№ 4 (58) 2019 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

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№ 4 (58) 2019

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№ 4 (58) 2019
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  • The Development of the Ideas of the Essence of Civil Society
  • The Idea of Freedom as a Prerequisite for the Formation of the Concept of State Sovereignty
  • Judicial Practice on the Legal Regulation of Natural Resource Management in the Arctic Zone
  • Land Law in the System of Russian Law

Feature

To the New Frontiers of the Rule-of-Law State

THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Berezina E.A
Legal Technology As a Condition for Optimizing State Law Construction
Galiev F.Kh.
Sakhautdinova I.V.
The Development of the Ideas of the Essence of Civil Society: History and Modernity
Gvozdetsky D.S.
Theoretical Aspects of Digitalization of Departmental Rule-Making
Zorina N.V.
The Idea of Free Will and Affect in the Political and Legal Concept of Benedict Spinoza
Zorina N.V.
Ismagilov I.R.
Klimenko O.A.
The Idea of Freedom As a Prerequisite for the Formation of the Concept of State Sovereignty in the Late Middle Ages
Iroshnikov D.V.
Legal Problems of Ensuring Personal Safety in Transport in the Conditions of Using Individual Electric Transport
Kasimov T.S.
Prognostic Function of Theory of State and Law and Legal Futurology
Latypova N.S.
The Development of Exterior Forms of Local Self-Governments Cooperation
Lezhneva O.Y.
Prokofiev K.G.
Chudin-Kurgan F.O.
Law and Morality Before the Tribunal of Communicative Reason in the Concept of Jurgen Habermas
Prokofiev K.G.
Relationships Between Law and Morality in Herbert Hart’s Scientific Work
Semitko A.P.
S.S. Alekseyev is a Legal Thinker: Stages of Life and Creative Path
Utyshev M.M.
Tulupova E.O.
Khabibullina R.A.
Civilizing Mission of the Institute of Human Rights 
Khayretdinova A.I.
Legal Regulation of the  Interest in the Global System of Humanity
Shonin N.E.
Leninism Аs an Attempt to Realize into Practice a Theory of Socialistic Revolution
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES
Galiev F.Kh.
The Constitution and Legal Culture of Modern Society
Petrantsov A.S.
The Features of Administrative Legal Status of a Female Law Enforcement Official
Sharipova E.A.
To the Issue of the Ratio of Constitutional Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW.
CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCEDURE
Gorelov M.V.
Zhemaletdinov R.M.
Civil Procedure and Administrative Justice
Murzabulatov U.M.
Current State of the Enforcement System in the Russian Federation and Ways to Improve It
Shayakhmetova A.R.
Civil Law Liability of Medical Organizations: Problems of Legal Regulation
FORENSICS. FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITIES 
Varfolomeev R.A.
The Importance of the Juvenile Suspect’s Personal Forensic Characteristics for Verifying Testimony at the Scene
Malykhina N.I.
Kuzmina S.V.
Traces As Sources of Information About a Person Who Committed a Fraud on the Internet
Tretyakov I.L.
The Typology of Individuals Inclined to Arson Attacks and Hooliganism During Street Protests
Khaliullina A.F.
Investigative Situations and Procedure For Investigating  Violent Crimes in Family
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. TAX LAW 
Arutyunyan M.S.
Hismatullin O.Y.
To the Issue of the Legal Nature of the Money Paid in Fulfilment of Tax Obligations
Krylov O.M.
Money As Non-Cash: Issues of Legal Regulation in the Russian Federation
LAND LAW. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Vershilo N.D.
Judicial Practice in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation. On Legal Regulation of Natural Resource Management
Gizzatullin R.Kh.
Land Law in the System of Russian Law
Usmanova R.M.
Legal Regulation of the Powers of Local Self-Governments to Ensure Environmental Safety
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Gabdrashitova V.R.
To the Issue of International Standards of Juvenile Justice 
Yelizarov M.V.
To the Issue of International Legal Personality of Complicated Systems of Government (The Case of the USSR)
Sahautdinov D.F.
Statute in the English Legal Doctrine of Common Law
TO THE AUTHORS
 
 
THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
LEGAL TECHNOLOGY AS A CONDITION FOR OPTIMIZING STATE LAW CONSTRUCTION
BEREZINA Elena Aleksandrovna 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law of the Ural State Law University,Yekaterinburg, Russia.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the problem of legal technology and its role in the optimization of state law construction. Legal technology is considered as a kind of social technology, which, on the one hand, has common features inherent in any kind of technology, in general, and features inherent in social technology, in particular, on the other hand, has special legal features that allow to separate legal technology from other types of social technology. The paper substantiates the role of legal technology in the construction of the rule-of-law state, it is noted that the importance of legal technology for the state is, first of all, that it rationalizes and optimizes public administration. The introduction of legal technology in the practice of state law construction will achieve a number of advantages that can be used to optimize the process of forming the rule-of-law state in the Russian Federation.
Key words: technology, social technology, legal technology, information technologies in law, legal activity, optimization of state law construction, efficiency of legal regulation, rule-of-law state.
References
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3. Tikhomirov Yu.A. Optimizaciya pravovogo regulirovaniya v kontekste social`no-e`konomicheskogo razvitiya (Optimization of legal regulation in the context of social and economic development). Aktual`ny`e problemy` e`konomiki i prava, 2015, No. 1 (33), рр. 108-113.
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6. Kolesnik I.V. Teoreticheskaya model` pravoprimenitel`noj tekhnologii (Theoretical model of law enforcement technology), dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Nizhnij Novgorod, 2015. 
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9. Gdalevich I.A. Politiko-pravovy`e tekhnologii protivodejstviya zloupotrebleniyam publichnoj vlast`yu v Rossii (Political and legal technologies to counteract abuses of public power in Russia), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Taganrog, 2008.
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12. Kartashov V.N., Bahvalov S.V. Pravotvorcheskaya praktika sub``ektov RF (nekotory`e prob-lemy` zakonodatel`noj tekhnologii) (Law-making practice of subjects of the Russian Federation (some problems of legislative technology). Yaroslavl`, 2007.
13. Bobrov V.V., Chernenko A.K. Pravovaya tekhnologiya (Legal technology). Novosibirsk, 2010. 
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15. Veith C. et al. How Legal Technology will change the business of law, Boston Consulting Group, Bucerius Law School, 2016. URL: https:/www.bucerius-education.de/fileadmin/content/ pdf/studies_publications/Legal_Tech_Report_2016.pdf (accessed date: 18.11.2019).
16. Martin Fries. Man versus Machine: Using Legal Tech to Optimize the Rule of Law, Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, 2016-09-24, No. ID 2842726. 
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23. Mironov A.N. K voprosu o ponyatii i e`lementah yuridicheskoj tekhnologii (To the question of a concept and elements of legal technology). Yuridicheskaya tekhnika, 2007, No. 1, рр. 44-47.
24. Habrieva T.Ya. Sovremenny`e yuridicheskie tekhnologii v teorii i praktike pravotvorchestva i pravoprimeneniya (Modern legal technologies in theory and practice of law-making and law enforce-ment), E`ffektivnost` zakonodatel`stva i sovremenny`e yuridicheskie tekhnologii, otv. red. T.Ya. Ha-brieva. Moscow, Izdatel`stvo: Institut zakonodatel`stva i sravnitel`nogo pravovedeniya, 2009. 
Received: 10.10.2019
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEAS OF THE ESSENCE OF CIVIL SOCIETY: HISTORY AND MODERNITY
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
SAKHAUTDINOVA Indira Venerovna
Master’s Student of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The problems associated with civil society have long become relevant not only for lawyers, but also for representatives of such sciences as political science, sociology, philosophy, etc. However, to this day there is no unity on the issue of the essence of civil society. At the same time, it is completely obvious that civil society is inconceivable without mutual connection and interdependence with such global phenomena in people's lives as the state and law. Moreover, as the practice of modern developed countries shows, the functioning of civil society in the proper sense of the word is possible only in a democratic rule-of-law state. In such a state human and civil rights and freedoms are guaranteed and implemented de jure and de facto, the principles of the rule of law, mutual responsibility of the state and society are really implemented. 
Key words: state, law, society, civil society, essence, power.
References
1. Abdulayev M.I. Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava (Problems of theory of state and law), St. Pe-tersburg, Piter, 2003. 
2. Alekseyev S.S. Voskhozhdeniye k pravu. Poiski i resheniya (Ascent law. Searches and solutions), Moscow, Izdatel'stvo NORMA, 2001. 
3. Aristotel'. Politika (Politics), Aristotel'. Sochineniya, V 4 t., T 4, Moscow, Mysl', 1983. 
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5. Galiyev F.KH., Rayanov F.M. Obshchestvovedeniye v XXI veke: teoretiko-pravovoy aspekt (So-cial Studies in the XXI Century: Theoretical and Legal Aspect), Ufa, Bash. entsikl., 2018. 
6. Gegel' G.V. Filosofiya prava (The philosophy of law), Moscow, Eksmo, 2005. 
7. Gobbs T. O grazhdanine (On the citizen), Soch. V 2 t., T. 1, Moscow, Mysl', 1989. 
8. Goncharov A.A. Grazhdanskiy kontrol' nad organami vlasti (Civilian control over authorities), Moscow, Izdatel'stvo «Ves' Mir», 2010. 
9. Zhichkina S.Ye. K voprosu o ponyatii grazhdanskogo obshchestva (To the question of the concept of civil society), Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2010, No. 18 (194). 
10. Kant I. Ideya vseobshchey istorii vo vsemirno-grazhdanskom plane (The idea of universal history in global civilian view), Kant I. Sochineniya na nemetskom i russkikh yazykakh, T.1, Moscow, 1994. 
11. Kerimov A.D. Sovremennoye gosudarstvo: voprosy teorii (Modern state: theory questions), Moscow, Norma, 2007. 
12. Lokk Dzh. Dva traktata o pravlenii (Two treatises on governing), Dzh. Lokk. Sochineniya V 3 t., T. 3, Moscow, Mysl', 1988. 
13. Marchenko M.N. Gosudarstvo i pravo v usloviyakh globalizatsii (State and law in the context of globalization), Moscow, Prospekt, 2009. 
14. Matuzov N.I. Aktual'nyye problemy teorii prava (Actual problems of theory of law), Saratov, Izd-vo Sarat. gos. akademii prava, 2004. 
15. Novyy entsiklopedicheskiy slovar' (The new encyclopedic dictionary), Moscow, RIPOL klassik, 2012. 
16. Plotnikov A.A. Obshchestvennyy kontrol' i yego potentsial v protivodeystvii korruptsii (Public control and its anti-corruption potential), Vestnik Severnogo (Arkticheskogo) federal'nogo universi-teta. Seriya: Gumanitarnyye i sotsial'nyye nauki. 2013. No. 11. 
17. Pokrovskiy I.A. Istoriya rimskogo prava (The history of Roman law), Minsk, Kharvest, 2002. 
18. Prava cheloveka i protsessy globalizatsii sovremennogo mira (Human rights and the processes of globalization of the modern world), otv. red. Ye.A. Lukasheva. Moscow, Norma, 2007. 
19. Rasporyazheniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 17 noyabrya 2008 g. No. 1662-r «O Kontseptsii dolgo-srochnogo sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2020 goda» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 10 fevralya 2017 g. No. 172-p) (The order of the Government of the Russian Federation of November 17, 2008 No. 1662-r “On the Concept of long-term socio-economic devel-opment of the Russian Federation for the period until 2020” (with the last amendments dated Febru-ary 10, 2017 No. 172 -p), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2008, No. 47, st. 5489. 
20. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva (Theory of the rule-of-law state), monografiya, Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2014.
21. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoye obshchestvo i pravovoye gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i sootnosheniya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state: problems of understanding and correlation), monografiya, Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2015. 
22. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoye obshchestvovedeniye (Legal social science), monografiya, Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018. 
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24. Federal'nyy zakon ot 4 aprelya 2005 g. No. 32-FZ «Ob Obshchestvennoy palate Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 28 dekabrya 2016 g. No. 487-FZ) (Federal law of April 4, 2005 No. 32-FZ “On the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation” (with the last amendments of De-cember 28, 2016 No. 487-ФЗ), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2005, No. 15, st. 1277. 
25. Chashin A.N. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), uchebnik, 2-ye izd., pere-rab. i dop., Moscow, Delo i servis, 2016.
26. Chicherin B.N. Filosofiya prava (The philosophy of law), St. Petersburg, Nauka, 1998.
Received: 12.10.2019
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF DIGITALIZATION OF DEPARTMENTAL RULE-MAKING
GVOZDETSKY Dmitry Sergeevich 
Master’s Degree Student of the Federal State Scientific Research Institution “Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law Under the Government of the Russian Federation”, Moscow, Russia. 
At the present moment, digital transformation of the rule-making activity of federal executive bodies is the subject matter of one of the federal projects of the national program “Digital Economy”. This article points out that digitalization of departmental rule-making should draw careful attention of governmental agencies because it has significant influence on the efficiency of procedures for approval and adoption of departmental acts. The originality of the research approach to the problem of digitalization of departmental rule-making activity makes it possible to draw conclusions and to make some proposals within the subject matter of the research. 
Key words: departmental rule-making, digitalization, rule-making activity, digital economy, digital technologies, artificial intelligence, normative regulation, neural network.
References
1. Postanovlenie Pravitelstva RF ot 02.03.2019 № 234 «O sisteme upravleniya realizaciei nacional-noy programmu «Cifrovaya economica Rossiyscoy Federacii» (vmecte c Polojeniem o sisteme up-ravleniya realizaciei nacionalnoy programmu «Cifrovaya economica Rossiyscoy Federacii» (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 02.03.2019 No. 234 “On the system for managing the implementation of the national program “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation” (together with the Regulation on the system for managing the implementation of the national program “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation”), Sobranie zakonodatelstva RF, 2019, No. 11, Article 1119.
2. Oficialniy sait Ministerctva sivrovogo razvitiya, svazy I massovux kommunikasiy Rossiyscoy Federacii (Official website of the Ministry of Digital Development, Telecommunications and Mass Media of the Russian Federation). URL: https:/digital.gov.ru cvobodnuy (accessed date 08.10.2019). 
3. Vashkevich A. Nachalas' rabota po avtomatizatsii pravoprimeneniya (Work has started on the au-tomation of law enforcement). URL: https:/www.simplawyer.com/amazing/publications/advgazeta-law-enforcement-automation/ (accessed date 08.10.2019).
4. Averyanov M.A., Baranova O.V., Kochetova E.Yu., Sivakov R.L. Cifrovay trancformasia pros-secov normativnogo regulirovania: tendencii, podxodu I rewenia (Digital transformation of regulato-ry processes: trends, approaches and solutions), International Journal of Open Information Technol-ogies, 2018, vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 42–49.
5. Ivanov A.A. O glubine mawinizasii prava (On the depth of machinization of law), Law, 2018, No. 5, pp. 35-41.
6. Ivanov G. I., Yelchaninova N.B., Saak A. E. Metodu formalizasii normativno-pravovoi informasii na osnove deklarativnogo programmirovania (Methods of formalization of regulatory information on the basis of declarative programming), Izvestiya of TSURE, 1998, No. 1 (7), pp. 285-290.
7. Carchia A.A. Cifrovay trancformasia prava (Digital transformation of law), Law enforcement monitoring, 2019, No. 1 (30), pp. 25-29.
8. Mikov A. I. Predctavlenie ontologiy normativnux dokumentov s ispolzovaniem prikladnux logic (The representation of the ontology of normative documents with the application logic), News of SFU. Technical science, 2014, No. 6 (155), pp. 60-67.
9. Peksheva M. V. Aksiomatizasia normativnux dokumentov na ocnove deonticheckoy logici (Axi-omatization of normative documents on the basis of deontic logic), Informatization and communica-tion, 2014, No. 2, pp. 104-106.
Received: 11.10.2019
THE IDEA OF FREE WILL AND AFFECT IN THE POLITICAL AND LEGAL CONCEPT OF BENEDICT SPINOZA
ZORINA Natalya Vladimirovna
Attorney at the Bar Association “St. Petersburg Bar Association of the Naryshkins”, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
It is shown how Benedict Spinoza develops a model of social contract, law and state, based on the implementation of human will in accordance with the principles of freedom. The result is an address to the ideals of freedom, which we find both in “Ethics” and in “The Theological and Political Treatise”. It is concluded that the correlation established by Spinoza of the transition of a person from the level of “will to self-preservation” to the level of “will to self-improvement” with the transition of a person from the level of the natural state to the level of the political and legal state allows us to say that the Dutch thinker was ahead of his time and largely approached the ideas of the later paradigm of legal thought, developed by German classics at the turn of the 18th-19th centuries.
Key words: Spinoza, Hobbes, Hegel, free will, affect, social contract, law, state.
References
1. Galkin I.V. Politiko-pravovyye idei v monisticheskoy filosofii Benedikta Spinozy (Political and legal ideas in the monistic philosophy of Benedict Spinoza), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Mos-cow, 2013. 
2. Zakhartsev S.I., Maslennikov D.V., Sal'nikov V.P. K voprosu o znachenii logicheskoy formy filosofii dlya ponimaniya prirody absolyutnogo v prave (To the question of the significance of the logical form of philosophy for understanding the nature of the absolute in law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2018, No. 2, pp. 178-187. 
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4. Zenn M. Istoriya prava – Kul'turno-istoricheskiy ocherk (History of Law – Cultural and historical essay), St. Petersburg, Izdatel'stvo Yuridicheskogo instituta (Sankt-Peterburg), 2016. 
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8. Lezhneva O.Yu. D. Lokk ob institutakh perekhoda ot yestestvennogo sostoyaniya v grazhdansko-ye sostoyaniye (Locke on the institutions of transition from a natural state to a civil state), Gosudar-stvenno-pravovyye instituty sovremennogo obshchestva, sbornik statey k Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu Respubliki Bashkortostan (g. Ufa, 14 dek-abrya 2018 g.), otv. red. F.M. Rayanov. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2018, pp. 229-235. 
9. Lezhneva O.Yu., Polivko Ye.A. Dzh. Lokk o sudebnoy vlasti kak proyavlenii verkhovenstva prava i prav lichnosti v grazhdanskom sostoyanii obshchestva (J. Locke on the judiciary as a manifestation of the rule of law and individual rights in the civil status of society), Verkhovenstvo prava i natsional'nyye interesy Rossii, materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (g. Ufa, 30 noyabrya 2018 g.), otv. red. G.M. Aznagulova, V 2-kh ch., CH. 1, Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2018, pp. 92-96. 
10. Maslennikov D.V. Bogochelovek i ideya prava (God-man and the idea of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 12, pp. 167-173. 
11. Rayanov F.M. Obshchestvennyy dogovor i yego znacheniye dlya teoreticheskoy pravovoy nauki (The social contract and its significance for theoretical legal science), Aktual'nyye problemy prava Rossii i stran SNG – 2015, materialy XVII Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 29-letiyu Gosudarstvennogo Sobraniya-Kurultaya Respubliki Bashkortostan, Ufa, 2015, pp. 36-43. 
12. Rayanov F.M. Istochnik sovremennogo prava-prosveshchennyy razum gosudarstvo-organizovannogo naroda (retsenziya na monografiyu: Brinchuk M. M. Zakony prirody i obshche-stva: v 2 Ch. M., 2015, 852 s.) (The source of modern law is the enlightened mind of a state-organized people (review of the monograph: M. Brinchuk. Laws of nature and society: in 2 Parts. M., 2015, 852 pp.), Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2016, № 2 (230), pp. 158-166. 
13. Sal'nikov V.P., Sal'nikov M.V. Pravovaya kul'tura i politiko-pravovyye traditsii v kontekste ab-solyutnykh tsennostey (Legal culture and political and legal traditions in the context of absolute val-ues), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2014, No. 4 (84), pp. 70-86. 
14. Sal'nikov V.P., Maslennikov D.V. Instituty prava v ideye absolyutnogo Dobra (Law institutions in the idea of Absolute Good), Gosudarstvenno-pravovyye instituty sovremennogo obshchestva : sbornik statey k Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu Respubliki Bashkortostan (g. Ufa, 14 dekabrya 2018 g.), otv. red. F.M. Rayanov, Ufa, RITS Bash-GU, 2018, pp. 32-40. 
15. Sal'nikov V.P., Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov M.V. Platon, Aristotel', Foma Akvinskiy i ideya spravedlivosti v yestestvenno-pravovoy traditsii (Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and the idea of justice in the natural legal tradition), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 9, pp. