal Thought at the Turn of the XVIII–XIX Centuries: The Preconditions for the Development of the Philosophy of Right of G.W.F. Hegel
Kondrateva A.N.
To the Question of the Origin of “Decretum Gratiani”
Kondrateva A.N.
Salnikov M.V.
Tsyganov V.I.
Ideas of Eurasianism in the Political and Legal Reality of Modern Russia
Petrenko M.N.
On the Content, Theoretical Foundations and Admissibility Criteria of State Legal Coercion
Chupraykova T.V.Professional Culture of the Lawyer: Theoretical and Legal Comprehension
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Kruglova J.B.
Misyakova O.V.
Implementation of Principles of Law During Administrative Proceedings
Tulupova E.O.
Larinbaeva I.I.Features of the Constitutional Process in a Federation Entity (On the Exam-ple of the Constitutional Court of the Land of Brandenburg)
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL
AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Kozhina Yu.A.
Some Implications of the Implementation of the Program of Surrogate   Motherhood in Russia: Theory and Practice98
Dzkuya S.V.
Peculiarities of the Concepts of Obligation and Contract in the Civil Code of the   Russian Federation and the Civil Code of France: A Comparative Legal Study
Fatikhov R.V.
Features of the Share Capital Creation in Economic Partnerships
Fatikhova L.M.
Features of the Inheritance of the Rights Related to the Testator’s Participation in Business Partnerships, Societies and Production Cooperatives
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Baranov V.M. 
Spasennikov B.A.
Pogodina T.G.
Legal Grounds for Compulsory Psychiatric Treatment
Gaidai M.K.
Convicts - Former Court and Law Enforcement Officials As a Special So-cial Group
Abramova S.R.
Specificities of Instituting Criminal Proceedings and Typical Investigative Situations at the Initial Stage of Investigating Illegal Adoption
Serdyuk P.L.
Fraud As a Means of Committing Property and Financial Crimes
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Peremolotova L.Yu.
Some Aspects of Ensuring and Protecting Individual Rights and Freedoms While Carrying out Operative Search Activities in Penitentiary Institutions
Fayzullina A.A.  
Peculiarities of Making Material Traces As a Result of Intentional Destruc-tion or Damage to Property of Another, Committed by Arson
Aleksanin A.S.
On the Concept and Content of the Operative Search Activity “Obtaining Computer Information”
Bykova E.F.
To the Question of the Significance of Forensic Audit
Semenova O.Yu.
The Method of Committing a Crime As an Element of Forensic Characteristics of Crimes Against Life and Health Committed by Medical Workers in Consequence of Medical Misconduct
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW
Gulyaev I.A.
Non-tax Budget Revenues of the Budget System: Terminology Issues
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Khotko O.A.
Legal Nature of Еnvirоnmеntal Safеty of Transроrt Aсtivity
Korobka L.E.
The Principle of Transparency in the Implementation of Environmental Le-gal Relations
Mukhametgareeva N.M. 
Yusupova Z.A.
International Law Aspects of Environmental Protection in the EU
Countries (Part 1)
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY. 
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Vakhitova G.V.
Shonin N.E.
Information Technology and International Law
Gurguliya A.A.
The Analysis of the Development of Legal Regulation of Foreign Invest-ments In Russia
TO THE AUTHORS
THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE DIFFICULT PATH OF FORMING AND DEVELOPING NATIONAL AGRARIAN LAW
VORONIN Boris Aleksandrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Management and Law, Urals State Agrarian University, Yekaterinburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In modern conditions, the historical difficulties of forming and developing agrarian law in our country cannot remain out of researchers’ view. At the same time, serious attention is paid to the difficulties of forming and developing agrarian entrepreneurship, specific features of the legal status of the national peasantry, as well as specific aspects of the national land and agrarian legislation. National legal science has passed a long and difficult path from collective farm law to agrarian law. The successful development of the agrarian sector of our country is completely and entirely tied to the development of the Russian state towards a true rule-of-law state.
Key words: land-agrarian reform; legislation on land; collective farm law; agricultural law; agrarian law: agrarian and legal science.
References
1. Polozhenie «O sotsialisticheskom zemleustroistve i o merakh perekhoda k sotsialisticheskomu zemledeliyu». Utverzhdeno postanovleniem VTsIK 14 fevralya 1919 g. (SU RSFSR. 1919. No. 4. St. 43) (The Regulation “On Socialist Land Management and Measures for the Transition to Socialist Agriculture”. Approved by the decision of the Central Executive Committee on February 14, 1919 (RSFSR SU., 1919. No. 4. Article 43)).
2. Rayanov F.M. Predmet i sistema sel'skokhozyaistvennogo prava (The subject and system of agri-cultural law), uchebnoe posobie. Ufa, izd. Bashkirsk. un-ta, 1980.
3. Agrarnoe pravo (Agrarian Law), uchebnik dlya vuzov. S.S. Akmanov, N.N. Vedenin, V.S. Shish-kina, G.E. Bystrov, M.I. Kozyr', B.D. Klyukin, M.I. Palladina, A.A. Pogrebnoi, F.M. Rayanov, N.A. Syrodoev, G.V. Chubukov, pod red. prof. G.E. Bystrova i prof. M. I. Kozyrya. M., Yurist', 2000. 
5. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno – pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and the Russian state and legal reality), Pravo i politika, 2004, No. 12, pp. 5-10.
6. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2 (32), pp. 10-19.
7. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 1 (39), pp. 6-15.
Received: 28.01.2018
FROM LAW TO THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the journal "Legal Science: History and Modernity", St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the study of the problems directly related to the theory and practice of the formation and functioning of the rule-of-law state, the Ufa School of the Rule-of-Law State plays an important role. Scientific works published in the journal “The Rule-of-Law State: Theory and Practice” emphasize regularly that the problems of the formation and functioning of the rule-of-law state are inextricably related to the problems of the formation and improvement of civil society. The study of these problems, the identification of the main vectors for the further strengthening of the positions of civil society and the rule-of-law state in our country, the study of the main trends in the state and legal development of the Russian Federation that have emerged in modern conditions is one of the priority areas of  national theory of state and law.
Key words: state, law, civil society, rule-of- law state, philosophy of law, social studies science, theoretical legal science, scientific school.
References
1. Sal'nikov V.P., Sal'nikov M.V. Pravovaya ontologiya grazhdanskogo soznaniya (The legal ontol-ogy of civic consciousness), Yuridicheskii mir, 2005, No. 11, pp. 48-53.
2. Rayanov F. M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pra-vovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2 (32), pp. 10-19.
3. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya samoorganizatsiya poryadka (Legal culture as a legal self-organization of law), Pravo i politika, 2011, No. 4 (136), pp. 670-675.
4. Rayanov F. M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule of law are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 1 (39), pp. 6-15.
5. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Chto takoe pravo? Voprosy ontologii i gnoseologii (What is law? Questions of ontology and gnoseology), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 2 (40), pp. 14-22.
6. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik stat'ei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2 ch. Ch. 1. Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2015.
7. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya real'nost' (Legal culture as a legal reality), Politika i obshchestvo, 2011, No. 4, pp. 77-82.
8. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions). M.,Yurlitin-form, 2017. 
9. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya prava: nastoyashchee i budushchee (Philosophy of law: the present and the future), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2016, No. 2 (44), pp. 7-14.
Received: 28.01.2018
FROM LEGAL ORGANIZATION OF SOCIAL LIFE – TO THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the process of state law development of society, historically there are objective needs for legal organization of people’s social life. These needs, in their turn, call for the establishment of special state bodies that are engaged in law making and create guarantees to ensure compliance with the rules of conduct enshrined in laws. As the society and its states develop, there is also an objective need for improving state law institutions. Thus, humankind comes to the positions of the rule-of-law state.
Key words: legal organization of social life; legal regulation of public relations; origin of the state and its laws; needs for improving  state law mechanisms; objective needs for a rule-of-law state; concept and signs of the rule-of-law state.
References
1. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsiokul'-turnom izmerenii (The concepts of “rule-of-law state” and “civil society” in the socio-cultural di-mension), Pravovoe gosudarstvo, 2012, No. 4 (30), pp. 20-25.
2. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pra-vovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2 (32), pp. 10-19.
3. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (histor-ical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of topical issues of the relationship of the idea of law and the idea of justice in the XX-XXI centuries)), monografiya. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2017. 
4. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 1 (39), pp. 6-15.
5. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v otechestvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe go-sudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2 ch. Ch. 1. Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2015. 
6. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura v informatsionnom prostranstve grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva (Legal culture in the information space of civil society and the rule-of-law state), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2011, No. 3 (65), pp. 25-31.
7. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions). M., Yurlitin-form, 2017.
8. Galiev F.Kh Pravovaya kul'tura i kul'turnye traditsii: sushchnostno-soderzhatel'noe vzaimodeistvie (Legal culture and cultural traditions: essence-content interaction), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2009, No. 4 (18), pp. 8-9.
Received: 28.01.2018
MINIMUM CONTENT OF LAW AND ITS CONNECTION WITH MORALITY IN THE NEO-POSITIVIST CONCEPT OF HERBERT HART (APPROACHES TO THE RESEARCH)
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Foundation for the Support of Science and Education in Law Enforcement Activities "University", St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GORBUNOV Maksim Dmitrievich
Teaching Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The problem of the relation of law and morality has been and remains one of the eternal questions of juridical theory. Being a standard regulator of social relations, the law itself, in one way or another, is connected with other social regulators and, first of all, with morality. This is due to the fact that the issue of their correlation and interrelationship has become not only principled, but also the defining moment when forming the very concept of law. More than three decades in Russian legal science there has been a discussion connected with an integrative approach to understanding the law, in which authoritative national scientists participate. Their opinions converge on the fact that while integrating (combining) concepts, only the best and progressive that they contain is taken from them. It is hardly possible to determine this best and progressive without a moral approach to their evaluation. In the legal concept of Herbert Hart, an attempt is made to give a compromise answer to this problem.
Key words: legal understanding; morality; law; justice; discussions; integral legal understanding; comprehensive theory.
References
1. Borulenkov Yu.P. Metodologicheskii status germenevtiki v yuridicheskom poznanii (Methodo-logical status of hermeneutics in legal cognition), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 7, pp. 189-199.
2. Galiev F.Kh. Sotsial'nye normy i pravovaya kul'tura v prizme istoricheskogo razvitiya (Social norms and legal culture in the prism of historical development), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2010, No. 2, pp. 5-9.
3. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura: sotsial'no-filosofskie problemy (Legal culture: Socio-philosophical problems), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016, No. 7, pp. 182-190.
4. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm pravovoi kul'tury i optimizatsiya obshchestvennykh otnoshenii (Syncret-ism of legal culture and optimization of public relations), Vestnik Bashkirskogo un-ta, 2014, Tom 19, No. 1, pp. 336-341.
5. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm pravovoi kul'tury sovremennoi Rossii: teoretiko-metodologicheskoe i istoriko-prikladnoe issledovanie (Syncretism of legal culture of modern Russia: theoretical and methodological and historico-applied research), avtoref. dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. M., Rossiiskaya akademiya narodnogo khozyaistva i gosudarstvennoi sluzhby pri Prezidente Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2014.  
6. Zakhartsev S.I. Nekotorye problemy teorii i filosofii prava (Some problems of theory and philos-ophy of law), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. M., 2014.
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Kak poznat' pravo? My predlagaem komprekhendnyi podkhod (How to cognize the law? We offer a comprehensive approach), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekono-miki, 2015, No. 9, pp. 17-30.
8. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Komprekhendnaya teoriya poznaniya prava (Comprehensive epistemology of law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 8, pp. 11-26.
9. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Komprekhendnaya teoriya prava: otvety na voprosy (Comprehen-sive theory of law: Answers to questions), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 9, pp. 19-24.
10. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Konvergentsiya v prave, russkaya mental'nost' i psikhologiya nishchenstva: filosofskaya i filosofsko-pravovaya problema (Convergence in law, Russian mentality and psychology of begging: philosophical and philosophical-legal problem), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 1, pp. 166-179.
11. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo: razumnost' i bessmyslennost' (Law: reasonableness and meaninglessness), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 9, pp. 17-22.
12. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Predlagaem Vashemu vnimaniyu komprekhendnuyu teoriyu poznaniya prava (We bring to your attention a comprehensive epistemology of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 3, pp. 170-183.
13. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka (Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Juridical science), M., Yurlitinform, 2015. 
14. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoi filosofii prava (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law), nauchnoe izdanie, R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyaeva, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2012. (Seriya: «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
15. Kerimov D.A. V razvitie diskussii o filosofii i prave. Retsenziya na monografiyu S.I. Zakhartseva i V.P. Sal'nikova «Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka» (In the de-velopment of the discussion on philosophy and law. Review of the monograph of S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov “Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Juridical science”). M., Yurlitinform, 2015. 264 s. Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 1, pp. 68-75.
16. Kerimova T.V. Klassicheskaya monografiya o filosofii i prave. Retsenziya na monografiyu S.I. Zakhartseva i V.P. Sal'nikova «Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka» (Classical mo-nograph on philosophy and law. Review of the monograph of S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov “Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Juridical science”). M., Yurlitinform, 2015. 264 s. Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 5, pp. 168-172.
17. Kolesnikov A.S., Maslennikov D.V., Guk A.I. Razmyshleniya o filosofsko-pravovykh rabotakh S.I. Zakhartseva i svoeobrazii ego filosofii (Reflections on the philosophical and legal works of S.I. Zakhartsev and the originality of his philosophy), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 12, pp. 177-183.
18. Lazarev V.V. Integrativnoe vospriyatie prava (Integrative perception of law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 2, pp. 20-29.
19. Maslennikov D.V., Stepashin S.V. Filosofiya prava i komprekhendnaya teoriya prava. Retsen-ziya na monografiyu S.I. Zakhartseva i V.P. Sal'nikova «Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka» (Philosophy of law and comprehensive theory of law. Review of the monograph of S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov “Philosophy. Philosophy of law. Juridical science”), Yuridicheskaya nauka, 2016, No. 6, pp. 177-179.
20. Pokrovskii I.F., Ismagilov R.F., Guk A.I. Deistvitel'no, filosofiya i pravo snova vmeste v issle-dovanii sovremennykh nauchnykh myslitelei. Nekotorye idei po povodu retsenzii D.A. Kerimova i monografii S.I. Zakhartseva i V.P. Sal'nikova «Filosofiya. Filosofiya prava. Yuridicheskaya nauka» (Indeed, philosophy and law are again together in the study of modern scientific thinkers. Some ideas on the review of D.A. Kerimov and the monograph of S.I. Zakhartsev and V.P. Salnikov “Phi-losophy. Philosophy of law. Juridical science”). M., Yurlitinform, 2015. 264 s. Yuridicheskaya nau-ka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 9, pp. 196-200.
21. Sidorenko A.I., Ibragimova Yu.E., Zaloilo M.V. Integrativnoe ponimanie prava (Integrative un-derstanding of law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 3, pp. 43-58.
22. Khart G.L.A. Ponyatie prava (The concept of law), per. s angl., pod obshch. red. E.V. Afonasina i S.V. Moiseeva. SPb., SPbGU, 2007.
23. Cherdantsev A.F. Integrativnoe nedoponimanie prava (Integrative misunderstanding of law), Yu-ridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 2, pp. 30-38.
24. Shafirov V.M. Konstitutsiya, otraslevoe pravo, pravoprimenenie (Constitution, branch law, law enforcement), Rossiiskaya yustitsiya, 2016, No. 3, pp. 2-5.
25. Ekimov A.I. Aksioma sootnosheniya spravedlivosti i prava (The axiom of the correlation of jus-tice and law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 1, pp. 13-23.
26. Del Vecchio G. Justice: An Historical and Philosophical Essay (Edinburgh University Press, 1952).
27. Ross A. On Law and Justice (University of California Press, 1959).
29. Sidgwick G. The Method of Ethics (Thoemmes Press, 1874).
Received: 20.01.2018
THE DOCTRINES OF THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE IN THE WORKS OF RUSSIAN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY STATE LAW SCIENTISTS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
APOLSKIY Evgeniy Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Rostov branch (institute) of the All-Russian State University 
of Justice, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The doctrines of Russian pre-revolutionary state scientists on the rule-of-law state, which received external manifestation in monographs, dissertations and publications in the periodical legal scientific press of the early twentieth century, hold sway nowadays. The results of the research undertaken by these scientists in the theoretical development of various aspects of the rule-of-law state are of particular interest. In chronological terms, this is the period from the beginning of the twentieth century up to 1917, because later, national state law scientists did not develop the doctrine of the rule-of- law state. At the same time, scientific conclusions formulated in pre-revolutionary researches represent a theoretical basis for understanding the essence of the rule-of-law state in national theory of state and law at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Key words: doctrine, rule-of-law state, monograph, dissertation, Russian empire, parliamentarism, constitutionalism, separation of powers.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions), monografiya. M., Yurlitinform, 2016.
2. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 1, pp. 6-14.
3. Rayanov F.M. Nauchnye podkhody k ponimaniyu pravovogo gosudarstva i otechestvennaya yu-ridicheskaya nauka (Scientific approaches to the understanding of the rule-of-law state and national legal science), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 2, pp. 6-8.
4. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gos-udarstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pra-vovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2, pp. 10-19.
5. Rayanov F.M. O sushchnosti pravovogo gosudarstva (On the essence of the rule-of-law state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2011, No. 1, pp. 4-6.
6. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoe gosudarstvo v sisteme leksiki obshchestvovedcheskikh nauk (The rule-of-law state in the system of vocabulary of social sciences), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 4, pp. 4-5.
7. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva: istoriko-tsivilizatsionnyi podkhod (The es-sence of the rule-of-law: historical and civilizational approach), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2012, No. 4, pp. 8-16.
8. Rayanov F.M. Osnovnaya trudnost' v postroenii pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (The main diffi-culty in the construction of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2011, No. 2 (24), pp. 4-7.
9. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i pravovoe gosudarstvo (Legal culture and the rule-of-law state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2014, No. 2, pp. 52-57.
10. Galiev F.Kh. Ponyatiya «pravovoe gosudarstvo» i «grazhdanskoe obshchestvo» v sotsio-kul'turnom izmerenii (Concepts "rule-of-law state" and "civil society" in the socio-cultural dimen-sion), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2012, No. 4, pp. 20-25.
11. Utyashev M.M. Pravovoe gosudarstvo, grazhdanskoe obshchestvo, prava cheloveka – tri-edinyi put' k tsivilizatsii (The rule-of-law state, civil society, human rights - a triadic path to civilization), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2, pp. 31-37.
12. Kotlyarevskii S.A. Pravovoe gosudarstvo i vneshnyaya politika (The rule-of-law state and for-eign policy). M., 1909.
13. Kotlyarevskii S.A. Vlast' i pravo. Problema pravovogo gosudarstva (Power and law. The problem of the rule-of-law state). M., tip. "Mysl" N.P. Mesnyankin i K°, 1915. 
14. Trubetskoi G.N. Politicheskii stroi i vneshnee mogushchestvo. S.A. Kotlyarevskii. «Pravovoe gosudarstvo i vneshnyaya politika» (Political system and external power. S.A. Kotlyarevsky. "The rule-of-law state and foreign policy"). M., 1909 g., 428 str. G. Trubetskoi. Russkaya mysl'. M., 1910. God tridtsat' pervyi, kn. III, pp. 92-97.
15. Gessen V.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva (Theory of the rule-of-law state), Politicheskii stroi sovremennykh gosudarstv, sb. statei. SPb., «Slovo», 1905, pp. 117-187.
16. Gessen V.M. O pravovom gosudarstve (On the rule-of-law state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo i na-rodnoe golosovanie. St. Petersburg. N. Glagolev, 1906, pp. 9-62.
17. Palienko N.I. Pravovoe gosudarstvo i konstitutsionalizm (The rule-of-law state and constitutio-nalism), Vestnik prava, 1906, Kniga pervaya; Kniga vtoraya, pp. 127-163.
Received: 21.01.2018
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN LEGAL SCIENCE AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGMS IN THE XV - XVIII CENTURIES
KASHAPOV Ural Abubakirovich
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Teacher-organizer of FHS of the MBEI “School № 27 with intensified instruction in some subjects”
of Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The process of the formation and development of national legal science in the XV-XVIII centuries was difficult and ambiguous. However, an important role was played by prominent Russian law scholars and philosophers of law who made a significant contribution not only to Russian but also the world treasury of legal thought. The legal science of that time was at the first stage of its formation. There was no legal text that was different from the monarch's will and needed to be interpreted and preserved by the efforts of professional lawyers. Due to the fact that there were no sources of law that would not come from the state power, disputes over the law were not separated from administration. Assuming the Byzantine notion of law, Russia did not form a class, professionally cultivating it. It was a voluntary, unilateral reception of Byzantine law on the basis of religion, which determined the priority of positive law over natural law and subjective law.
Key words: jurisprudence, law, state, personality, anthropological grounds, man.
References
1. Abramov A.I. Filosofiya v dukhovnykh akademiyakh (traditsii platonizma v russkom dukhovno-akademicheskom filosofstvovanii) (Philosophy in theological academies (traditions of Platonism in Russian spiritual and academic philosophizing)), Voprosy filosofii, 1997, No. 9, pp. 138–155.
2. Anners E. Istoriya evropeiskogo prava (per. so shved.) (History of European Law (Translated from Sweden)). In-t Evropy. M., Nauka, 1994. 
3. Blagoveshchenskii A. Istoriya metod zakonovedeniya v XVIII v. (History of the method of juri-sprudence in the XVIII century), Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 1835, Ch. VI, pp. 375-441, Ch. VII, pp. 42-52.
4. Vladimirskii-Budanov M.F. Obzor istorii russkogo prava (Overview of the history of Russian law). Rostov-na-Donu, Feniks, 1995. 
5. Desnitskii S.E. Slovo o pryamom i blizhaishem sposobe k izucheniyu yurisprudentsii (The word about the direct and nearest way to study jurisprudence), v publichnom sobranii imperatorskogo moskovskogo universiteta... govorennoe... iyunya 30 dnya 1768 goda. M., 1768. 
6. Dil'tei F.G. Nachal'nye osnovaniya veksel'nogo prava, a osoblivo rossiiskogo kupno i shvetskogo. S pribavleniem raznykh rossiiskikh ukazov i s dvumya dissertatsiyami, k semu prinadlezhashchimi, dlya upotrebleniya v moskovskom yuridicheskom fakul'tete (The initial basis of law of exchange, and especially Russian and Swedish. With the addition of various Russian decrees and two dissertations, which are appropriate, for using at the Moscow Law Faculty), sost. F.G. Diltei. Vladimir, Tip. Gub. pravl., 1801.
7. Dokumenty i materialy po istorii Moskovskogo universiteta vtoroi poloviny XVIII v. (1756-1764) (Documents and materials on the history of Moscow University in the second half of the 18th cen-tury (1756-1764)). M., 1960, T. 1, No. 292.
8. Dokumenty i materialy po istorii Moskovskogo universiteta vtoroi poloviny XVIII v. (1756-1764) (Documents and materials on the history of Moscow University in the second half of the 18th cen-tury (1756-1764)). M., 1960. Dokumenty i materialy. T. 3. (1767-1786) (Documents and materials. T. 3. (1767-1786)). M., 1963, No. 33, 37-40, 43, 46, 47.
9. Dokumenty i materialy po istorii Moskovskogo universiteta vtoroi poloviny XVIII v. (1756-1764) (Documents and materials on the history of Moscow University in the second half of the 18th cen-tury (1756-1764)). M., 1960, T. 3. (1767-1786). M., 1963, No. 42.
10. Dokumenty i materialy po istorii Moskovskogo universiteta vtoroi poloviny XVIII v. (1756-1764) (Documents and materials on the history of Moscow University in the second half of the 18th century (1756-1764)). M., 1960, T. 3. (1767-1786). Moscow, 1963, No. 72.
11. Mitropolit Ilarion. Slovo o Zakone i Blagodati, predisl. mitropolita Ioanna (Snycheva) (Metro-politan Hilarion. The word about the Law and Grace, preface of Metropolitan John (Snychev)), sost., vstup. st., per. V.Ya. Deryagina, rekonstr. drevnerus. teksta L.P. Zhukovskoi, komment. V.Ya. Deryagina, A.K. Svetozarskogo, otv. red. O.A. Platonov. M., Institut russkoi tsivilizatsii, 2011.
12. Moroshkin F. Ob uchastii Moskovskogo universiteta v obrazovanii otechestvennoi yurisprudent-sii (On the participation of Moscow University in the formation of national jurisprudence), Uchenye zapiski Imperatorskogo Moskovskogo universiteta, 1834, No. VIII. Fevral', pp. 205-255.
13. Reints A. Opyt istorii rossiiskikh gosudarstvennykh i grazhdanskikh zakonov (Experience of the history of Russian state and civil laws), per. F. Moroshkina. M., Izd. F. Moroshkin, 1836. 
14. Moskovskii universitet v vospominaniyakh sovremennikov (1755-1917) (Moscow University in the memoirs of contemporaries (1755-1917)), sbornik, sost. Yu.N. Emel'yanov. M., Sovremennik, 1989.
15. Olearii A. Opisanie puteshestviya v Moskoviyu (Description of the journey to Muscovy), Rossiya XV-VII vv. glazami inostrantsev. 
16. PSZ (Omnibus edition). Sobr. 1-e. SPb., 1830. T. 7. No. 4443.
17. PSZ. T. 12 (Omnibus edition. V. 12). No. 39425.
18. PSZ. T. 16 (Omnibus edition. V. 16). No. 11989.
19. PSZ. T.14 (Omnibus edition. V. 14). No. 10346.
20. Russkaya filosofiya prava: filosofiya very i nravstvennosti: Antologiya (Russian philosophy of law: philosophy of faith and morality: Anthology), sost. A.P. Al'bov i dr. SPb, Aleteiya, 1997.
21. Russkie knigi i biblioteki v XVI – pervoi polovine XIX vv. (Russian books and libraries in the 16th - first half of the 19th centuries). L., «Biblioteka AN SSSR», 1983. 
22. Smirnov I.I. Sudebnik 1550 g. (The Code of Justice of 1550), Istoricheskie zapisi, 1947, T. 24, pp. 267-352.
23. Solov'ev S.M. Sochineniya. V 18 kn. Kn. IX. Istoriya Rossii s drevneishikh vremen. T. 17-18 (Compositions. In 18 books. Book. IX. History of Russia since ancient times. V. 17-18). M., 1993. 
24. Stanislavskii A. O khode zakonovedeniya v Rossii i o rezul'tatakh sovremennogo ego napravle-niya (On the course of jurisprudence in Russia and the results of its modern direction). SPb., Tip. Univ-ta, 1853. 
25. Razvitie russkogo prava v XV – pervoi polovine XVII v. (The development of Russian law in the XV - first half of the XVII century). V.V. Ermoshin, N.N. Efremova, I.A. Isaev, V.I. Karpets, i dr., otv. red. V.S. Nersesyants, Red-kol. V.S. Nersesyants, A.A. Preobrazhenskii, S.I. Shtamm. M., Nauka, 1986.
26. Khizhnyak Z.I. Kievo-Mogilyanskaya akademiya (Kiev-Mohyla Academy). Kiev, Vyshcha shk. Izd-vo pri Kiev. gos. un-te, 1988.
Received: 22.01.2018
POINTS OF WEAKNESS OF THE MODERN RUSSIAN LIBERTARIAN LEGAL CONCEPT
PAKHOMOVA Elizaveta Aleksandrovna
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Social Law Sciences of the FSBEI HE “Volga State University of Water Transport”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Foundation for the Support of Science and Education in Law Enforcement Activities "University", St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
FOMICHEV Maksim Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the FSBEI HE “Volga State University of Water Transport”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The urgent problem today is the development of the ideology that meets the needs of the Russian state and society. The lack of state ideology enshrined in the Constitution demonstrates rather the commitment to liberalism, than to other doctrines. The extreme form of liberalism is libertarianism. The article is devoted to the problem of the libertarian ideological and political doctrine. The authors indicate its two main branches in the world. Minarchism is determined as the dominant among them in modern Russia. On the example of the work of the two most famous Russian adherents of minarchism, the weak points of the libertarian view of the development of law are identified. 
Key words: libertarianism, minarchism, law, development, weakness.
References
1. Ananskikh I.A., Mikheev A.A., Kiryushina N.Yu. Sovremennoe rossiiskoe gosudarstvo i duk-hovno-nravstvennoe sostoyanie obshchestva (The Modern Russian state and the spiritual and moral form of society), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 1. Pp. 86-91.
2. Bouz D. Libertarianstvo: Istoriya, printsipy, politika (Libertarianism: History, principles, politics), per. s angl. M. Kislova, A.V. Kuryaeva. Obshch. red. A. Kuryaev. Chelyabinsk. Sotsium, 2004.
3. Zhdanov P.S., Sal'nikov S.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Tsyganov V.I. Ot gumanizma k immo-ralizmu, ot prav estestvennykh k pravam protivoestestvennym: smena tsennostnykh osnovanii za-padnogo prava (From humanism to immorality, from natural rights to unnatural rights: the replace-ment of value bases of Western law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 11. Pp. 90-98.
4. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Chto otlichaet cheloveka russkoi kul'tury ot lyubogo drugogo: fi-losofsko-pravovoi vzglyad (What distinguishes a person of Russian culture from any other: philo-sophical and legal view), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2016. No. 1. Pp. 23-40.
5. Kulagina E.G., Maksimets S.V. Ideologicheskie osnovaniya ekologicheskoi kul'tury (Na primere libertarianstva) (Ideological bases of ecological culture (On the example of libertarianism)), Sovre-mennye issledovaniya sotsial'nykh problem (elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal). 2015. No. 5 (49). 
6. Limarenko A.P. Atlant na kolenyakh: Krizis nekonservativnogo sotsial'nogo proekta i moneta-ristskoi politiki (Atlant on his knees: The crisis of a non-conservative social project and monetarist policy), Sotsiologiya. 2013. No. 3. 
7. Maksimets S.V. Kontseptsii libertarianstva v sotsial'noi filosofii (Concepts of libertarianism in social philosophy), Rossiiskii nauchnyi zhurnal. 2015. No. 2 (45). 
8. Nikonov A.P. Sud'ba tsivilizatora. Teoriya i praktika gibeli imperii (The fate of the civilizer. The theory and practice of the death of empires). Moskva. Izd-vo NTS ENAS, 2006. 
9. Pavkin L.M. Libertarianstvo: Printsipy, teoriya, otsenka (Libertarianism: Principles, theory, as-sessment), Severo-Kavkazskii yuridicheskii vestnik. 2014. No. 1. 
10. Pakhomova E.A., Fomenkov A.A. Gosudarstva dolzhno byt' «malo»: O publichno-pravovykh vzglyadakh sovremennykh libertariev (The state should be "little": On public-legal views of modern libertarians), Yuridicheskaya mysl'. 2014. No. 2 (82). Pp. 23-27.
11. Rakviashvili A.A. Metodologicheskii individualizm: K apologii sovremennogo liberalizma (Me-thodological individualism: Towards the apology of modern liberalism), Voprosy politicheskoi eko-nomii. 2016. No. 1.
12. Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov V.P. Poisk natsional'noi idei v mnogopolyarnom mire (Search for a national idea in a multipolar world), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2015. No. 7. Pp. 44-50.
13. Rotbard M. K novoi svobode. Libertarianskii manifest (To a new freedom. The Libertarian Ma-nifesto), per. s angl. Boris Pinsker. M., Fond "Liberal'naya missiya", 2009.
14. Sal'nikov V.P., Gruzdeva M.L.  Preodolenie Evropy: filosofsko-pravovoe esse (Overcoming Eu-rope: philosophical and legal essay), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 8. Pp. 11-22.
15. Sal'nikov V.P., Zhdanov P.S., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya V.B. Russkaya religioznaya filo-sofiya prava kak zashchita natsional'nykh tsennostei ot inokul'turnoi ekspansii (Russian religious philosophy of law as protection of national values from foreign culture expansion), Mir politiki i sot-siologii. 2015. No. 7. Pp. 11-18.
16. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. Pochemu na Vo-stok: povorot Rossii v sovremennom politiko-pravovom prostranstve (Why towards the East: the turn of Russia in the modern political and legal space), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki. 2015. No. 9. Pp. 58-68.
17. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. Religioznye i inye dukhovnye traditsii kak zashchita ot ugrozy degradatsii obshchestva (Religious and other spiritual traditions as protection against the threat of degradation of society), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2015. No. 7. Pp. 173-179.
18. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. «Russkii povo-rot» v politiko-pravovom diskurse ("Russian turn" in political and legal discourse), Uchenye zapiski yuri-dicheskogo fakul'teta. 2015. No. 38 (48). Pp. 192-198.
19. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Tsyganov V.I. Zapadnaya tsivilizatsiya i ugroza golu-bogo internatsionala: politiko-pravovaya agressiya perioda postmoderna (Western civilization and the threat of the blue international: political and legal aggression of the postmodern period), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 9. Pp. 193-202.
20. Sal'nikov V.P., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya V.B., Romanovskaya L.R. Natsional'naya ideya ili pravovoe gosudarstvo cherez prizmu natsional'nykh interesov (National idea or the rule- of-law state through the prism of national interests), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2015. No. 3 (41). Pp. 16-22.
21. Sal'nikov M.V. Zapadnaya traditsiya prava: politiko-pravovye tsennosti i ideally (Western tradition of law: political and legal values and ideals), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. No. 10. Pp. 170-191.
22. Sal'nikov M.V., Velezhev S.I., Tishchenko A.G. Otechestvennaya i zapadnaya politiko-pravovye traditsii: sravnitel'no-pravovoi aksiologicheskii analiz (National and Western political and legal tra-ditions: comparative legal axiological analysis), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta MVD Rossii. 2004. No. 4 (24). Hh. 29-31.
23. Urnov M.Yu. Sotsial'nyi liberalizm v Rossii (Vzglyad politologa) (Social liberalism in Russia (The view of a political scientist)), Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost'. 2013. No. 3. 
24. Filosofov I.Yu. Islandiya epokhi narodovlastiya v sovremennom libertarianskom diskurse (Icel-and in the era of grass-roots democracy in modern libertarian discourse), Izvestiya Saratovskogo un-iversiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya: Istoriya. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. 2014. T. 14. No. 4. 
25. Yuliya Latynina. Kod dostupa (Access code). [Elektronnyi resurs] URL: http://echo.msk.ru/ programs/code/1752700-echo/ (accessed date: 30.07.2017).
26. Yur'ev Z.Yu. Polnaya peredelka: Fantasticheskii roman (Complete rework: Fantastic novel). M., Molodaya gvardiya, 1979.
Received: 25.01.2018
LEGAL NIHILISM AS AN ANTIPODE  OF TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURE
CHERNYKH Alexey Victorovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), First Vice-rector of the Bolshoi Ballet Academy, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In contrast to the law, the term "technological culture" has appeared in scientific turn relatively recently, however it is now understood that it is based on transformative activities of man, in which his knowledge, skills and creative abilities are manifested. The due technological culture is opposed by legal nihilism as a negative legal consciousness. Overcoming legal nihilism is possible only with a comprehensive approach to the implementation of relevant measures along the chain “culture” – “amount of education” – “professional competence” – “mentality”.
Key words: technical culture, law, legal nihilism, culture, education, professional competence, mentality.
References
1. Osnovy tekhnologicheskoj kul'tury (Fundamentals of technological culture). URL: http://otk.wmsite.ru/lekcija-2/vopros-1/.
2. Bajbanov R.H. Vliyanie chelovecheskogo kapitala v sozdanii ustojchivoj konkurentnosposobnoj pozicii predpriyatiya (Influence of human capital in creating sustainable competitive position of the company). URL:http://mospolytech.ru/science/aai77/scientific/article/s11/s11_03.pdf
3. Nacional'nyj mentalitet i ego vliyanie na povedenie rabotnika (National mentality and its influence on employee behavior). URL: http://works.doklad.ru/view/QGfovRC979s/3.html.
4. Organizacionnaya kul'tura i strategicheskaya ustojchivost' biznesa: puti kapitalizacii «chelove-cheskogo potenciala» (Organizational culture and strategic stability of business: ways of capitaliza-tion of “human potential”). URL: http://www.classs.ru/stati/uchet/kultura/.
5. Stiglitz J. Nyneshnjaja molodezh' chuvstvuet deficit spravedlivosti, i u nejo est' pravo na gnev. (Today's young people feel a lack of justice and they have their right to anger). URL: http://www.dialog.tj/news/nyneshnyaya-molodezh-chuvstvuet-defitsit-spravedlivosti-i-u-nejo-est-pravo-na-gnev-dzh-stiglits-laureat-nobelevskoj-premii-po-ekonomike.
6.Kara-Murza S. Gosudarstvennyj paternalizm – civilizacionnoe izmerenie (State paternalism-the civilizational dimension). URL: http://polinka.gorod.tomsk.ru/index-1290586614.php).
7.Rybakov V.A. Pravosoznanie i pravovoj mentalitet (Legal conscience and legal mentality), Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Seriya «Pravo», 2017, No. 3 (52), pp. 6-11.
8.Mental'nost' vyzhival'shchikov (The mentality of survivalists). URL: https://iq.hse.ru/news/214598976.html.
Received: 20.01.2018
THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL THOUGHT AT THE TURN OF THE XVIII–XIX CENTURIES: THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF RIGHT OF G.W.F. HEGEL
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate Lawyer of Eurasian Resources Group (Luxembourg), Saint Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: ismagilovir @ gmail.com
By the beginning of the XIX century, it became evident that the empirical method, which had formed the basis of the theory of social contract, was not able to disclose the very essence of right and determine the trends of its development on a new round of social progress. In its turn, the rationalistic methodology of the new European edition of the theory of natural law could not provide any alternative to empiricism, except rational deducing general provisions of political and legal science from “innate ideas of mind”, which by the end of the 18th century seemed to be something arbitrary and completely archaic.
Key words: right, law, state, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel.
References
Abubakarov A.A., Ismagilov I.R., Klimenko O.A. Gosudarstvennyi suverenitet kak konstitutsion-naya tsennost' (sravnitel'nyi analiz traktovki ponyatiya suvereniteta Kantom i Gegelem) (State sove-reignty as a constitutional value (a comparative analysis of the interpretation of the concept of sove-reignty by Kant and Hegel)), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2017, No. 44-45 (54-55).
2. Abubakarov A.A., Ismagilov I.R., Lezhneva O.Yu. Ponyatie suda kak elementa grazhdan-skogo obshchestva i gosudarstva v «Filosofii prava» G.V.F. Gegelya (The concept of the court as an ele-ment of civil society and state in the "Philosophy of Law" of G.W.F. Hegel), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2017, No. 4 (50), pp. 121-126.
3. Verkhovodov E.V., Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. «Estestvennoe pravo» i «dobrodetel'» v trudakh Aristotelya ("Natural Law" and "Virtue" in Aristotle's Works), Yuridicheskaya nauka: isto-riya i sovremennost', 2015, No 8, pp. 201-208.
4. Gegel' G.V.F. Fenomenologiya dukha (Phenomenology of the spirit). M., 1959.
5. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoi filosofii prava: nauchnoe izdanie (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law: a scientific publication). R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyaeva, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2012.
6. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Konvergentsiya v filosofii i bogoslovii v tvorchestve Fomy Ak-vinskogo kak obespechenie ustoichivosti kontseptsii estestvennogo prava (Convergence in philoso-phy and theology in the work of Thomas Aquinas as ensuring the sustainability of the concept of natural law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 10, pp. 176-184.
7. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Platon, Aristotel', Foma Akvinskii i ideya spravedlivosti v estest-venno-pravovoi traditsii (Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and the idea of justice in the natural-legal tradition), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No 9, pp. 19-26.
8. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Poisk empiricheskikh osnovanii spravedlivosti i prava v tvorchestve Tomasa Gobbsa, Dzhona Lokka, Sharlya Montesk'e i Zhana-Zhaka Russo (The search for empirical grounds for justice and law in the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Charles Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 10, pp. 38-44.
9. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (His-torical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of topical issues of the relationship between the idea of law and the idea of justice in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries)), monografiya. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2017. (Seriya: «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
10. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya I. Kanta i G.V.F. Gegelya: refleksiya nachal spravedli-vosti i prava (Philosophy of I. Kant and G.W.F. Hegel: reflection on the origin of justice and law), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 5, pp. 155-164.
11. Ismagilov I.R., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K. Gegel' o suverenitete kak konstitutsionnoi tsen-nosti (Hegel on sovereignty as a constitutional value), Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsiona-lizma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, SPb, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Un-iversitet», Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi ekonomicheskii universitet, 2017, pp. 138-144. 
12. Istoriya filosofii prava (History of Philosophy of Law), monografiya. A.P. Al'bov, V.M. Bara-nov, Z.Sh. Idrisov, D.V. Maslennikov, A.I. Peshkov, M.B. Revnova, V.P. Sal'nikov, M.V. Sal'nikov, N.N. Sotnikova, L.A. Chegovadze, otv. redaktory: A.P. Al'bov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov. St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskii institut (Sankt-Peterburg), Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 1998.
13. Kalinina E.V., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Spetsifika gosudarstvennoi kontseptsii Fo-my Akvinskogo (Specificity of the state concept of Thomas Aquinas), Yuridicheskaya nauka: isto-riya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 4, pp. 17-23.
14. Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov V.P. Idei estestvennogo prava v trudakh Gugo Grotsiya (Ideas of natu-ral law in the works of Hugo Grotius), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2014, No. 12 (79), pp. 120-122.
15. Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Osobennosti metodologii nauchnogo tvor-chestva Samuelya Pufendorfa (Peculiarities of Samuel Pufendorf's methodology of scientific creativ-ity), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2015, No. 36 (46), pp. 111-114.
16. Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov V.P., Fomichev M.N. Printsip «sotsiabil'nosti» v tvorchestve Samuila Pufendorfa (The principle of "sociability" in the work of Samuel Pufendorf), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2015, No. 4 (90), pp. 42-47.
17. Lezhneva O.Yu., Ponomarev A.A., Pyleva O.V. Uchenie I. Kanta o konstitutsionnykh pravakh i svobodakh lichnosti i traditsiya Prosveshcheniya (Teaching of I. Kant on constitutional rights and freedoms of the individual and the tradition of the Enlightenment), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2017, No. 44-45 (54-55).
18. Maslennikov D.V. Bogochelovek i ideya prava (God-man and the idea of law), Mir politiki i sot-siologii, 2015, No. 12, pp. 167-172.
19. Maslennikov D.V., Ponomarev A.V. Kantovskaya filosofiya prava v sisteme paradigm pravovoi mysli (Kant's philosophy of law in the system of paradigms of legal thought), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2016, No. 42, pp. 40-46.
20. Musaev M.A. Epokha antichnosti i nachalo stanovleniya idei o pravakh cheloveka: rol' pravovogo gumanizma (The epoch of antiquity and the beginning of the formation of the idea of human rights: the role of legal humanism), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 10, pp. 97-108.
21. Sal'nikov V.P., Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Razvitie politiko-pravovoi mysli ot Gugo Grotsiya k predstavitelyam germanskoi gosudarstvenno-pravovoi nauki (Development of political and legal thought from Hugo Grotius to the representatives of the German state law science), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2014, No. 10, pp. 11-19.
22. Sal'nikov S.P., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Zhan-Zhak Russo i Dzhon Lokk: nekotorye idei o suverenitete i estestvennom prave (Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke: Some Ideas on Sovereignty and Natural Law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 5, pp. 173-179.
23. Gungoren B. Die Bedeutung von Hegels Spinosa – Lekture fur seine Staats- und Rechtstheorie. Berlin, Logos Verlag, 2011
24. Przylebski A. Hegel und die Idee des internationalen Rechts. Recht ohne Gerechtigkeit? Hegel und die Grundlinien des Rechtsstaates. Herausgegeben von Wischke M., Przylebski. Wurzburg, Konigshausen-Neumann, 2010.
Received: 20.01.2018
TO THE QUESTION OF THE ORIGIN OF «DECRETUM GRATIANI»
KONDRATEVA Anna Nikolaevna
Instructor of the Department of General Education and Legal Disciplines of the Mid-Volga Institute (branch) of the All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia), Saransk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The «Decretum Gratiani» is, without exaggeration, the first source that brought into compliance and resolved the contradictions between the norms of medieval Canon law in Western Europe.  Western and Russian experts’ particular interest to the work of Bologna monk Gratiani is caused by several reasons, among which: the lack of common view on the process of creating this «Decretum», reasoning on its source base, as well as disputes over the author’s personality. In connection with the above, the author of the article considers the question of the origin of «Decretum Gratiani» taking into account the latest achievements of Russian and Western specialists on the stated issue. Based on the research findings, the author comes to the conclusion that the text of the «Decretum Gratiani» changed over time, as views of Gratiani on law were also modified (hence the disputes over the exact date of the creation of the source and its revisions). Starting to create the «Decretum Gratiani» as a tutorial for his personal use, later he reworked it into a full-fledged tutorial of Canon law for priests and lawyers, and then into a collection of norms of Canon law, the likes of which did not exist in Europe at that time. 
Key words: middle ages, Canon law in Western Europe, «Decretum Gratiani», Roman law, Theodore Balsamon. 
References
1.  Kalinina Ye.V., Karakulyan E.A., Romanovskaya V.B. Ocherki istorii religioznoy i svetskoy po-litiko-pravovoy mysli (Essays on the history of religious and secular political and legal thought), pod obshchey red. Ye.V. Kalininoy. M., 2017. 
2. Marey A.V. K osmysleniyu fenomena retseptsii rimskogo prava: formirovaniye ius commune v Zapadnoy Yevrope v XII-XIV vv (To the understanding of the phenomenon of reception of Roman law: the formation of the Ius commune in Western Europe in the 12th-14th centuries), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2012. No. 5. pp. 96-102.
3. Protoiyerey Tsypin V.A. Kanonicheskoye pravo (Canon law). M.: Izd-vo Sretenskogo monasty-rya, 2012.
4. Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov V.P. Poisk natsional'noy idei v mnogopolyarnom mire (Search for a national idea in a multipolar world), Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki. 2015. No. 7. pp. 44-50.
5. Sal'nikov V.P., Gruzdeva M.L. Preodoleniye Yevropy: filosofsko-pravovoye esse (Overcoming Europe:  philosophical and legal essay), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 8. pp. 11-22.
6. Sal'nikov V.P., Zhdanov P.S., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya V.B. Russkaya religioznaya filoso-fiya prava kak zashchita natsional'nykh tsennostey ot inokul'turnoy ekspansii (Russian religious phi-losophy of law as the protection of national values from foreign culture expansion), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2015. No. 7. pp. 11-18.
7. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. Pochemu na Vostok: povorot Rossii v sovremennom politiko-pravovom prostranstve (Why to the East: the turn of Russia in the modern political and legal space), Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki. 2015. No. 9. pp. 58-68.
8. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. Religioznyye i inyye dukhovnyye traditsii kak zashchita ot ugrozy degradatsii obshchestva (Religious and other spiritual traditions as protection from the threat of degradation of society), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost'. 2015. No. 7. pp. 173-179.
9. Sal'nikov M.V. Zapadnaya traditsiya prava: politiko-pravovyye tsennosti i ideally (Western tradition of law: political and legal values and ideals), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013. No. 10. pp. 170–191.
10. Sal'nikov M.V., Velezhev S.I., Tishchenko A.G. Otechestvennaya i zapadnaya politiko-pravovyye traditsii: sravnitel'no-pravovoy aksiologicheskiy analiz (National and Western political and legal traditions: comparative legal axiological analysis), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo un-ta MVD Rossii. 2004. No. 4 (24). pp. 29-31.
11. Eichbauer, Melodie H. From Gratian’s Concordia discordantium canonum to Gratian’s Decre-tum: The Evolution from Teaching Text t Comprehensive Code of Canon Law : a dissertation Doc-tor of Philosophy. Washington, 2010.
12. Landau, Peter. Gratian and the Decretum Gratiani. In: The History of Canon Law in the Classical Period, 1140-1234: From Gratian to the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX, eds. Wilfried Hartmann and Kenneth Pennington (Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2008). Рр. 49-52.
13. Larrainzar, Carlos. La formacion del Decreto de Graciano por etapas, ZRG Kan. Abt. 87, 2001.
14. Medieval Church Law and the Origins of the Western Legal Tradition: A Tribute to Kenneth Pennington. Washington DC, 2006. Рp. 97-107.
15. Metz, René. A propos des travaux de M. Adam Vetulani, Revue de droit canonique. 1957. Рр. 62-85.
16. Nardi, Paolo. Fonti canoniche in una sentenza senese del 1150’, ed. Peter Linehan, Life, Law and Letters: Historical Studies in Honour of Antonio García y García. Rome, 1998. Рр. 661-670.
17. Noonan, John T. Gratian Slept Here: The Changing Identity of the Father of the Systematic Study of Canon Law. Traditio 35, 1979. 
18. Pennington, Kenneth. A Short History of Canon Law from Apostolic Times to 1917. Washington : The Catholic University of America, 2009. Рр. 129-156.
19. Pennington, Kenneth. The Biography of Gratian, the Father of Canon Law Villanova Law Re-view, 2014. Vol. 59, Iss. 4. Art. 5. Рр. 679-708.
20. Pennington, Kenneth. The Growth of Church Law. Cambridge University Press, 2007. Рр. 386-402.
21. Reid, Charles J. Tradition in Revolution: Harold J. Berman and the Historical Understanding of the Papacy. Rechtsgeschichte Legal History. 2013. No. 21. Рр. 219-223.
22. Russell, Sara. Courtship, Violence, and the Formation of Marriage in the Early Modern Italian Novella Tradition : а dissertation Doctor of Philosophy University of California, Berkeley. Spring, 2010. 
23. Weigand, Rudolf. Chancen und Probleme einer baldigen kritischen Edition der ersten Redaktion des Dekrets Gratians. BMCL 23, 1998. Pp. 66-69.
24. Winroth, Anders. Roman Law in Gratian and the Panormia. Bishops, Texts and the Use of Ca-non Law around 1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Рр. 183-190.
25. Winroth, Anders. The Making of Gratian’s Decretum. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th Series, 49. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Received: 17.11.2017
IDEAS OF EURASIANISM IN THE POLITICAL AND LEGAL REALITY OF MODERN RUSSIA
KONDRATEVA Anna Nikolaevna
Instructor of the Department of General Education and Legal Disciplines of the Mid-Volga Institute (branch) of the All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia), Saransk, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Foundation for the Support of Science and Education in Law Enforcement Activities "University", St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TSYGANOV Viktor Ivanovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Recently, the questions of ideological and conceptual foundations of Eurasianism as a self-sustaining political and legal doctrine have increasingly attracted the attention of scholars dealing with the problems of history of legal doctrines, political science, philosophy, cultural studies and sociology. At the same time, the Eurasian trend of social thought is increasingly asserting itself not only in Russia, but also in many CIS republics and it shows the need for rational scientific and ideological ideas of Eurasianists. The modern Eurasian concept, created in view of new socio-historical, economic, political realities, can become the basis of a system of ideas, values and moral guidelines that contribute to the consolidation of society and the implementation of a common development strategy, both for the peoples of Russia and for the post-Soviet states.
Key words: Eurasianism; current Russian legislation; continuity of ideas of Eurasianism.
References
1. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 30.01.2010 № 120 «Ob utverzhdenii Doktriny prodovol'stvennoi bezopas-nosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 30.01.2010 No 120 “On the Approval of the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation”), Rossiiskaya ga-zeta, 2010, 3 fevralya.
2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 30.11.2016 № 640 «Ob utverzhdenii Kontseptsii vneshnei politiki Ros-siiskoi Federatsii» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 30.11.2016 No. 640 “On the approval of the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2016, No. 49, St. 6886.
3. Osnovy zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii o kul'ture: utverzhdeny Verkhovnym Sovetom Rossiiskoi Federatsii 09.10.1992 No. 3612-1 (red. ot 28.11.2015) (Fundamentals of the legislation of the Russian Federation on culture: approved by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on 09.10.1992 No. 3612-1 (as amended on November 28, 2015)), Rossiiskaya gazeta, 1992, 17 noyabrya.
4. K veteranam Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny i sootechestvennikam v svyazi s 70-i godovshchinoi Kurskoi bitvy i Prokhorovskogo tankovogo srazheniya: Obrashchenie Soveta Federatsii Federal'nogo Sobraniya Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 26.06.2013 No. 259-SF (To veterans of the Great Patriotic War and compatriots in connection with the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Kursk and the Prokhorov tank battle: Appeal of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 26.06.2013 No. 259-SF), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2013, No. 27, St. 3544.
5. Abil'dinov A.A. Integratsionnye protsessy vo vzaimootnosheniyakh Rossii i Kazakhstana: istori-ko-politologicheskii analiz (Integration processes in the relationship between Russia and Kazakhstan: historical and political analysis), dis. ... kand. politich. nauk. M., 2014. 
6. Alekseev N.N. Ideya gosudarstva (The idea of the state). 2-e izd., otv. red. V.P. Sal'nikov, Yu.A. Sandulov. Seriya: Klassiki istorii i filosofii prava. SPb., Lan', 2001. (Mir kul'tury, istorii, filosofii).
7. Aubakirova I.U. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie v kontekste klassicheskogo evraziiskogo ucheniya (Public Administration in the Context of Classical Eurasian Studies), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 11.
8. Aubakirova I.U. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie i etatistskie paradigmy v aspekte politiko-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya obshchestva (State management and etatist paradigms in the aspect of political-co-economic development of society), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 7, pp. 31-40.
9. Aubakirova I.U. Idei klassicheskogo evraziistva v sovremennykh politiko-pravovykh kontsept-siyakh Rossii i Kazakhstana (Ideas of classical Eurasianism in modern political and legal concepts of Russia and Kazakhstan), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 12.
10. Aubakirova I.U. Chelovek i gosudarstvennoe upravlenie: nekotorye teoretiko-metodologicheskie podkhody (Man and government: some theoretical and methodological approaches), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2017, No. 5, pp. 70-80.
11. Babadzhanov I.Kh., Sal'nikov M.V. Transformatsiya obychaev v prave na postsovetskom pro-stranstve (Transformation of customs in law in the post-Soviet space), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 1, pp. 180-197.
12. Berdyaev N.A. Evraziitsy (The Eurasians), Put'. No. 1. Parizh, 1925, reprint. M., 1992.
13. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura: sotsial'no-filosofskie problemy (Legal Culture: Socio-Philosophical Problems), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 7, pp. 182-190.
14. Galiev F.Kh. Sinkretizm sovremennoi pravovoi kul'tury (Syncretism of modern legal culture), Monografiya. Ufa, BashGU, 2011. 
15. Gumilev L.N. Drevnyaya Rus' i Velikaya step' (Ancient Russia and the Great Steppe). M., Mysl', 1989. 
16. Gumilev L.N. Ot Rusi k Rossii. Ocherki etnicheskoi istorii (From Russia to Russia. Essays on ethnic history). M., Airis-press, 2003.
17. Zoirov D.M. Formirovanie i razvitie natsional'noi gosudarstvennosti v stranakh Sodruzhestva Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv (sravnitel'no-pravovoe issledovanie) (Formation and development of na-tional statehood in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (comparative legal study)), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. SPb., 2004.
18. Zoirov D.M., Safarov B.A. Gosudarstvennost' na postsovetskom prostranstve: predposylki suve-reniteta (Statehood in the post-Soviet space: preconditions for sovereignty), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2012, No. 11, pp. 25-34.
19. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoi filosofii prava (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law), nauchnoe izdanie. R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyaeva. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2012. 
20. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and contemporary models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of the actual issues of the relationship between the idea of law and the idea of justice in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries)), monografiya. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2017. (Seriya: «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
21. Kolyadin A.M. Politicheskaya elita: ponyatie i sushchnost' (Political elite: concept and essence), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 7, pp. 45-53.
22. Kolyadin A.M. Sub"ektnost' politicheskogo klassa i ego sotsial'naya znachimost' (The subjectivi-ty of the political class and its social significance), monografiya, pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Universitet», 2015. 
23. Kudratbekova Sh.M. Stanovlenie i razvitie parlamentarizma v respublike Tadzhikistan (Forma-tion and development of parliamentarism in the Republic of Tajikistan), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 12, pp. 67-81.
24. Leont'ev K.N. Vostok, Rossiya i Slavyanstvo (East, Russia and the Slavs). V 2 t. M., 1885-1886.
25. Lushnikov O.V. Evraziiskaya perspektiva: sovremennye proekty strategicheskogo razvitiya Ros-sii (The Eurasian Perspective: Contemporary Projects of Strategic Development of Russia), Vestnik ChelGU, 2006, No. 3, pp. 6-23
26. Mukhammadiev I.S. Velikaya Otechestvennaya voina i prokuratura Tadzhikistana: aktual'nost' problemy (The Great Patriotic War and the Prosecutor's Office of Tajikistan: the relevance of the problem), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 6, pp. 171-183.
27. Mukhammadiev I.S. Organy prokuratury Tadzhikistana i nachalo Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny: perestroika deyatel'nosti na voennyi lad (The organs of the Public Prosecutor's Office of Tajikistan and the beginning of the Great Patriotic War: the restructuring of activities in the military mode), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 10, pp. 54-63.
28. Odnostalko O.V. Evraziiskaya ideya N.A. Nazarbaeva: ot teorii k praktike (The Eurasian idea of N.A. Nazarbayev: from theory to practice), Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, kul'turologiya i iskusstvovedenie. Voprosy teorii i praktiki, 2015, No. 11 (61), V 3 ch, Ch. I, pp. 132-135.
29. Romanovskaya L.R., Sal'nikov M.V., Fomichev M.N. Gosudarstvenno-konfessional'nye otno-sheniya na postsovetskom prostranstve: evolyutsiya i obshchaya kharakteristika (State-Confessional Relations in the Post-Soviet Space: Evolution and General Characteristics), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 9, pp. 41-53.
30. Sal'nikov V.P. Istoricheskaya pamyat', istoriko-pravovye issledovaniya i patrioticheskoe vospi-tanie (Historical memory, historical and legal studies and patriotic education), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2005, No. 2, pp. 6-9.
31. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. Pochemu na Vostok: povorot Rossii v sovremennom politiko-pravovom prostranstve (Why to the East: the turn of Russia in the modern political and legal space), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 9, pp. 58-68.
32. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V., Romanovskaya L.R. «Russkii povorot» v politiko-pravovom diskurse ("Russian turn" in political and legal discourse), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2015, No. 38 (48), pp. 192-198.
33. Sal'nikov S.P., Madzhidzoda D.Z., Kudratbekova Sh.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v Tadzhikistane: istoricheskie osobennosti, problemy i perspektivy (Civil Society in Tadzhikistan: Historical Features, Problems and Prospects), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 6, pp. 94-101.
34. Sal'nikov S.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Krymov A.V. Filosofy-evraziitsy XX veka ob avtarkii i natsional'nom voprose i idei antiglobalizma XXI veka (Philosophers-Eurasians of the 20th century on the autarchy and the national question and the ideas of the anti-globalization of the 21st century), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 5, pp. 193-198.
Received: 28.01.2018
ON THE CONTENT, THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND ADMISSIBILITY CRITERIA OF STATE LEGAL COERCION 
PETRENKO Mikhail Nikolaevich
Senior Instructor of the ANO Samara Institute of Public Administration “International Market Institute”, Samara, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
An increasing number of external and internal problems calls on the state to have a high level of legitimacy, achieved by the effective use of state legal coercion to ensure the security of citizens in relations both among themselves and with public actors. These circumstances require from researchers a consistent study of state legal coercion based on the classical methodology, as well as identifying theoretical bases and admissibility criteria. As a result of the research, the author proposes to understand state legal coercion as the form of realization of state power, in which the behavior of the coerced subject is significant for society (in the name of the state), the author believes that its ground in a broad sense is the need of the state to fulfill its functions. The author thinks that the general criterion for the admissibility of state legal coercion is the conformity of its application to the requirements of justice, namely, justification and proportionality.
Key words: state legal coercion, grounds for coercion, admissibility criteria of coercion, validity, proportionality, equity.
References
Buranova V.O., Safronov V.V. Pravosoznanie grazhdanina kak odin iz vidov pravosoznaniya (The legal consciousness of a citizen as one of the types of legal consciousness), Nauchnyi al'manakh, 2016, No. 5-1 (19), pp. 356-358. 
2. Vershinina, S. I. K voprosu o yuridicheskoi klassifikatsii fakticheskikh osnovanii primeneniya mer gosudarstvennogo prinuzhdeniya (On the question of legal classification of actual grounds for applying measures of state coercion), Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki, 2010, No. 2 (2), pp. 57-59.
3. Kant I. Metafizika nravov. Ch. 1: Sochineniya na nemetskom i russkom yazykakh (Metaphysics of morals. Part 1: Works in German and Russian), pod red. B. Tushlinga, N. Motroshilovoi. M., Ka-non+; ROOI «Reabilitatsiya», 2014.
4. Kratkii psikhologicheskii slovar' (Brief psychological dictionary), red.-sost. L.A. Karpenko; pod obshch. red. A.V. Petrovskogo, M.G. Yaroshevskogo. 2-e izd., rassh., ispr. i dop. Rostov n/D, Fe-niks, 1999.
5. Ozhegov S.I., Shvedova N.Yu. Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo yazyka: 80 000 slov i frazeologi-cheskikh vyrazhenii (Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language: 80 000 words and phraseolog-ical expressions). Rossiiskaya akademiya nauk; Institut russkogo yazyka im. V.V. Vinogradova. 4-e izd., dop. M., Azbukovnik, 1997.
6. Petrenko M.N. O ponimanii v nauke gosudarstvennogo prinuzhdeniya kak formy realizatsii gosu-darstvennoi vlasti (On the understanding of state compulsion as a form of realization of state power in science), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2016, No. 4 (46), pp. 77-82.
7. Rubinshtein S.L. Bytie i soznanie. Chelovek i mir (Being and consciousness. Man and the world), S.L. Rubinshtein. SPb., Piter, 2003.
8. Finogentova O.E. Sootnoshenie prava i zakona v svete problemy pravovogo gosudarstva (The re-lationship between right and law in the light of the problem of the rule-of-law state), Pravovoe go-sudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2017, No. 2 (48), pp. 20-25Received: 20.01.2018
PROFESSIONAL CULTURE OF THE LAWYER: THEORETICAL AND LEGAL COMPREHENSION
CHUPRAYKOVA Tamara Vanoevna 
Postgraduate Student of the ANO HE “Liberal Arts University”, Yekaterinburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The paper substantiates the importance of studying professional culture of lawyers under conditions of «digital economy» and innovation society as a response to continual social, scientific and technological transformations. Technical and technological equipment of professional activity of lawyers relieving the execution of formalized legal operations stimulates rise  in theoretical and practical knowledge on the one hand, determines a possibility of the development of legal techno-cynicism on the other hand, because there is a risk of elimination of valuable and spiritual principles of legal reality in the course of interaction of a human and a soulless robot-lawyer. On the basis of this conception of the future legal profession, the author represents the author’s view of professional legal culture as a quantitative state of lawyer’s personality expressed in his/her professional legal consciousness, behavior, professional activity and its results determined by a degree of systematized doctrinal, dogmatic, theoretical, philosophical, technological learning of law in the socio-cultural and professionally valuable context. It is accentuated that such kind of legal culture is formed and developed in certain socio-cultural conditions in the course of legal education and professional activity. The point of view that representatives of non-legal professions can not possess professional legal culture is substantiated.
Key words: lawyer, profession, legal culture, professional legal consciousness, professional culture, professional legal culture, legal education, legal activity, legal thinking, professional training.
References
1. Bauman Z. Individualizirovannoe obshhestvo (Individualized society). URL: http: //socioline.ru/files/5/39/bauman_zigmunt_-_individualizirovannoe_obshchestvo-2005. pdf (accessed date: 06.05.2017).
2. Vy`stuplenie G.O. Grefa v Baltijskom federal`nom universitete im. Kanta (Speech of Herman Gref at Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University). URL: http://www.rbc.ru/business/23/07/2017/ 5974b7a69a79477896b6708d.
3. Likas A.L., Kul`tura pravosudiya (Culture of justice). M., Yurid. Lit., 1990, 176 p.
4. Rashitov I.M. Pravovaya kul`tura v osnovaniyah samodostatochnosti cheloveka e`pohi globalizacii (Legal culture in the foundations of self-sufficiency of man in the age of globalization), avtoref. dis. ... kand. filosofskix nauk, Ufa, 2009.
5. Prikaz Ministerstva obrazovaniya i nauki RF ot 29.10.2013 № 1199 «Ob utverzhdenii perechnej professij i special`nostej srednego professional`nogo obrazovaniya» (Order of the Ministry of educa-tion and science of the Russian Federation dated 29.10.2013 №. 1199 “On approval of the list of professions and specialties of secondary professional education”), Ros. gaz. 2013. 1 noyabrya.
6. Petrusak L.A. Pravovaya kul`tura sovremennogo rossijskogo obshhestva: teoretiko-pravovoe is-sledovanie (Legal culture of the modern Russian society: theoretical and legal research), dis. … d-ra. yurid. nauk, M., 2012.
7. Peresadina O.V. Teoretiko-pravovoj analiz professional`nogo pravosoznaniya: na primere pravo-soznaniya sotrudnikov organov vnutrennih del Rossijskoj Federacii (Theoretical and legal analysis of professional legal consciousness: on the example of legal consciousness of employees of internal af-fairs bodies of the Russian Federation), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, Ekaterinburg, 2017, 
8. Klishina A.V. Professional`noe pravosoznanie advokatov: teoretiko-pravovoe issledovanie (Professional sense of justice of lawyers: theoretical and legal research), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, M., 2008.
9. Klimanskii D.V. Sistema faktorov integracii i dezintegracii pravosoznaniya sotrudnikov organov vnutrennih del (System of factors of integration and disintegration of legal consciousness of em-ployees of bodies of internal affairs), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, M., 2010.
10. Bolotaeva O.S. Formirovanie professional`nogo pravosoznaniya sotrudnikov organov vnutrennih del v usloviyah stanovleniya informacionnogo obshhestva (Forming of professional legal con-sciousness of employees of bodies of internal affairs in the conditions of informational society for-mation), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, M., 2011.
11. Kartashov V.N. Pravovaya kul`tura: ponyatie, struktury`, funkcii (Legal culture: concept, struc-ture, function), monograph. Yaroslavl`, YarGU, 2008.
12. Vologdina I.V. Formirovanie osnov professional`no-pravovoj kul`tury` menedzherov turisti-cheskogo biznesa v vuze (Formation of bases of professional legal culture of managers of tourist business in Universities), avtoref. dis. … kand. ped. nauk, M., 2010.
13. Bichan N.V. Formirovanie professional`no-pravovoj kul`tury` budushhih specialistov pomo-gayushhih professij (Formation of professional and legal culture of future specialists in helping pro-fessions), avtoref. dis. … kand. ped. nauk, Kaliningrad, 2015.
14. Zeer E.F. Psixologiya professij (Psychology of professions), uchebnoe posobie dlya studentov vuzov. URL: http://lspu-lipetsk.ru/uploads/users/1444641803_Zeer_Psihologia _professiy_2003.pdf.
15. Pevczova E.A Uchebnoe posobie po discipline «Aktual`ny`e problemy` formirovaniya pravovoj kul`tury` yuristov» (Actual problems of formation of legal culture of lawyers), M., Mezhdunarodny`j yuridicheskij institut, 2010.
16. Kurlaeva E.I. Yuridicheskoe obrazovanie i formirovanie professional`nogo soznaniya yuristov (Legal education and formation of professional consciousness of lawyers), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yu-rid. nauk, M., 2005.
17. Kaminskay V.I., Ratinov A.R. Pravosoznanie kak e`lement pravovoj kul`tury` (The sense of jus-tice as an element of legal culture), Pravovaya kul`tura i voprosy` pravovogo vospitaniya, sbornik nauchnyh trudov, otv. red. A.D. Boykov, M., 1974, Pp. 39-67.
18. Sokolov N.I. Professional`noe soznanie yuristov (Professional consciousness of lawyers), M., Nauka, 1988.
19. Baluk G.I. Vzaimosvyaz` pravovoj kul`tury` i demokratii v socialisticheskom obshhestve (Rela-tionship of legal culture and democracy in a socialist society), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, Kiev, 1987, URL: http://www.law.edu.ru/book/book.asp?bookID=51472.
20. Sokolov N.I. Professional`naya kul`tura yuristov. Ponyatie. Sushhnost`. Soderzhanie (Professional culture of lawyers. Concept. Essence. Content), uchebnoe posobie, Moskva, Prospekt, 2014, 320 p.
21. Konichenko E.B. Pravovaya kul`tura sotrudnikov penitenciarnoj sistemy` v sovre-mennom rossijskom obshhestve (оbshchepravovoj analiz) (Legal culture of the personnel of the penitentiary system in the modern Russian society (theoretical and legal analysis)), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, Vladimir, 2005.
22. Petrov A.V., Kotrikova T.Y. Professional`naya pravovaya kul`tura v sisteme pravovoj kul`tury` obshhestva (Professional legal culture in the system of legal culture of society), Vestnik Nizhego-rodskogo universiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo, 2013, No. 3, Pp. 326-331.
23. Pavlov O.F. Professional`naya pravovaya kul`tura v sfere pravoohranitel`noj sluzhby`: Na pri-mere sotrudnika milicii (Professional legal culture in the field of law enforcement: on the example of the police officer), avtoref dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, Nizhny Novgorod, 2005.
24. Granat N.L. Pravosoznanie i pravovaya kul`tura (Legal consciousness and legal culture), Teoriya prava i gosudarstva: Uchebnik, Pod red. Prof. V.V. Lazareva, M., Novy`j Yurist, 1997, Pp. 180 – 194.
25. Samigullin V.K. Pravosoznanie: koren` dobra i spravedlivosti (Consciousness: the root of good-ness and justice), monografiya, 3-e izd., ispr., M., Izdatel`stvo «Omega-L», Ufa, Izdatel`stvo «Dia-log», 2014.
26. Rubinstein S.L. By`tie i soznanie: o meste psihicheskogo vo vseobshhej vzaimosvyazi yavlenij material`nogo mira (Being and consciousness: on the place of psychical in the universal intercon-nection of phenomena of the material world), M., 1986.
27. Davydova M.L. Obuchenie yuridicheskoj professii v Rossii i SShA: k voprosu ob universal`ny`h osnovaniyah (Training of legal profession in Russia and the USA: to the issue of  universal basis), Pravo i sovremenny`e gosudarstva, 2013, No. 2. URL: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/obuchenie-yuridicheskoy-professii-v-rossii-i-ssha-k-voprosu-ob-universalnyh-osnovaniyah
28. Zhalinsky A.E. Izbranny`e trudy (Selected works), v 4 t., T. 4, sost. K.A. Bary`sheva, O.L. Du-bovik, I.I. Nagornaya, A.A. Popov, otv. Red. O.L. Dubovik, Nacz. Issled. Un-t «Vy`sshaya shkola e`konomiki», M., Izd. dom Vy`sshej shkoly` e`konomiki, 2016, Pravovoe my`shlenie i profession-al`naya deyatel`nost` yurista. Naukovedcheskie problemy` pravovedeniya (Legal thought and pro-fessional activities of the lawyer. Scientific problems of jurisprudence).
29. Gubaeva T.V. Yazyk i pravo. Iskusstvo vladeniya slovom v professional`noj yuri-dicheskoj deyatel`nosti (Language and law. The art of the word in professional legal activities), T.V. Gubaeva, 2-e izd., peresmotr., M., Norma, Infra-M, 2010.
30. Semitko A.P. Razvitie pravovoj kul`tury` kak pravovoj progress (Development of legal culture as a legal progress). Ekaterinburg, Izdatel`stvo Ural`skoj gosudarstvennoj yuridicheskoj akademii, Izdatel`stvo gumanitarnogo universiteta, 1996.
31. Mark van hook. Pravo kak kommunikaciya (Law as communication), per. s angl. M.V. Antonova i A.V. Polyakova, SPb, Izdatel`skij dom S.-Peterb. gos. un–ta, OOO «Universitetskij izda-tel`skij konsorcium», 2012.
32. Ratinov A.R., Yefremova G.H. Pravovaya psihologiya i prestupnoe povedenie. Teoriya i meto-dologiya issledovaniya. (Legal psychology and criminal behavior. Theory and methodology of the study), Krasnoyarsk, Izd-vo Krasnoyar. Un-ta, 1988.
Received: 23.01.2018
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
IMPLEMENTATION OF PRINCIPLES OF LAW DURING ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS
KRUGLOVA Julia Borisovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of State and Administrative Law of the Faculty of Law of the FSBEI HE “Ulyanovsk State University”, Ulyanovsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MISYAKOVA Oksana Viktorovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Faculty of Law of the FSBEI HE "Ulyanovsk State University", Ulyanovsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The problems of implementing proceedings principles associated with bringing to responsibility, namely the principles of prosecution in cases of administrative offenses, are becoming increasingly relevant today. The imperfection of the current legislation creates a violation of fundamental principles of procedure. The current administrative legislation in this part cannot correspond to the rule-of-law state declared by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, where the person, his rights and freedoms are recognized as the highest value. The welfare of the people, individual interests should be paramount. The most complete guarantee of human and civil rights and freedoms is the basic principle of the rule-of-law state.
Key words: law enforcement, principles of law enforcement activity, summary proceedings, appeal, administrative offence. 
References
1. Skurko E.V. Printsipy prava (Principles of law), monografiya. M., Os'-89, 2008.
2. Kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh ot 30 dekabrya 2001 g. № 195-FZ (red. ot 07.02.2017) (Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation from 20 December 2001 №195-FL (ed. by 7 February 2017), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2000. No. 1 (ch. 1). St. 1.
3. Vasil'ev P.V. O ponyatii avtomaticheskikh sanktsii v rossiiskom prave (On the concept of auto-matic sanctions in Russian law), Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nizhegorodskoi akademii MVD Rossii. 2014. No. 2 (26). 
4. 4. Vasil'ev P.V. Avtomaticheskie sanktsii v rossiiskom prave (teoriya, praktika, tekhnika) (Auto-matic sanctions in Russian law (theory, practice, methods), monografiya, pod nauch. red. dokt. yu-rid. nauk, prof. V.A. Tolstika. M., 2016.
Received: 23.01.2018
FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROCESS IN A FEDERATION ENTITY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE LAND OF BRANDENBURG)
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
LARINBAEVA Ilmira Ishmurzovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article reveals some features of the work of the Constitutional Court of the Land Brandenburg (Federal Republic of Germany). The timeliness of the topic is due to several factors. Firstly, the land of Brandenburg refers to the Group of subjects of the Federal Republic of Germany, whose lawmakers, when organizing their own constitutional authority, took into account, used the experience of other lands, and boldly introduced their own democratic and modern innovations. Secondly, the address to the experience of organizing and functioning of the German model of the Constitutional Court, helps to understand many problems existing in constitutional (statutory) monitoring in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, sheds light on the problem of defining a clear course of improving both the structure of  entities’ courts and their functioning. The study addresses the history of constitutional justice in this Land. The authors examine the composition of the Court, the order of election and requirements for judges. Technical and procedural nuances of its activities are revealed. The authors analyse in details the powers of the Court and the process of making and rendering of decisions of the case.
Key words: Constitutional Court, land of Brandenburg, complaint, Germany, judge, land, Constitution, decision, lawsuit.
References
1. Yusupova E.O. Zashchita prav cheloveka konstitutsionnymi sudami sub"ektov federativnykh go-sudarstv: na primere Respubliki Bashkortostan RF i Zemli Brandenburg FRG (Protection of human rights by constitutional courts of subjects of federal states: on the example of the Republic of Bash-kortostan of the Russian Federation and the Land Brandenburg of the FRG), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Ufa, 2006. 
2. Karpov D.V. Problemy konstitutsionno-pravovogo garantirovaniya pravozashchitnoi funktsii su-debnoi vlasti v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Problems of constitutional and legal guarantees of the human rights function of the judiciary in the Russian Federation), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Nizhnii Novgorod, 2000. 
3. Larinbaeva I.I., Peskova K.S. Kvalifitsirovannaya yuridicheskaya pomoshch' v sisteme garantii prav cheloveka (), Prava cheloveka v dialoge gosudarstvennoi vlasti i grazhdanskogo obshchestva, materialy XIV Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Ufa, BashGU, 2016, pp. 132-137.
4. Ofitsial'nyi sait Konstitutsionnogo suda Zemli Brandenburg (Qualified legal assistance in the sys-tem of guarantees of human rights). http://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/DE/Homepage/ home-page_node.html. (accessed date: 01.11.2017).
Received: 22.01.2018
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM OF SURROGATE MOTHERHOOD IN RUSSIA: THEORY AND PRACTICE
KOZHINA Yuliya Alekseevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article explores the right of a surrogate mother to leave a child in her family and refuse to register customers as biological parents. Despite the fact that the procedure for state registration of the birth of a child, borne by a surrogate mother, is defined quite clearly by the current Russian legislation, the attitude of the courts to the consideration of such cases has changed radically, as evidenced by judicial practice. The article analyzes the problems connected with the contradiction of the law and judicial practice.
Key words: assisted reproductive technologies, genetic relationship, potential parents, customers, refusal, surrogate mother, child, court practice in cases of challenge, consent to register as parents, abuse of right.
References
1. Trifonova N.S., Zhukova E.V., Ishchenko A.I., Aleksandrov L.S. Surrogatnoe materinstvo: istori-cheskii obzor. Osobennosti techeniya beremennosti i rodov (Surrogate motherhood: a historical overview. Features of the course of pregnancy and childbirth), Rossiiskii vestnik akushera i gineko-loga, 2015, No. 2, pp, 49-55.
2. Glandin S.V. O vspomogatel'nykh reproduktivnykh tekhnologiyakh i surrogatnom materinstve – de minimis curat lex? (On auxiliary reproductive technologies and surrogate motherhood - de mini-mis curat lex?), Sud'ya. 2016, No. 11, pp. 38-43
3. Opredelenie Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 15.05.2012 № 880-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rass-motreniyu zhaloby grazhdan Ch.P. i Ch.Yu. na narushenie ikh konstitutsionnykh prav polozheniyami punkta 4 stat'i 51 Semeinogo kodeksa Rossiiskoi Federatsii i punkta 5 stat'i 16 Federal'nogo zakona «Ob aktakh grazhdanskogo sostoyaniya» (Definition of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation from 15.05.2012 № 880-О “On refusal to accept for consideration the complaint of citi-zens Ch.P. and Ch.Yu. on violation of their constitutional rights by the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 51 of the Family Code of the Russian Federation and paragraph 5 of Article 16 of the Federal Law “On Civil Status Acts”). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus.
4. Mnenie sud'i Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF S.D. Knyazeva (Opinion of the judge of the Constitu-tional Court of the Russian Federation S.D. Knyazev). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus.
5. Mnenie sud'i Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF G.A. Gadzhieva (Opinion of the judge of the Constitu-tional Court of the Russian Federation G.А. Gadzhiev). SPS Konsul'tantPlyus.
7. URL: https://sankt-peterburgsky-spb.sudrf.ru/modules.php?name=sud_delo&srv_num=1&name_ op=case&case_id=10059717&case_uid=174C5EAB-7982-4AAE-A8FE-36B0BAD4B4E9&delo_ id=5&new=5
Received: 10.02.2018
PECULIARITIES OF THE CONCEPTS OF OBLIGATION AND CONTRACT IN THE CIVIL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE CIVIL CODE OF FRANCE: A COMPARATIVE
LEGAL STUDY
DZKUYA Shazina Valerievna
Third Year Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Law Faculty of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Law of obligations in whole as a civil law institute occupies a very important place in the system of civil law. One of the key concepts in the field of law of obligations is directly the obligation and the contract, the effectiveness of their use largely determines economic relations in the country. The conceptual approach to determining what is implied by the obligation and the contract as such also affects how these institutions will work in practice. This is the invariable connection and interdependence of the theoretical understanding and practical use of the phenomena under consideration. The institute of  obligation and contract in the Russian Federation differs in essential features, both in theory and in practice. The obligation in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is understood in a purely practical sense, the contract is determined separately. Such a separate use of them is rather convenient circumstance, which does not allow to confuse the concepts of law of obligations. For a clearer identification of the features of the institutions under consideration, a comparison is made with similar institutions of French law of obligations, in which there is no definition of obligation as such.
Key words: obligation, contract, preliminary contract, letter of intent, offer.
References
1. Evgenii Godeme. Obshchaya teoriya obyazatel'stv (General theory of obligations), per. s fr. I.B. Novitskogo. M., Yuridicheskoe izdatel'stvo Ministerstva Yustitsii SSSR, 1948.
2. Savat'e R. Teoriya obyazatel'stv, yuridicheskii i ekonomicheskii ocherk (Theory of obligations, legal and economic essay), per. s fr. i vstup.st. R.O. Khalfinoi. M., Izdatel'stvo «PROGRESS», 1972.
3. Sravnitel'noe pravovedenie: natsional'nye pravovye sistemy. T. 2. Pravovye sistemy Zapadnoi Evropy (Comparative law: national legal systems. V. 2. Legal Systems of Western Europe), pod red. V.I. Lafitskogo. Moskva, Institut zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya pri Pravitel'stve RF, Yuridicheskaya firma «Kontrakt», 2012. 
4. Frantsuzskii Grazhdanskii Kodeks 1804 goda s pozdneishimi izmeneniyami do 1939 goda (French Civil Code of 1804 with later amendments up to 1939), per. I.S. Pereterskogo, M., Yuridicheskoe izdatel'stvo NKYu SSR, 1941.
5. Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii (chast' pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 N 51-FZ (red. ot 29.12.2017) (Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Part One) of 30.11.1994 No 51-FZ (as amended on December 29, 2017)). Pervonachal'nyi tekst dokumenta opublikovan v izdaniyakh "Sobranie za-konodatel'stva RF", 05.12.1994, N 32, st. 3301, Rossiiskaya gazeta, 1994. 8 dek.
6. Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii: Postateinyi kommentarii k razdelu III "Obshchaya chast' obyazatel'stvennogo prava" (Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Article by article commen-tary to Section III “The general part of obligation law”), pod red. L.V. Sannikovoi. M., Statut, 2016.
Received: 20.01.2018
FEATURES OF THE SHARE CAPITAL CREATION IN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIPS
FATIKHOV Ruslan Vinerovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The main purpose of share capital, according to the author, is to guarantee the interests of creditors and counterparties, which makes the partnership an attractive form for the implementation of innovative investment projects with venture financing. The paper considers the mechanism of the share capital formation in economic partnerships. The author has revealed some shortcomings in legal regulation of the share capital formation in economic partnerships. In particular, some questions arise concerning the consequences of the breach of participants’ duty to contribute to the partnership's share capital. The author reveals the problem of a ratio of measures of transition of a share of the participant of economic partnership and exclusion of the unfair participant of economic partnership. The conclusion is drawn that the agreement on managing a partnership is important in formation and management of the share capital of economic partnership. At the same time, there are also some shortcomings of legal regulation of their activity that demand legislative changes. 
Key words: economic partnership, partnership, limited liability company, joint-stock company, Law on economic partnerships, share capital.
References
1. Poyasnitel'naya zapiska k proektam federal'nykh zakonov «O khozyajstvennykh partnerstvakh» i «O vnesenii izmenenij v chast pervuyu Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federatsii v svyazi s pri-nyatiem Federal'nogo zakona «O khozyajstvennykh partnerstvakh» (Explanatory note to the draft federal laws “On Economic Partnerships” and “On Amending Part One of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law “On Economic Partner-ships”). URL.: http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/ arhiv/a_dz_5.nsf/ByID/FB7B9C888506445FC32578A 7002E7A4B/$File/РџР —.rtf?OpenElement
2. Serova O.А. Problemy adaptatsii khozyajstvennogo partnerstva k sisteme yuridicheskikh lits Ros-sijskoj Federatsii (Problems of adaptation of economic partnership to the system of legal entities of the Russian Federation), Predprinimatelskoe pravo: Prilozhenie «Biznes i pravo v Rossii i za rubez-hom», 2013, No. 3, pp. 18-21.
3. Syzganov M.V., Rynenkov I.N. Khozyajstvennoe partnerstvo: novella rossijskogo zakonodatelya kak pravovoj instrument dlya innovatsionnykh proektov (Economic partnership: the novel of the Russian legislator as a legal tool for innovative projects), Zakonodatelstvo, 2012, No. 6, pp. 32-39.
4. O khozyajstvennykh partnyorstvakh: Federalnyj zakon ot 3 dekabrya 2011g. No 380-FZ (red. ot 23 iyulya 2013) (On economic partnerships: Federal Law of 03.12.2011. No. 380-FZ (as amended on July 23, 2013)), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 2011. No. 49 (ch.5), St. 7058.
5. Tsibenko А.YU. Khozyajstvennoe partnerstvo kak organizatsionno-pravovaya forma venchurnogo i innovatsionnogo predprinimatelstva (komparativnoe issledovanie) (Economic partnership as an organizational and legal form of venture and innovative entrepreneurship (comparative study)), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2015.
6. O vnesenii izmenenij v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossijskoj Federatsii v svyazi s peredachej Tsentralnomu banku Rossijskoj Federatsii polnomochij po regulirovaniyu, kontrolyu i nadzoru v sfere finansovykh rynkov: Federalnyj zakon ot 23 iyulya 2013 No 251-FZ (On amending certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation in connection with the transfer to the Central Bank of the Russian Federation of powers to regulate, control and supervise at financial markets: Federal Law No. 251-FZ of July 23, 2013), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 2013, No. 30 (Chast I), St. 4084.
7. Tishin А.P. Khozyajstvennye partnerstva–novyj vid yuridicheskikh lits (Economic partnerships are a new type of legal entities), Uproshhennaya sistema nalogooblozheniya: bukhgalterskij uchet i nalogooblozhenie, 2012, No. 3, pp. 57–68.
8. Sabirova L.L. Khozyajstvennye partnerstva kak novyj subiekt predprinimatel'skoj deyatelnosti (Economic partnerships as a new subject of entrepreneurial activity), Sovremennaya yurisprudent-siya: tendentsii razvitiya, materialy mezhdunarodnoj zaochnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii (10 yanvarya 2012 g.). Novosibirsk. Ehkor-kniga, 2012, pp. 50-56.
9. Dolinskaya V.V. Khozyajstvennoe partnerstvo v sovremennoj sisteme yuridicheskikh lits (Eco-nomic partnership in the modern system of legal entities), Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2015, No. 7, pp. 32-35.
10. Dmitrieva L.M. Pravovye posledstviya neispolneniya obyazannostej uchastnikami kho-zyajstvennogo partnerstva (Legal consequences of non-fulfillment of obligations by participants in economic partnership), Pravo i ehkonomika, 2012, No. 4, pp. 35-37. 
11. Sukhanov E.А. Ustavnyj kapital khozyajstvennogo obshhestva v sovremennom korporativnom prave (Charter capital of the economic society in modern corporate law), Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2012, No. 2, pp. 4-35.
12. Serebryakova А.А. Khozyajstvennoe partnerstvo: problemy vnutrennej garmonizatsii (Economic partnership: problems of internal harmonization), Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2015, No. 10, pp. 79-85
Received: 11.01.2018
FEATURES OF THE INHERITANCE OF THE RIGHTS RELATED TO THE TESTATOR’S PARTICIPATION IN BUSINESS PARTNERSHIPS, SOCIETIES AND PRODUCTION COOPERATIVES
FATIKHOVA Liudmila Mikhailovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
This article reflects the specifics of legal regulation of the relations related to the inheritance of rights arising in connection with the testator’s participation in business partnerships, societies and production cooperatives. The author considers the mechanism of the implementation of hereditary rights associated with business activities. In addition, the author defines legal features of inheritance of rights, the testator involved in business activities of economic partnerships and societies and production cooperatives. The article highlights the actual problems that arise in practice when inheriting a share (portion) of this participant (member) in the share (charter) capital (property) of the corresponding partnership, society or cooperative. The author notes discrepancy of the standards of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation defining features of the inheritance of rights connected with participation in economic partnerships and societies, production cooperatives as well as the rights connected with participation in consumers’ cooperatives. Some problems of legal regulation of the accession to shareholder’s rights are specified. The conclusion is drawn that the transition of a share or portion as hereditary succession isn't the basis for acceptance of their successors in members of society, partnership or cooperative.
Key words: inheritance of rights, hereditary property, business partnerships, societies, production cooperatives, business activities, securities, charter capital.
References
1. Bratus S.N. Predmet i sistema sovetskogo grazhdanskogo prava (The subject and system of Soviet civil law). M., Gosyurizdat, 1963. 
2. Bobkov S.А. Ustupka doli v ustavnom kapitale obshhestva s ogranichennoj otvetstvennostiyu (Assignment of a share in the authorized capital of a limited liability company), Zhurnal rossijskogo prava, No. 7, 2002, pp. 63-69.
3. Kortenova E.V. Perekhod doli v obshhestve s ogranichennoj otvetstvennosiyu k drugim litsam: na chto obratit vnimanie pri raschete nalogov (Transition of a share in a limited liability company to other persons: what should be revised when calculating taxes), Zakonodatelstvo, No. 9, 2006, pp. 21-28.
4. Belov V.А. Imushhestvennye kompleksy: ocherk teorii i opyt dogmaticheskoj konstruktsii po ros-sijskomu grazhdanskomu pravu (Property complexes: an essay on the theory and experience of dogmatic construction under Russian civil law). M., YurInfoR, 2004.
5. Yaroshenko K.B. Nasledovanie prav, svyazannykh s uchastiem v khozyajstvennykh tovarishhest-vakh, obshhestvakh i proizvodstvennykh kooperativakh (Inheritance of rights associated with partic-ipation in economic partnerships, societies and production cooperatives), Kommentarij sudebnoj praktiki. Otv. red. K.B. Yaroshenko. M., Institut zakonodatelstva i sravnitelnogo pravovedeniya pri Pravite'stve RF, KONTRАKT, 2017, Vyp. 22, pp. 50-60.
6. Letuta T.V. Prinyatie nasledstva kak osnovanie vozniknoveniya prav uchastnika khozyajstvenno-go obshhestva (Acceptance of inheritance as the basis for the emergence of the rights of a participant in an economic society), Lex russica, 2016, No. 9, pp. 146-154.
7. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma VАS RF ot 13 noyabrya 2008 No 4668/08 po delu No. А40-27703/07-125-210 (Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation of November 13, 2008 No. 4668/08 in the case No. А40-27703 / 07-125-210), Vestnik VАS RF, 2009, No. 3.
8. Khuzin I.I. Problemy sovmestnogo nasledovaniya aktsij (Problems of joint inheritance of shares), Sovremennoe pravo, 2011, No. 3, pp. 76-78.
9. Rudenko E.YU., Saenko D.G. Аktualnye problemy nasledovaniya aktsij (Actual problems of in-heritance of shares), Vlast Zakona, 2016, No. 3, pp. 102-108.
10. Mikheeva N. Na odnu aktsiyu neskol'ko naslednikov (One share for several heirs), Korporativnyj yurist, 2007, No. 5, pp. 16-17.
11. Nikologorskaya E.I. Nasledovanie aktsij (est mnenie) (Inheritance of shares (there is an opinion)), Nasledstvennoe pravo, 2007, No. 1, pp. 36-37.
12. Postanovlenie Federalnogo Аrbitrazhnogo Suda Moskovskogo okruga ot 12 yanvarya 2010 g. No KG-А40/14425-09 (Decree of the Federal Arbitration Court of the Moscow District on January 12, 2010 No. KG-A40). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «KonsultantPlyus».
13. Nalogovyj kodeks Rossijskoj Federatsii (chast vtoraya), ot 5 avgusta 2000 No. 117-FZ (red. ot 29 iyulya 2017) (Tax Code of the Russian Federation (part two): as of 05.08.2000 No. 117-FZ (as amended on July 29, 2017)), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 2000, No. 32, St. 3340.
14. Ob otsenochnoj deyatelnosti v Rossijskoj Federatsii: Federalnyj zakon ot 29 iyulya 1998 No. 135-FZ (red. ot 29 iyulya 2017) (On appraisal activity in the Russian Federation: Federal Law No. 135-FZ of July 29, 1998 (as amended on July 29, 2017)), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 1998, No. 31, St. 3813.
15. Vinogradova O.YU. O nekotorykh osobennostyakh nasledovaniya prav, svyazannykh s uchasti-em v khozyajstvennykh tovarishhestvakh i obshhestvakh (On some features of the inheritance of rights associated with participation in economic partnerships and societies), Yurist, 2009, No. 8, pp. 28-31.
16. Rybachuk E.YU. Nasledovanie imushhestvennykh prav, svyazannykh s predprinimatelskoj deyatelnostiyu (Inheritance of property rights related to business), Diss. … kand. yurid. nauk, M., 2013.
Received: 11.01.2018
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LEGAL GROUNDS FOR COMPULSORY PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENT
BARANOV Vladimir Mikhailovich
Assistant to the Head of the Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for Innovative Development, Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation. Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.E-mail: baranov_ This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SPASENNIKOV Boris Aristarhovich
Chief Researcher, Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Medicine, Professor. Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
POGODINA Tatyana Grigoryevna
Professor of the Department of Forensics of the Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Doctor of Medical Sciences. Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The Russian criminal law does not articulate the definition of  “compulsory measures of a medical nature”. As a result, each scientific school treats this concept differently and it leads to a number of negative consequences. Characteristics of legal relations arising from the application of coercive measures of a medical nature in the national scientific legal and medical literature is also very diverse. The authors formulate their vision of the definition and characteristics of such legal relationships. It is shown that a person suffering from severe mental pathology excluding strong-willed and conscious behavior can not be held responsible, but has rights that are protected by authorized bodies.
Key words: theory of law, legal relations, compulsory psychiatric treatment, criminal law.
References
1. Ageeva M.N. O vidakh prinuditel'nykh mer meditsinskogo kharaktera (On the types of compul-sory medical measures), Aktual'nye voprosy obrazovaniya i nauki, 2014, No. 3-4, pp. 48-51.
2. Belous V.G. Kriticheskii analiz publikatsii, posvyashchennykh probleme nevmenyaemosti (Critical analysis of publications on the problem of insanity), Aktual'nye voprosy obrazovaniya i nauki, 2013, No. 5-6, pp. 107-109.
3. Belous V.G., Golodov P.V. Aktual'nye problemy yuridicheskoi psikhologii (Actual problems of legal psychology), Vestnik mezhdunarodnogo Instituta upravleniya, 2015, No. 1-2, pp. 26-32.
4. Bychkova A.M. Regional'naya dinamika sostoyaniya obshchestvenno-opasnogo povedeniya lits, ne dostigshikh vozrasta ugolovnoi otvetstvennosti (Regional dynamics of the state of socially dan-gerous behavior of persons who have not reached the age of criminal responsibility), Vserossiiskii kriminologicheskii zhurnal, 2012, No. 1, pp. 53-61.
5. Divitaeva A.O. Nauchnaya shkola meditsinskogo prava «Instituta upravleniya» (Scientific School of Medical Law “Institute of Management”), Vestnik mezhdunarodnogo Instituta upravleniya, 2015, No. 3-4, pp. 61-66.
6. Kozachenko I. Voprosy ugolovnoi otvetstvennosti i nakazaniya lits, stradayushchikh psikhiche-skimi rasstroistvami, ne isklyuchayushchim vmenyaemosti (Questions of criminal responsibility and punishment of persons suffering from mental disorders that do not exclude responsibility), Gosu-darstvo i pravo, 2001, T. 74, No. 5, pp. 71-75.
7. Malinin V.B., Popov V.V. K voprosu o sub"ekte prestupleniya v ugolovnom prave (To the ques-tion of the subject of crime in criminal law), Vestnik instituta: prestuplenie, nakazanie, ispravlenie, 2009, No. 7, pp. 76-80.
8. Ponomarev S.B. Problema vmenyaemosti v rossiiskom ugolovnom prave XVI-XIX vekov (The problem of sanity in the Russian criminal law of the 16th-19th centuries), Vestnik Udmurtskogo un-iversiteta. Seriya Ekonomika i pravo, 2016, T. 26, No. 2, pp. 119-122.
9. Spasennikov B.A. Kliniko-kriminologicheskii analiz rasstroistv lichnosti u osuzhdennykh (Clinical and criminological analysis of personality disorders in convicts), Kriminologicheskii zhurnal Baikal'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta ekonomiki i prava, 2014, No. 2, pp. 33-40.
10. Spasennikov B.A., Spasennikova M.G. Nervno-psikhicheskaya patologiya i prestupnoe povede-nie (Nervous-psychic pathology and criminal behavior), Vserossiiskii kriminologicheskii zhurnal, 2016, T. 10, No. 4, pp. 665-670.
11. Sudebnaya psikhiatriya (Forensic psychiatry), uchebnik dlya sred. yurid. shkol, pod red. Ya.M. Kalashnika i D.R. Luntsa. Moscow, Gosyurizdat 1958.
12. Spasennikov B.A., Pertly L.F., Kaluzhina M.A. Cerebral Pathology and Criminal Behavior. Re-search Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2017, v. 8, no. 3, pp. 1109-1115.
Received: 19.01.2018
CONVICTS - FORMER COURT AND LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS AS A SPECIAL SOCIAL GROUP
GAIDAI Maria Konstantinovna
Doctor of Sciences (Sociology), Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Psychology and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines of the East Siberian Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Irkutsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Global changes in modern society, which took place due to the strengthening of the rule-of-law state, have brought up to date researches in the field of penitentiary sociology. The study of personal characteristics of different categories of convicts, the specifics of their relationships, everyday life, peculiarities of adaptation to new realities of penitentiary, convicts’ deviant behavior and other aspects is indeed an important, necessary and practically oriented direction in the framework of humanization and liberalization of criminal and criminal-executive policies of our state. Penitentiary behavior, social characteristics and other issues of penitentiary sociology relevant to such a category of convicts, as former court and law enforcement officials, are rarely considered to be refractive to this social group. At the same time, the actualization of the problems associated with this social group initiates searches for corrective-educational measures of influence on convicts, as well as special training for the staff of correctional institutions.
Key words: convicts, social group, public group, former law enforcement officials. 
References
1. Antonyan M.Yu., Vereshchagin V.A., Kalmanov G.B. Tyuremnaya subkul'tura i neitralizatsiya ee negativnykh proyavlenii (Prison subculture and neutralization of its negative manifestations), Gosu-darstvo i pravo, 1996, No. 10, pp. 72-79.
2. Elyutina M.E., Temaev T.V. Povedencheskie osobennosti pozhilykh osuzhdennykh (Behavioral features of elderly convicts), Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2015, No. 4, pp. 95-104.
3. Kutyakin S.A., Kurbatova G.V. Kompleksnyi podkhod k ponimaniyu individual'noi raboty s osuzhdennymi (Comprehensive approach to understanding individual work with convicts), Priklad-naya yuridicheskaya psikhologiya, 2016, pp. 69-73.
4. Makovik R.S., Bessarab N.R. Izolyatsiya lichnosti v rossiiskom prave i zakonodatel'stve (Isolation of personality in Russian law and legislation). M., Izdatel'stvo «Ekzamen», 2007. 
5. Mikhailov A.N. Sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie problemy lits, osvobozhdayushchikhsya iz mest li-sheniya svobody (Socio-psychological problems of persons released from places of deprivation of liberty), Prikladnaya yuridicheskaya psikhologiya, 2016, No 4, pp. 47-51.
6. Lysyagin O.B., Akimov S.K. Osuzhdennye v tyur'makh. Po materialam spetsial'noi perepisi osuzhdennykh i lits, soderzhashchikhsya pod strazhei, 12-18 noyabrya 2009 g. (Convicted in prisons. Based on the materials of the special convicts and detained persons sensus, November 12-18, 2009), pod red. d.yu.n., prof. V.I. Seleverstova. Vyp. 3. M., ID «Yurisprudentsiya», 2011. 
7. Osinskii I.I., Gylykova E.V. Buryatskaya gorodskaya sem'ya na rubezhe XX-XXI vekov. So-tsiologicheskii analiz (Buryat city family at the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. So-ciological analysis). Ulan-Ude, Izdatel'stvo buryatskogo gosuniversiteta, 2003. 
8. Peremolotova L.Yu. Znachenie osobennostei lichnosti osuzhdennogo pri osushchestvlenii profi-lakticheskogo vozdeistviya (Significance of personal characteristics of the convict in the implemen-tation of preventive effects), Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravookhranitel'naya praktika, 2015, No. 3 (33), pp. 76-81.
9. Sukhov A.N. Puti preodoleniya deformatsii obshcheniya osuzhdennykh (Ways to overcome the deformation of convicts’ communication), Psikhopedagogika v pravookhranitel'nykh organakh, 2015, No. 2 (61), pp. 60-62.
Received: 15.02.2018
SPECIFICITIES OF INSTITUTING CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AND TYPICAL INVESTIGATIVE SITUATIONS AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF INVESTIGATING ILLEGAL ADOPTION
ABRAMOVA Svetlana Ramilievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Forensics at the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Arragement of children left without parental care is one of the priority areas of state activities. Criminal law protection, safeguarding minors’ legitimate rights and interests when adopting should be secured by the rule of law provided for by Article 154 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. However, in practice a large proportion of the illegal actions relating to adoption remain undetected, or law enforcement agencies are unable to prosecute those responsible for these crimes. The paper contains an analysis of the reasons why the crimes provided for by Article 154 of the Criminal Code are latent; the specificities of identifying the indicia of a crime and peculiarities of instituting criminal proceedings for illegal adoption are examined. Particular attention is paid to the contents of typical investigative situations at the initial stage of the investigation of illegal adoption, the objectives of investigation are defined and algorithms for their solution are proposed.
Key words: illegal adoption, minor, pre-investigation check, crime investigation , latent crimes, investigative situations, investigative actions, operative search activities.
References
1. Kommentarii k Ugolovnomu kodeksu Rossiiskoi Federatsii (postateinyi) (Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (article by article)), (4-e iz-d., pererab. i dop., pod red. A.A. Chekalina, V.T. Tomina, V.V. Sverchkova). M., «Yurait-Izdat», 2007. 
2. Kuznetsova O.V. Problemy usynovleniya rossiiskikh detei inostrannymi grazhdanami (Problems of adoption of Russian children by foreign citizens), Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo un-iversiteta, 2015, No. 23 (378), Pravo, Vyp. 44, pp. 119-124.
3. Kushpel' E.V. Problemy i spetsifika rassledovaniya i preduprezhdeniya prestuplenii protiv sem'i i nesovershennoletnikh (Problems and specifics of investigation and prevention of crimes against the family and minors), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Volgograd, 1998. 
4. Petrukhina L. Nedetskii biznes: raskryta banda, torgovavshaya russkimi det'mi (Not a children's business: a gang that traded Russian children has been discovered), Sotsial'noe obespechenie, 2006, No. 3, pp. 36-37.
Received: 17.01.2018
FRAUD AS A MEANS OF COMMITTING PROPERTY AND FINANCIAL CRIMES
SERDYUK Pavel Leonidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article reveals the essence of fraud as a way of committing crimes on the example of different types of fraudulence and provides a critical analysis of its comparison to mental violence in law books. The author discusses techniques and forms of fraud, its most typical methods used in the field of property and financial crimes. It is noted that the greatest difficulty in the classification of these crimes is the detection of fraud, which is always used by the criminal in order to cover and disguise something. In particular, the peculiarities of the silent (passive) deception are revealed. The complexity of determining and proving this method is that it is characterized by largely subjective signs of crimes committed in different spheres of public life. The main goal of the article lies in the analysis of controversial issues concerning qualification of crimes committed with using fraud. These issues in the contemporary practice of combating crimes largely arise during bank lending. For this reason, this article focuses on the peculiarities of qualification of fraud in this area using examples from practice.
Key words: fraud, abuse of trust, fraudulence, credit, mental violence, bank, bank lending, deception as a method, violent fraud, deceit of creditors, illegal obtaining of credit, economic crimes.j
References
1. Kolosova V., Podnebesnyj A. Psihicheskoe nasilie v forme protivopravnogo psihologicheskogo vozdejstviya kak sposob soversheniya moshennichestva (Psychic violence in the form of illegal psy-chological influence as a means of committing fraud), Ugolovnoe pravo, 2007, No 3, pp. 35-38.
2. Podnebesnyj A.N. Sovershenie moshennichestva s primeneniem psihicheskogo nasiliya v forme protivopravnogo psihicheskogo vozdejstviya (The commission of fraud with the use of mental violence in the form of unlawful mental abuse), Gumanitarnye nauki: tezisy dokladov. N. Novgorod, 2005.
3. Grebenkin F.B. Ugolovno-pravovoe znachenie psihicheskogo nasiliya v prestupleniyah protiv sobstvennosti (Criminal law value of mental violence in crimes against property), Avtoref. dis. kand. yurid. nauk, M., 2004.
4. Tagancev N.S. Ustav o nakazaniyah (Charter of Punishment). SPb., 1879.
5. Ugolovnoe delo (Criminal case) № 5041065 Kirovskogo RUVD g. Ufy.
Received: 20.10.2017
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY SOME ASPECTS OF ENSURING AND PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS WHILE CARRYING OUT OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITIES IN PENITENTIARY INSTITUTIONS
PEREMOLOTOVA Lilianna Yurievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Postdoctoral Student of the Faculty of Academic Staff Training of the Federal Government Educational Institution of Higher Education “Academy of Law and Management of the FPS”, Ryazan, the Russia.
E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
On the basis of the Constitution, its principles and norms are the relations of man as the bearer of rights and freedoms, on the one hand, and State on the other. The maintenance of the balance and proportionality to protect constitutional values, goals and interests is the most important task in the implementation of the Constitution: unacceptable diminution of one value by another, and accordingly, the question is actualized about maintaining this balance in our country, especially while carrying out operative search activities. Although operative search activity focused on protecting the constitutionally recognized individual rights it allows their restriction sometimes in order to protect the constitutional rights of the individual, and therefore the implementation of such activities and its legal regulation has the constitutional law aspect. Although the intensity of the criminal impact on individual rights and public safety assumes greater responsibility for the condition and dynamics of crime and activity response of the Executive and its law enforcement agencies for criminal assault, it does not absolve of the responsibility to act within the legal framework, within certain authorities, on the grounds and in the manner prescribed by law. It is true in respect of entities engaged in operative search activity in the penal system.
Key words: person, convict, rights and freedoms, operative search activity, legal field, penitentiary institutions.
References
1. Kommentarii k Konstitutsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii (The commentary to the Constitution of the Russian Federation), Pod red. L. A. Okun'kova. 2-e izd., dop. i pererab. M., 1996. Pp. 85–88.
2. Nalbandyan R.G., Spasennikov B.A. Prinuzhdenie pri provedenii operativno-rozysknykh mero-priyatii operativnymi podrazdeleniyami FSIN Rossii (The coercion when carrying out operative search actions by operational units of the Federal penitentiary service of Russia), Operativnik (sysh-chik). 2016. No. 2 (47). Pp. 16–18. 
3. Pugachev E.V. O sootnoshenii rezul'tatov PTP i kontrolya i zapisi telefonnykh i inykh peregovo-rov v protsesse dokazyvaniya po ugolovnym delam (The ratio of the results of monitoring telephone conversations and monitoring and recording telephone and other conversations and in the process of proof in criminal cases), Operativnik (syshchik). 2005. No. 4. Pp. 23–26.
4. Ob operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti : feder. zakon ot 12 avgusta 1995 g. No. 144-FZ (red. ot 22 avgusta 2004 g.) (On operative search activity : The Federal law of 12.08.1995 № 144-FL (as amended on 22.08.2004), Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii. 1995. No. 33. St. 3349; 2004. No. 35. St. 3607.
5. Shumilov A. Yu. Operativno-rozysknaya deyatel'nost' i prava i svobody cheloveka i grazhdanina (Operative search activity and rights and freedoms of man and citizen), Kurs osnov operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti, ucheb. dlya vuzov. 3-e izd., dop. i pererab. M., 2008. Pp. 41–47.
Received: 22.01.2018
PECULIARITIES OF MAKING MATERIAL TRACES AS A RESULT OF INTENTIONAL DESTRUCTION OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OF ANOTHER, COMMITTED BY ARSON
FAYZULLINA Alina Anisovna
Candidate of Science (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University“, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
The information on the peculiarities of the mechanism of trace formation is an essential element of the forensic characteristics of intentional destruction or damage to property of another committed by arson, since they contain the most valuable information about the circumstances of the crimes in question. The analysis of the offender’s, victim’s and other participants’ actions in the criminal event allows the investigator to identify the specific items that the offender has been exposed to and suggest which traces could remain on these items. On the basis of such an analysis, versions are put forward concerning the location of the evidence. The article focuses on the classification of typical material traces found on the site of a fire, the study of which allows obtaining actual data on the location of the fire, its cause and duration, the conditions that contributed to the spread of combustion, as well as other circumstances important for establishing the truth for a specific criminal case.
Key words: material traces, intentional destruction or damage to property of another, arson, criminal identity.
References
1. Boguckaja M.Ju. Metodika rassledovanija umyshlennogo unichtozhenija ili povrezhdenija chuzho-go imushhestva, sovershennogo putem podzhoga (Methodology of investigation of intentional destruction or damage to another's property committed by arson), dis. … kand. jurid. nauk. SPb., 2005.  
2. Bychkov V.V. Rassledovanie umyshlennyh unichtozhenija ili povrezhdenija chuzhogo imush-hestva, sovershennyh putem podzhoga (Investigation of intentional destruction or damage to anoth-er's property committed by arson), ucheb. posobie. Cheljabinsk : Cheljabinskij juridicheskij institut MVD Rossii, 2007.  
3. Kriminalistika. Polnyj kurs: uchebnik dlja vuzov (Forensic science. Full course: a textbook for universities). 5-e izd., per. i dop., pod obshh. red. A.G. Filippova. M. : Jurajt, 2015.  
4. Zernov S.I., Kolmakov A.I., Makovkin N.V., Popov I.A. Primenenie tehniko-kriminalisticheskih sredstv i metodov pri raskrytii i rassledovanii podzhogov (The use of technical and forensic tools and methods in the disclosure and investigation of arson). M. : JeKC MVD Rossii, 1998. 
Received: 26.01.2018
ON THE CONCEPT AND CONTENT OF THE OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY “OBTAINING COMPUTER INFORMATION”
ALEKSANIN Alexander Sergeevich
Major Case Investigator of the Second Department of the Operations and Search Division(Inherent Security) of the Russian MIA General Administration for the city of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region, Adjunct of the Department of Operative Search Activities of Internal Affairs Bodies of the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
Further development of the Russian legislation related to operative search activities is characterized by the appearance of the concept of “obtaining computer information” and that has led to including this type of activities in the list of operative search activities. This is due to the fact that in Russia the list of operative search activities is comprehensive, and it is prohibited to carry out activities that are not indicated in the list. The study of the problems associated with this situation allows us to talk about the need to consolidate the concept of “operative search activities” in the Law on OSA, the advisability of supplementing this law with Article 5 under the title: “Basic Operative Search Concepts” and including the concept “Obtaining computer information” in this article.
Key words: operative search science, operative search activities, obtaining computer information, Law on OSA.
References
1. Federal'nyi zakon ot 12 avgusta 1995 g. № 144-FZ «Ob operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti» (Federal Law of August 12, 1995 No144-FZ “On Operational-Investigative Activity”), Sobranie za-konodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 1995. No. 33. St. 3349.
2. Federal'nyi zakon ot 6 iyulya 2016 g. № 374-FZ «O vnesenii izmenenii v Federal'nyi zakon "O protivodeistvii terrorizmu" i otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii v chasti ustanovle-niya dopolnitel'nykh mer protivodeistviya terrorizmu i obespecheniya obshchestvennoi bezopasnosti» (Federal Law of July 6, 2016 No. 374-FZ “On Amendments to the Federal Law on Counteracting Terrorism” and certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation with regard to the establishment of additional measures to counter terrorism and ensure public safety”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Ros-siiskoi Federatsii. 2016. No. 28. St. 4558.
3. Atmazhitov V.M., Bobrov V.G. O zakonodatel'nom regulirovanii operativno-rozysknoi deya-tel'nosti (On the legislative regulation of operational-search activity), M., 2003. 
4. Bukharov N.N., Zakhartsev S.I., Rokhlin V.I., Fedorov A.V., Shakhmatov A. V. Proslushivanie telefonnykh peregovorov v operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti (Listening of telephone conversations in operative-search activity), pod red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., 2005.
5. Vinnichenko N.A., Zakhartsev S.I., Rokhlin V.I. Pravovaya reglamentatsiya ispol'zovaniya re-zul'tatov operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve (Legal regulation of the use of the results of operational-search activity in criminal proceedings), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., 2004. 
6. Golubovskii V.Yu. Operativno-rozysknaya deyatel'nost' (Operative-search activity). M., 2001.
7. Golubovskii V.Yu. Teoreticheskie i pravovye aspekty informatsionnogo obespecheniya opera-tivno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti (Theoretical and legal aspects of information support of operational-search activity), Monografiya, pod red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 2000. 
8. Evstratikov B.M., Zakhartsev S.I., Medvedev V.N., Sal'nikov V.P. Operativno-rozysknye mero-priyatiya na kanalakh svyazi (pravovoi analiz) (Operative-search activities on communication chan-nels (legal analysis)), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., 2005.
9. Zakhartsev S.I. Nado li sud'e znat' operativno-rozysknuyu deyatel'nost' (Is it necessary for the judge to know operational-search activities), Rossiiskii sud'ya, 2004, No. 1, pp. 13-14.
10. Zakhartsev S.I. Nauka operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti: filosofskii, teoretiko-pravovoi i prik-ladnoi aspekty (The science of operational-search activity: philosophical, theoretical-legal and ap-plied aspects). SPb., 2011.
11. Zakhartsev S.I. Operativno-rozysknye meropriyatiya v Rossii i za rubezhom (Operative-search activities in Russia and abroad), pod redaktsiei V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., 2003. 
12. Zakhartsev S.I., Ignashchenkov Yu.Yu. K voprosu o dopustimosti provedeniya i proslushi-vaniya telefonnykh peregovorov po prestupleniyam nebol'shoi i srednei tyazhesti (On the issue of the admissibility of conducting and listening to telephone conversations in investigations of crimes of small and medium gravity), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Pravovedenie, 2006, No. 3, pp. 135-141. 
13. Zakhartsev S.I., Medvedev V.N. Snyatie informatsii s tekhnicheskikh kanalov svyazi: pravovye voprosy (Withdrawal of information from technical communication channels: legal issues), pod obshchei redaktsiei V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., 2004.
14. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Operativno-rozysknaya ekonomika i operativno-rozysknaya poli-tika (Operational-search economy and operational-search policy), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi eko-nomiki. 2015, No. 12, pp. 11-15. 
15. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Chto est' komprekhendnaya teoriya prava? (What is comprehen-sive epistemology of law?), Yuridicheskaya nauka, 2016, No. 3, pp. 5-9.
16. Zakhartsev S.I., Ignashchenkov Yu.Yu., Sal'nikov V.P. Operativno-rozysknaya deyatel'nost' v XXI veke (Operational-search activities in the XXI century). M., 2015. 
17. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P., Kiryushkina N.O. Konstitutsionnye prava cheloveka: vozmozh-ny li ogranicheniya (Constitutional rights of man: are limitations possible), Metodologiya sovremen-nogo konstitutsionalizma: konstitu-tsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, Materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii po konsti-tutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi ekonomicheskii un-iversitet, 2017, pp. 127-138.
18. Zakhartsev S.I., Vikhrov V.A., Ignashchenkov Yu.Yu., Sal'nikov V.P. Operativno-rozysknaya deyatel'nost' i voennaya bezopasnost' (Operational-search activity and military security), pod red. S.I. Zakhartseva. M., 2017. 
19. Operativno-rozysknaya deyatel'nost'  (Operative-search activities), pod red. K.K. Goryainova, V.S. Ovchinskogo, A.Yu. Shumilova. M., 2001. 
20. Shakhmatov A.V. Agenturnaya rabota v operativno-rozysknoi deyatel'nosti (Agency work in  operational-search activities), pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. SPb., 2005. 
21. Shumilov A.Yu. Operativno-rozysknaya entsiklopediya (Operational-search encyclopedia). M., 2004.
22. Shumilov A.Yu. Poluchenie komp'yuternoi informatsii kak novoe operativno-rozysknoe meropriyatie: pervye shagi nauchnogo poznaniya (Obtaining computer information as new operational-search activities: the first steps of scientific knowledge), Operativnik (syshchik), 2016, No. 4 (49), pp. 35-38.
23. Shumilov A.Yu. Problemy zakonodatel'nogo regulirovaniya v operativno-razysknoi deyatel'nosti: desyat' let spustya (Problems of legislative regulation in operational-search activities: ten years later). M., 2008.
Received: 16.01.2018
TO THE QUESTION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FORENSIC AUDIT
BYKOVA Enzhe Fauzelevna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Director General of the Audit Consulting Firm “KONTUR GUARANTOR AUDIT”, Head of the Internal Audit Department of the FSBEI HE  “Ufa State PetroleumTechnological University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Forensic audit occupies a dominant position in the composition of forensic economic examinations. Body of evidence is being formed for unlawful economic actions affecting the accounting system based on the conclusion of forensic audit. For the full-scale development of the institution of forensic economic expertise, it is required to develop instructions on the procedure for the appointment and production of forensic audit in criminal cases in the sphere of economics as an element of methodological support of the organizational process of expert activities.
Key words: forensic economic examination, forensic audit, forensic examination, economic examination, accounting examination.
References
1. Shlyakhov A.R. Trudy po sudebnoi ekspertize (Works on forensic examination). M., RFTsSE, „Nauka”, 2016, рр. 41-43.
2. Korukhov Yu.G. Problema kompleksnosti v sudebnoi ekspertize (The problem of complexity in forensic examination), Teoriya i praktika sudebnoi ekspertizy : sbornik. M., BSE RFTsSE pri Mi-nyuste Rossii, 2009, No. 3 (15), рр. 10-17.
3. Volchetskaya T.S. Takticheskie aspekty sudebnoi ekspertizy (Tactical aspects of forensic exper-tise), Kriminalistika i sudebnaya ekspertiza na Dal'nem Vostoke, pod nauch. red. Yu.G. Plesovskikh. Khabarovsk, RITs KhGAEP, 2013, vyp. 3, pp. 30-36.
4. Alekhina S.V., Ryabova L.V. Sudebno-ekonomicheskaya ekspertiza (Judicial-economic examina-tion), ucheb.-metod. posobie. Stavropol', SevKavGTU, 2010. 
5. Bystryakov E.N. Satinov A.Yu. Problemy naznacheniya sudebnykh ekspertiz pri rassledovanii prestuplenii, svyazannykh s legalizatsiei prestupnykh dokhodov (Problems of appointment of forensic expertise in the investigation of crimes associated with the legalization of criminal proceeds), Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoi yuridicheskoi nauki i praktiki. Saratov, Izd-vo SaratU, 2009, vyp. 3, pp. 313-316.
6. Golikova V.V. O nauchnoi i metodicheskoi obosnovannosti pri proizvodstve sudebnoi nalogovoi ekspertizy (On scientific and methodological validity in the process of judicial forensic examination), Aktual'nye problemy rossiiskogo prava. M., Izd-vo MGYuA, 2010, No. 4 (17), pp. 217-224.
7. Zakarechkin V.E. Sudebno-bukhgalterskaya ekspertiza na praktike. Ch. 4 (Forensic accounting in practice. Part 4). URL: http://www.buhgalteria.ru/article/n85251.
8. Piterov A.A. Predmet, zadachi i ob"ekty sudebnoi ekonomiko-stoimostnoi ekspertizy (A subject, tasks and objects of judicial economic-cost and expert examination), Sudebnaya ekspertiza. Saratov, Izd-vo SYuI MVD Rossii, 2015, No. 1 (21), pp. 108-119.
Received: 12.12.2017
THE METHOD OF COMMITTING A CRIME AS AN ELEMENT OF FORENSIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIMES AGAINST LIFE AND HEALTH COMMITTED BY MEDICAL WORKERS IN CONSEQUENCE OF MEDICAL MISCONDUCT
SEMENOVA Olesya Yurevna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE  “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Medical workers in the process of carrying out their professional activities more often commit crimes against life and health committed as a result of medical misconduct. These crimes represent an increased social danger and in this connection they require a serious approach on the part of the investigator, as well as law enforcement agencies in general. When investigating these crimes, the investigator faces a number of difficulties, one of which is making investigative versions at the initial stage of investigation. The author thinks that one of the ways to solve this problem is studying in details the elements of forensic characteristics of crimes, namely knowing typical ways of committing crimes against life and health committed as a result of professional misconduct. A detailed classification of the methods of committing crimes of this category, compiled on the basis of theoretical and empirical material, will help the investigator in choosing the most appropriate version of what happened, in establishing the cause-effect relationships between the medical worker’s actions and the ensuing consequences.
Key words: medical worker, medical care, life, health, crime investigation, forensic characteristics, method of a crime.
References
1. Belkin R.S. Kurs kriminalistiki (The Course of Forensics), V 3-kh tomakh. T. 3, M., Yurist', 1997.
2. Kanevskiy L.L. Kriminalisticheskie problemyi rassledovaniya i profilaktiki prestupleniy nesover-shennoletnih (Criminological Problems in the Investigation and Prevention of Juvenile Crime), Krasnoyarsk, Izd-vo Krasnoyarskogo un-ta, 1991.
3. Popov V.L. Pravovyie osnovyi meditsinskoy deyatelnosti (Legal Fundamentals of Medical Activ-ities), SPb., 1997.
4. Yablokov N.P. Kriminalistika (Forensics), Trete izdanie, pererabotannoe i dopolnennoe. Glava 3, M., YuRISTЪ, 2007.
5. Suharnikova L.V. Osobennosti rassledovaniya neostorozhnogo prichineniya vreda zhizni i zdo-rovyu grazhdan meditsinskimi rabotnikami v protsesse professionalnoy deyatelnosti (Features of In-vestigation of Careless Harm to the Life and Health of Citizens and Medical Staff in the Process of Professional Activities), diss…k.yu.n. SPb., 2006.
6. Prigovor ot 2 fevralya 2011 g. Ust-Ishimskogo rayonnogo suda Omskoy oblasti (The verdict of February 2, 2011, the Ust-Ishim District Court of the Omsk Region). URL:  http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/TGqmg3ZxO8WX/
7. Vrach osuzhdyon za prichinenie smerti po neostorozhnosti svoemu patsientu (The doctor is con-victed of causing death by negligence to his patient). URL: http://www.oblsud.penza.ru/ :ezhedn. in-ternet-izd. 2016. 02 sent. URL:  http://www.oblsud.penza.ru/item/p/1249/.
8. Prigovor ot 30 iyunya 2010 g. Industrialnogo rayonnogo suda g. Izhevska (Udmurtskaya Respub-lika) (The verdict of 30 June 2010 of the Industrial District Court of Izhevsk (Udmurt Republic)). URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/82Cxv3IB2I5N/.
9. Prigovor ot 3 oktyabrya 2011 g. Iglinskogo rayonnogo suda Respubliki Bashkortostan (The ver-dict of October 3, 2011, the Iglinsky District Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan). URL: http://sudact.ru/regular/doc/ToXUnpcGnrNu/.
Received: 15.05.2017
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW NON-TAX BUDGET REVENUES  OF THE BUDGET SYSTEM:TERMINOLOGY ISSUES
GULYAEV Igor Arkadievich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Financial, Banking and Customs Law, Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The author analyzes scientists’ different points of view on the definition “non-tax revenues”; the author concludes that discussions among legal scholars on delimitation of non-tax revenues and tax revenues arise primarily because there is no legally fixed definition of non-tax revenues in the current legislation system. The legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on this issue are also revealed, which states that non-tax payments have certain specificity, primarily due to their object. The author believes that the definition of non-tax revenues given by scientists does not reflect the nature of all non-tax revenues, including those generated through environmental resource payments, since the latter do not apply to transfers. Among them, there are compulsory payments, which are strictly fiscal in nature, at the same time they are established not only by legislative acts, but also by subordinated laws, so they are obligatory payments. Enumerations can also be voluntary. In addition, revenues are not incoming, but forthcoming money.
Key words: legislation, non-tax revenues, payments, budgets, budget system, natural resources, state property, requited payments, financial resources.
References
1. Batyaeva A.R. Nenalogovye dokhody gosudarstvennogo byudzheta v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Non-tax revenues of the state budget in the Russian Federation). M., 2008. 
2. Sergeev A.A. Razgranichenie nalogovykh i nenalogovykh platezhei: konstitutsionno-pravovoi as-pect (Delimitation of tax and non-tax payments: constitutional and legal aspect), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2006, No. 1, pp. 40-45.
3. Yalbulganov A.A. Nenalogovye dokhody v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: voprosy pravovogo (Non-tax revenues in the Russian Federation: issues of legal regulation), Finansovoe pravo, 2007, No. 5.
4. Yalbulganov A.A. K voprosu o preobrazovanii sistemy nalogov i sborov v RF (To the question of reforming the system of taxes and fees in the Russian Federation), Finansovoe pravo, 2011, No. 7, pp. 29–36.
5. Volkov V.V. Pravovaya sushchnost' litsenzionnykh sborov (The legal essence of licensing fees), Yuridicheskii mir. 2009, No. 5, pp. 74-78.
6. Verstova M.E. K voprosu o ponyatii tamozhennykh platezhei kak istochnika dokhodov byudzheta (On the issue of the concept of customs payments as a source of budget revenues), Vneshnetorgovoe pravo, 2007, No. 2, pp. 8-11.
7. Bakaeva O.Yu. Pravovoe regulirovanie deyatel'nosti tamozhennykh organov v Rossiiskoi Fede-ratsii (Legal regulation of the activities of customs authorities in the Russian Federation), dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk, Saratov, 2005. 
8. Vinnitskii D.V. Nalogi i sbory. Ponyatie. Yuridicheskie priznaki. Genezis (Taxes and fees. Con-cept. Legal signs. Genesis). M., 2004. 
9. Dolgova A.Yu. Ponyatie parafiskaliteta v kontekste obshcheevropeiskoi kontseptsii instituta nena-logovykh platezhei (The concept of parafiscality in the context of the European concept of the insti-tute of non-tax payments), Finansovoe pravo, 2012, No. 12, pp. 6–9.
10. Semencha O.Yu. K voprosu o pravovoi prirode prirodoresursnykh platezhei (On the question of the legal nature of nature-resource payments), Finansovoe pravo, 2007, No. 4, pp. 18-23.
11. Avdeenkova M.P. Formirovanie instituta fiskal'nogo sbora v resheniyakh Konstitutsionnogo Su-da Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Formation of the Institute of Fiscal Collection in the Decisions of the Con-stitutional Court of the Russian Federation), Zakonodatel'stvo i ekonomika, 2007, No. 2.
12. Tedeev A.A., Parygina V.A. Spornye voprosy sushchnosti i ponyatiya nalogovogo pravo-otnosheniya (Controversial issues of the essence and concept of tax law-relations), Advokat, 2006, No. 8.
13. Demin A.V. Sbor kak raznovidnost' nalogovykh dokhodov (problemy pravovoi identi-fikatsii) (Collection as a type of tax revenue (problems of legal identification)). Dostup iz SPS «Kon-sul'tantPlyus.
14. Artemov N.M., Yachmenev G.G. Pravovoe regulirovanie nenalogovykh dokhodov byudzhetov (Legal regulation of non-tax revenues of budgets). M., 2008.
15. Postanovlenie KS RF ot 17 iyulya 1998 g. No. 22-P. SZ RF, 1998, No. 30, St. 3800. Opre-delenie KS RF ot 6 iyulya 2001 g. No. 151-O (Resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of July 17, 1998 No. 22-P), Vestnik KS RF, 2002, No. 2; Opredelenie KS RF ot 14 maya 2002 g. No. 88-O (Resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of July 6, 2001 No. 151-O), SZ RF, 2002, No. 23, St. 2249.
16. Sergeev A.A. Razgranichenie nalogovykh i nenalogovykh platezhei: konstitutsionno-pravovoi aspect (Delimitation of tax and non-tax payments: constitutional and legal aspect), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2006, No. 1. SPS «Konsul'-tantPlyus» (accessed date: 13.02.2017).
17. Krokhina Yu.A. Finansovoe pravo Rossii: uchebnik (Financial law of Russia: textbook). 3e izd., pererab. i dop. M., Norma, 2008. 
18. Dodonov V. N., Krylova M, A., Shestakov A. V. Finansovoe i bankovskoe pravo. Slovar'-spravochnik (Financial and Banking Law. Dictionary-reference), pod. red. d.yu.n. O. N. Gorbuno-voi. M., INFRA-M, 1997. 
19. Bozhenok S.Ya. Pravovoe regulirovanie nenalogovykh dokhodov gosudarstvennykh i mest-nykh byudzhetov (Legal regulation of non-tax revenues of state and local budgets), avtoref. diss. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2004. 
20. Karasev V.A. Finansovo-pravovoe regulirovanie nenalogovykh dokhodov gosudarstven-nogo byudzheta Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Financial and legal regulation of non-tax revenues of the state budget of the Russian Federation), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2004, pp. 63–64.
21. Peshkova X. V. Nenalogovye dokhody byudzheta. Pravovoi rezhim zakonnosti (Non-tax reve-nues of the budget). Voronezh, 2003, No. 4. 
22. URL:http://budget.gov.ru/budget/income_types?budgetLevel=0&budgetType=-3&curDate= 01.11.2013&incomeType=1 (accessed date: 14.12.2017).
23. Batyaeva A.R. Nenalogovye dokhody gosudarstvennogo byudzheta v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Non-tax revenues of the state budget in the Russian Federation). M., 2008.
Received: 20.02.2018
LEGAL NATURЕ ОF ЕNVIRОNMЕNTAL SAFЕTY ОF TRANSРОRT AСTIVITY
KHOTKO Olga Alexandrovna 
Сandidatе оf Sciences (Law), Assосiatе Рrоfеssоr, Assistant Рrоfеssоr оf thе Dерartmеnt оf Еnvirоnmеntal and Agriсultural Law, Bеlarusian Statе Univеrsity, Minsk, Rерubliс оf Bеlarus.Е-mail: оlyahоtkо@yandех.ru
In mоdеrn соnditiоns, thе study оf lеgal naturе оf еnvirоnmеntal safety bесоmеs рartiсularly rеlеvant in соnnесtiоn with carrying out transроrt aсtivitiеs. Thе imрaсt оf transроrt aсtivitiеs оn thе еnvirоnmеntal status, risks and thrеats of the imрaсt оf transроrt соmрlех оn еnvirоnmеntal safеty arе bесоming mоrе еvidеnt day by day. All this sреaks abоut thе nееd tо analyzе lеgislativе рrоvisiоns in tеrms оf еnsuring еnvirоnmеntal safеty in transроrt, studying thе dеgrее оf solving thе рrоblеms undеr соnsidеratiоn, and соmрarativе lеgal studies оf these issuеs. Lеgal rеgulatiоn оf lеgal rеlatiоns tо еnsurе еnvirоnmеntal safеty when using transроrt faсilitiеs nееds thе dеvеlорmеnt оf sресial еnvirоnmеntal and lеgal nоrms aimеd at рrоtесting thе еnvirоnmеnt, natural rеsоurсеs and thе рорulatiоn frоm thе advеrsе imрaсt оf transроrt aсtivitiеs.
Kеy wоrds: еnvirоnmеntal safеty, environmental protection, transроrt activity, public health hazard, еnvirоnmеntal risks, thrеats, transроrt imрaсt, еnvirоnmеntal status, еnvirоnmеntal lеgislatiоn, transроrt law.
References
1. Usova E.I. K voprosu sovershenstvovaniya transportnoi politiki Respubliki Belarus' (To the ques-tion of improving the transport policy of the Republic of Belarus), Pravovoe obespechenie ustoichi-vogo razvitiya, sb. nauchn. trudov, pod obshch. red. I.I. Esmantovich. Gomel', GGU im. F. Skoriny, 2010, pp. 46-51.
2. Zelenov A.V. Pravovaya okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy pri ekspluatatsii gorodskogo pas-sazhirskogo transporta (Legal environmental protection in the operation of urban passenger trans-port), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Saratov, 2002.
3. Yaroslavtsev S.F. Sovershenstvovanie pravovogo regulirovaniya ekologo-avtotransportnykh ot-noshenii gorodskogo poseleniya (Perfection of legal regulation of eco-autotransport relations of ur-ban settlements), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Surgut, 2003.
4. Saskevich V.V. Pravovoi rezhim zemel' promyshlennosti, transporta, svyazi, energetiki (The legal regime of the lands of industry, transport, communications, energy), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Minsk, 2008.
5. Gapotchenko T.N. Osobennosti pravovogo rezhima zemel' avtomobil'nogo transporta i dorozhno-go khozyaistva (Features of the legal regime of the lands of road transport and road infrastructure), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Khar'kov, 2007.
6. Chernobai E.Yu. Pravovoi rezhim zemel' polosy otvoda zheleznykh dorog (Legal regime of the land strip of allotment of railways), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2014.
7. Ob osnovakh transportnoi deyatel'nosti. Zakon Resp. Belarus', 3 noyab. 1992 g., № 1902-XII, v red. Zakona Resp. Belarus' ot 22.12.2011 g. (On the basics of transport activity: Law of the Republic of Belarus, 3 November 1992, No. 1902-XII: as in force Law of the Republic of Belarus on 22 December 2011). Konsul'tant PlyusBelarus'. Tekhnologiya 3000. OOO «YurSpektr», Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2018.
8. Kontseptsiya dolgosrochnogo sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii na pe-riod do 2020 g. ; utv. rasporyazheniem Pravitel'stva RF ot 17.11.2008 № 1662-r (v red. ot 10.02.2017) (The concept of long-term social and economic development of the Russian Federation for the period until 2020;  adopted by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 17 November 2008 No.1662-r (as amended on 10 February 2017)). Konsul'tant Plyus. Rossiya. ZAO. «Konsul'tantPlyus». M., 2018.
10. Galaburda V.G., Sokolov Yu.I., Korol'kov I.V. Upravlenie transportnoi sistemoi (Management of the transport system), uchebnik, pod red. V.G. Galaburdy. M., FGBOU «Uchebno-metodicheskoe upravlenie po obrabotke informatsii zheleznodorozhnogo transporta», 2016. 
11. Strategiya po snizheniyu vrednogo vozdeistviya transporta na atmosfernyi vozdukh Respubliki Belarus' na period do 2020 g., utv. Zamestitelem Prem'er-ministra Respubliki Belarus' 5 noyabrya 2013 g. №06/137-207, 214-258.  (Strategy to reduce the harmful impact of transport on the air of the Republic of Belarus for the period up to 2020, passed by Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Belarus on November 5, 2013 No. 06 / 137-207, 214-258). URL: http://www.minpriro da.gov.by/ru/new_url_2009876790-ru/ (accessed date: 04.01.2018).
12. Gavrilenko V.G. Yuridicheskii slovar' (The legal dictionary), nauch. red. N.I. Yadevich. Minsk, Pravo i ekonomika, 2013.
13. Ob okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy: Zakon. Zakon Resp. Belarus', 26 noyab. 1992 g., № 1982-XII : v red. Zakona Resp. Belarus' ot 22.12.2011 g. (On Environmental Protection: The Law. The Law of the Republic of. Belarus, 26 November 1992, No. 1982-XII: as in force Law of the Republic of Belarus on 22 December 2011). Konsul'tant Plyus. Belarus'. Tekhnologiya 3000. OOO «YurS-pektr», Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2018.
14. O bezopasnosti na transporte: model'nyi zakon , postanovlenie plenarnogo zasedaniya Mezhparlamentskoi Assamblei gosudarstv-uchastnikov SNG, 31 okt. 2007 g., № 29-9 (On Transport Security: Model Law, Resolution of the Plenary Session of the Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS Member States, 31 October. 2007, No 29-9). Konsul'tant Plyus. Rossiya. ZAO «Konsul'tantPlyus». M., 2018.
15. Gosudarstvennaya programma po razvitiyu i soderzhaniyu avtomobil'nykh dorog v Respublike Belarus' na 2017–2020 gody: Postanovlenie Soveta Ministrov Resp. Belarus' 18 sentyabrya 2017 g. № 699. (State program on development and maintenance of highways in the Republic of Belarus for 2017-2020: Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus. Belarus 18 September No. 699). Etalon – Belarus'. Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2018.
16. Ob avtomobil'nom transporte i avtomobil'nykh perevozkakh: Zakon Resp. Belarus', 14 avg. 2014 g., No. 278-Z (On highway transport and transport by road: Law of the Republic of  Belarus, 14 August 2014, No. 278-З). Etalon – Belarus'. Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2018.
17. Egiazarov V.A. Transportnoe zakonodatel'stvo gosudarstv-uchastnikov SNG (Transport legislation of the CIS member states). M., Norma, 2007. 
18. Latskevich N.V. Pridorozhnyi servis v Respublike Belarus': sostoyanie i napravleniya razvitiya (Roadside service in the Republic of Belarus: state and directions of development). Gomel'. Belo-russkii torgovo-ekonomicheskii un-t potreb. kooperatsii, 2015. 
19. Kontseptsiya razvitiya pridorozhnogo servisa na respublikanskikh avtomobil'nykh dorogakh do 2020 goda, 25 maya 2016 g. (). Konsul'tant Plyus. Belarus'. Tekhnologiya 3000. OOO «YurSpektr», Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2018.
20. Dogovor o Evraziiskom ekonomicheskom soyuze, podpisan v g. Astane, 29.05.2014 g. : v red. ot 08.05.2015 g. (Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, signed in the city of Astane, 29 May 2014, as in force from 08 May 2015). Konsul'tant Plyus. Rossiya. ZAO, «Konsul'tantPlyus». M., 2018.
21. Kommentarii k Ustavu zheleznodorozhnogo transporta obshchego pol'zovaniya (Commentary on the Charter of Public Transport Railways), pod red. E.I. Zaretskoi, V.P. Moroza. Mn. Amalfeya, 2004. 
22. Vozdushnyi kodeks: Zakon Resp. Belarus', 16 maya 2006 g., № 313-Z, s izm. i dop. (Air Code: Law of the Republic of Belarus, 16 May 2006, No. 313-З, amend. and added). Etalon – Belarus'. Nats. tsentr pravovoi inform. Resp. Belarus'. Minsk, 2018.
23. Makarova T.I., Khot'ko O.A. Ekologizatsiya zemel'nogo zakonodatel'stva: sostoyanie i problemy sovershenstvovaniya (Ecologization of land legislation: the state and problems of improvement), So-vremennoe pravo, 2014, No. 7, pp. 123-131.  
24. Brinchuk M.M. Ekosistemnyi podkhod v prave (Ecosystem approach in law), Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2008, No. 1, pp. 6-14.
Received: 20.01.2018
THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSPARENCY IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGAL RELATIONS
KOROBKA Lera Evgenievna
Deputy Head of the Enforcement Division of the Legal Administration of the Moscow City Property Department, Moscow, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The search for new ways to solve global environmental problems and the need to strengthen national and international ways of preserving the environment has caused the discussion of the principle of transparency in environmental law. The consolidation of the principle of transparency in environmental law is one of the ways to approach the "pluralism" of environmental information, contributing to the disclosure of the necessary aspects of interaction between the state and society in the process of circulation of environmental information, due to information validity, sufficiency, quality, relevance, relevance and transparency. This is due to the fact that it is possible to launch the mechanism of public information awareness of the environmental status, which is a certain order of circulation of environmentally relevant information, only through the interaction of different social and state institutions. Therefore, the necessary condition for the development of environmental relations is the implementation of the principle of transparency because the transparency of information allows solving a number of ecologically significant problems.
Key words: transparency, principle of transparency, environmental law, environmental information, environmental legal relations.
References
1. Chernykh A.V. Obespechenie bezopasnosti avtomatizirovannykh informatsionnykh system (Providing security of automated information systems), Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1980, No. 6, pp. 116-120.
2. Chkhutiashvili L.V. Integrirovannaya otchetnost' – novaya forma korporativnogo otcheta (Inte-grated reporting is a new form of corporate reporting), Auditor, 2016, No. 10, pp. 36-41.
3. Afanas'eva O.V., Bogdanovskaya I.Yu., Tereshchenko L.K., Danilov S.Yu. Pravo na dostup k publichnoi informatsii kak uslovie razvitiya transparentnosti gosudarstva (The right to access to pub-lic information as a condition for developing the state transparency), materialy kruglogo stola XI Mezhudarnoi nauchno konferentsii po problemam razvitiya ekonomiki i obshchestva, Gosu-darstvennyi universitet – Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki, 2010 g. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshei shkoly eko-nomiki, 2010, No. 4, pp. 148-156. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru (accessed date: 21.08.2016).
Received: 23.01.2018
INTERNATIONAL LAW ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE EU COUNTRIES (PART 1)
MUKHAMETGAREEVA Natalia Mikhailovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philology), Senior Instructor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
YUSUPOVA Zilya Anasovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State
 University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
To date, despite the increase in the number of national legal steps and international environmental agreements, environmental deterioration continues, new environmental problems arise. In this regard, it is particularly relevant to study the experience of the European Union, which has implemented a focused environmental policy for the past 45 years and has many years of rulemaking and actual resolution of environmental issues. The paper discusses the issues of environmental protection in the countries of the European Union, analyzes the measures taken and the results achieved to improve and preserve the environment in the European Union.
Key words: environment, environmental protection, EU environmental policy, environmental quality, EU directives.
References
1. Kremer L., Vinter G. Jekologicheskoe pravo Evropejskogo sojuza (Environmental law of the Eu-ropean Union), otv. red. O.L. Dubovik. M. : Gordec, 2007. 
2. Council Decision of 14 May 1973 adopting a research programme for the European Economic Community on the protection of the environment Council Decision of 14 May 1973 adopting a re-search programme for the European Economic Community on the protection of the environment. URL:http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/ ?uri=CELEX: 31973D 0126&qid=1510 074506525 (accessed date: 03.11.2017).
3. Direktiva 79/409/ EEC Evropejskogo Soveta ot 02 aprelja 1979 g. o sohranenii vidov ptic, zhi-vushhih v dikoj prirode (Directive 79/409 / EEC of the European Council of April 2, 1979 on the Conservation of Species of Birds Living in the Wild), Pravo Evropejskogo sojuza. URL: http://eulaw.ru (accessed date: 13.10.2017).
4. Mezhdunarodnoe soglashenie po tropicheskoj drevesine ot 18 nojabrja 1983 g. (International Agreement on Tropical Timber dated 18 November 1983), Organizacija Ob’edinennyh Nacij. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/pdf/ wood.pdf (accessed date: 21.10.2017).
5. Konvencija OON o transgranichnom zagrjaznenii vozduha na bol'shie rasstojanija ot 13 nojabrja 1979 (United Nations Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution of 13 November 1979), Organizacija Ob’edinennyh Nacij. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/ docu-ments/decl_conv/conventions/transboundary.shtml (accessed date: 13.10.2017).
6. Single European Act (Luxembourg, 17 February 1986), European Union. URL: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:11957E (accessed date: 21.09.2017). 
7. Maastricht Treaty (Maastricht, 7 February 1992), European Union. URL: https://europa.eu/european-union/sites/europaeu/files/docs/body/treaty_on_european_ union_en.pdf (accessed date: 21.10.2017).
8. Treaty of Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1 May 1997), European Union. URL: https://europa.eu/european-union/sites/europaeu/files/docs/body/treaty_on_european_ union_en.pdf (accessed date: 04.11.2017).
9. Treaty of Lisbon (Lisbon, 13 December 2007), European Union. URL: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:C:2007:306:TOC (accessed date: 21.11.2017).
10. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and Russian state-legal reality). Pravo i po-litika, 2004, No. 12 (60), pp. 5-10.
11. Council Directive 91/689/EEC of 12 December 1991 on hazardous waste. URL:http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1510115600693&uri=CELEX: 31991L0689 (accessed date: 03. 11.2017).
12. Direktiva 94/62/EEC Evropejskogo Soveta ob upakovke i upakovochnyh othodah (Directive 94/62 / EEC of the European Council on packaging and packaging waste), Pravo Evropejskogo so-juza. URL: http://eulaw.ru (accessed date: 13.10.2017).
13. Direktiva Soveta 1999/31/EEC Evropejskogo Soveta ot 26 aprelja 1999 g. o zahoronenii othodov na poligonah (Council Directive 1999/31 / EEC of the European Council of 26 April 1999 on the disposal of waste at landfills), Pravo Evropejskogo sojuza. URL: http://eulaw.ru (accessed date: 13.10.2017).
14. Council Directive 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. URL:http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1510091703821&uri=CELEX:31985L0337 (accessed date: 03.11.2017).
Received: 30.01.2018
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY. 
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNATIONAL LAW
VAKHITOVA Guzel Valerievna
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir StateUniversity”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”,
Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The invention and application of modern information and communication technologies is both a threat to international security and a means of ensuring it. The paper considers the problems arising in connection with the spread of information technologies to the sphere of international relations, the development of the regulatory and legal framework for ensuring information security in Russia and in the world. The danger of using informative technologies in the military sphere is specially mentioned, as indicated by the UN documents. The severity of these threats is evidenced by the fact that only in Russia four normative and legal documents devoted specifically to the problems of information security were adopted, six corresponding special resolutions were adopted at the UN level. Information security issues are also handled by non-governmental organizations, especially the authoritative one is the PIR Center (Russia), which has consultative status with the UN ECOSOC.
Key words: law of dialectics, international security, law enforcement, international relations, international law.
References
1. Atribuciya kiberataki yavlyaetsya politicheskim resheniem, ehto ne sudebnyj process (Attribution of cyberattacks is a political decision, this is not a trial), Yadernyj Kontrol', vypusk No. 4 (486), Maj 2017 URL: http://www.pircenter.org/ articles/ 2099
2. A/RES/55/63 ot 4 dekabrya 2000 goda i A/RES/56/121 ot 19 dekabrya 2001 g. «Bor'ba s prestup-nym ispol'zovaniem informacionnyh tekhnologij» (Combating the criminal use of information tech-nology), Rezolyucii General'noj Assamblei. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/ development/ict/res.shtml 
3. «Dostizheniya v sfere informatizacii i telekommunikacij v kontekste mezhdunarodnoj bezopas-nosti». (Achievements in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of interna-tional security), Rezolyuciya, prinyataya General'noj Assambleej 8 dekabrya 2010 goda [po dokladu Pervogo komiteta (A/65/405)] 65/41, Rezolyucii General'noj Assamblei. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/development/ict/res.shtml
4. Konvencii ob obespechenii mezhdunarodnoj informacionnoj bezopasnosti, (Convention on Inter-national Information Security), Oficial'nyj sajt MID RF. URL:  http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/ official_ documents/-/asset_ publisher/ CptICkB6BZ 29/content/id/ 191666
5. Krutskih Andrej. K politiko-pravovym osnovaniyam global'noj informacionnoj bezopasnosti (To the political and legal grounds of the global information security). URL: http://www.intertrends.ru/thirteen/003.htm
6. Regional'noe sodruzhestvo v oblasti svyazi (RSS) (Regional Commonwealth in the field of Communications). (RCC) URL: http://www.rcc.org.ru 
7. Chastnye voennye kompanii (Private military companies). URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chastnaya_voennaya_kompaniya URL: http://russian7.ru/post/7-glavnyx-chastnyx-armij-mira/
Received: 31.01.2018
THE ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL REGULATION OF FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN RUSSIA
GURGULIYA Astanda Appolonovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law and National Security of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Moscow, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the conditions of uncontrolled “capital flight” and unsuccessful attempts of “deoffshorization” of the country’s economy, the strategic task of the Russian Federation at the present stage is to find the best ways to attract investments and repatriate capital to the economy of the country. However, without a proper legal framework containing legal guarantees for the capital, this will not be achieved. The investment legislation of the Russian Federation at the present stage is characterized by an unsystematic character, absence of a single law that would establish general rules for various types of investment activities. The analysis of the evolution of the regulatory framework governing foreign investments in the Russian Federation, in particular the influx of capital into the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern periods, will allow us to find past mistakes in order to prevent them in the future, and also to choose a course for the effective development of investment legislation.
Key words: investments, legal regulation, economy, foreign capital, concession agree-ments.
References
1.Boguslavskij M.M. Inostrannye investicii: pravovoe regulirovanie (Foreign investment: legal reg-ulation). M.: Izdatel'stvo BJeK, 1996.
2. Istorija (History), Oficial'nyj sajt Gosudarstvennoj korporacii «Bank razvitija i vneshnejekonomi-cheskoj dejatel'nosti. Vneshjekonombank». URL: http://www.veb.ru/ru/about/history (accessed date: 15.12.2017). 
3. O merah po sovershenstvovaniju upravlenija vneshnejekonomicheskimi svjazjami: Postanovlenie CK KPSS, Sovmina SSSR ot 19.08.1986 №991 (red. ot 06.05.1989) (On measures to improve the management of foreign economic relations: Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of Ministers of the USSR of 19.08.1986 No. 991 (redaction from 06.05.1989)). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tant pljus». 
4. O voprosah, svjazannyh s sozdaniem na territorii SSSR i dejatel'nost'ju sovmestnyh predprijatij, mezhdunarodnyh ob#edinenij i organizacij s uchastiem sovetskih i inostrannyh organizacij, firm i organov upravlenija: Ukaz Prezidiuma VS SSSR ot 13.01.1987 No. 6362-XI (On issues related to the establishment on the territory of the USSR and the activities of joint ventures, international asso-ciations and organizations with the participation of Soviet and foreign organizations, firms and man-agement bodies: Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 13.01.1987 No. 6362-XI), Vedomosti VS SSSR. 1987. N 2. St. 35. 
5.O porjadke sozdanija na territorii SSSR i dejatel'nosti sovmestnyh predprijatij, mezhdunarodnyh ob#edinenij i organizacij SSSR i drugih stran – chlenov SJeV: Postanovlenie Sovmina SSSR ot 13.01.1987 N 48 (On the procedure for the establishment of joint ventures, international associations and organizations of the USSR and other CMEA member countries on the territory of the USSR: Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 13.01.1987 No. 48). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tant pljus». 
6. O merah po sovershenstvovaniju upravlenija jekonomicheskim i nauchno-tehnicheskim sotrudni-chestvom s socialisticheskimi stranami (On measures to improve the management of economic and scientific and technical cooperation with socialist countries: Resolution of the CPSU Central Com-mittee, Council of Ministers of the USSR of 19.08.1986 N 992). URL: https://www.lawmix.ru/sssr/4483 (accessed date: 19.02.2018).
7.O sobstvennosti v SSSR: Zakon SSSR ot 06.03.1990 N 1305-1 (On property in the USSR: USSR Law of 06.03.1990 No. 1305-1), Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR. 1990. N 11. St. 164. 8. Ob inos-trannyh investicijah v SSSR: Ukaz Prezidenta SSSR ot 26.10.1990 N UP-942 (On Foreign Invest-ments in the USSR: Decree of the President of the USSR of 26.10.1990 No. UP-942),  Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR. 1990. N 44. St. 944. 
9.  Osnovy zakonodatel'stva ob inostrannyh investicijah v SSSR (prinjaty VS SSSR 05.07.1991 N 2302-1) (Fundamentals of legislation on foreign investment in the USSR (adopted by the SC of the USSR 05.07.1991 No. 2302-1)), Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR. 1991. No. 31. St. 880.  
10. Ob obespechenii zalogom objazatel'stv, voznikajushhih pri osushhestvlenii inostrannyh investicij v SSSR: Ukaz Prezidenta SSSR ot 17.08.1991 N UP-2400 (On securing collateral for obligations arising from the implementation of foreign investment in the USSR: Decree of the President of the USSR of 17.08.1991 No. UP-2400), Vedomosti SND SSSR i VS SSSR. 1991. N 34. St. 979. 
11. Ob investicionnoj dejatel'nosti v RSFSR: Zakon RSFSR ot 26.06.1991 N 1488-1 (On investment activity in the RSFSR: Law of the RSFSR of 26.06.1991 No. 1488-1),  Bjulleten' normativnyh aktov. 1992. No. 2-3. 
12. Ob inostrannyh investicijah v RSFSR: Zakon RSFSR ot 04.07.1991 N 1545-1 (On Foreign In-vestments in the RSFSR: Law of the RSFSR of 04.07.1991 No. 1545-1). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tant pljus». 
13. O porjadke osushhestvlenija inostrannyh investicij v hozjajstvennye obshhestva, imejushhie stra-tegicheskoe znachenie dlja obespechenija oborony strany i bezopasnosti gosudarstva: Federal'nyj zakon ot 29.04.2008 N 57-FZ (On the procedure for foreign investment in business entities of stra-tegic importance for ensuring the country's defense and state security: Federal Law No. 57-FZ of April 29, 2008),  Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF ot 5 maja 2008 g. N 18. st. 1940. 
14. Farhutdinov I.Z. Inostrannye investicii v Rossii i mezhdunarodnoe pravo (Foreign investment in Russia and international law), Evrazijskij juridicheskij portal. URL: http: //www.eurasialegal.info/index.php? Option = com_content & view = article & id = 885% 3A2011-09-20-07-32-53 & catid = 117% 3A2011-09-20-07-18-21 & Itemid = 37 (accessed date: December 15, 2017).
Received: 23.01.2018
 
ABRAMOVA Svetlana Ramilievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Forensics at the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ALEKSANIN Alexander Sergeevich
Major Case Investigator of the Second Department of the Operations and Search Division(Inherent Security) of the Russian MIA General Administration for the city of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region, Adjunct of the Department of Operative Search Activities of Internal Affairs Bodies of the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
APOLSKIY Evgeniy Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Rostov branch (institute) of the All-Russian State University of Justice, Rostov-on-Don,
Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
DZKUYA Shazina Valerievna
Third Year Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Law Faculty of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
BARANOV Vladimir Mikhailovich
Assistant to the Head of the Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for Innovative Development, Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation. Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.E-mail: baranov_ This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
BYKOVA Enzhe Fauzelevna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Director General of the Audit Consulting Firm “KONTUR GUARANTOR AUDIT”, Head of the Internal Audit Department of the FSBEI HE  “Ufa State PetroleumTechnological University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
CHERNYKH Alexey Victorovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), First Vice-rector of the Bolshoi Ballet Academy, Moscow,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
CHUPRAYKOVA Tamara Vanoevna 
Postgraduate Student of the ANO HE “Liberal Arts University”, Yekaterinburg,
Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
FAYZULLINA Alina Anisovna
Candidate of Science (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University“, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
FATIKHOVA Liudmila Mikhailovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
FATIKHOV Ruslan Vinerovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
FOMICHEV Maksim Nikolaevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the FSBEI HE “Volga State University of Water Transport”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GAIDAI Maria Konstantinovna
Doctor of Sciences (Sociology), Associate Pro-fessor, Professor of the Department of Philoso-phy, Psychology and Social and Humanitarian Disciplines of the East Siberian Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Irkutsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 
GORBUNOV Maksim Dmitrievich
Teaching Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Law Faculty of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GULYAEV Igor Arkadievich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Financial, Banking and Customs Law, Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GURGULIYA Astanda Appolonovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law and National Security of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Moscow,
Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate Lawyer of Eurasian Resources Group (Luxembourg), Saint Petersburg,
Russia. E-mail: ismagilovir @ gmail.com
KASHAPOV Ural Abubakirovich
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Teacher-organizer of FHS of the MBEI “School № 27 with intensified instruction in some subjects”of Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KHOTKO Olga Alexandrovna 
Сandidatе оf Sciences (Law), Assосiatе Рrоfеssоr, Assistant Рrоfеssоr оf thе Dерartmеnt оf Еnvirоnmеntal and Agriсultural Law, Bеlarusian Statе Univеrsity,
Minsk, Rерubliс оf Bеlarus.Е-mail: оlyahоtkо@yandех.ru
KOROBKA Lera Evgenievna
Deputy Head of the Enforcement Division of the Legal Administration of the Moscow City Property Department, Moscow, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KOZHINA Yuliya Alekseevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KONDRATEVA Anna Nikolaevna
Instructor of the Department of General Education and Legal Disciplines of the Mid-Volga Institute (branch) of the All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia), Saransk,
Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KRUGLOVA Julia Borisovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of State and Administrative Law of the Faculty of Law of the FSBEI HE “Ulyanovsk State University”, Ulyanovsk,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
LARINBAEVA Ilmira Ishmurzovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MISYAKOVA Oksana Viktorovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Faculty of Law of the FSBEI HE "Ulyanovsk State University", Ulyanovsk,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MUKHAMETGAREEVA Natalia Mikhailovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philology), Senior Instructor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PAKHOMOVA Elizaveta Aleksandrovna
Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Social Law Sciences of the FSBEI HE “Volga State University of Water Transport”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PETRENKO Mikhail Nikolaevich
Senior Instructor of the ANO Samara Institute of Public Administration “International Market Institute”, Samara, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PEREMOLOTOVA Lilianna Yurievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Postdoctoral Student of the Faculty of Academic Staff Training of the Federal Government Educational Institution of Higher Education “Academy of Law and Management of the FPS”,
Ryazan, the Russia.
E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
POGODINA Tatyana Grigoryevna
Professor of the Department of Forensics of the Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Doctor of Medical Sciences. Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Mikhail Viktorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, President of the Foundation for the Support of Science and Education in Law Enforcement Activities "University", St. Petersburg, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-chief of the journal "Legal Science: History and Modernity", St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SEMENOVA Olesya Yurevna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE  “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SERDYUK Pavel Leonidovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Criminal Law and Criminology of the FSGEI HE “Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”, Ufa,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SPASENNIKOV Boris Aristarhovich
Chief Researcher, Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Medicine, Professor. Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”,Ufa,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TSYGANOV Viktor Ivanovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Profes-sor, Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Loba-chevsky State University of Nizhniy Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhniy Nov-gorod,
Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
VAKHITOVA Guzel Valerievna
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State
 University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
VORONIN Boris Aleksandrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Management and Law, Urals State Agrarian University, Yekaterinburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
YUSUPOVA Zilya Anasovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philology), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State
 University, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК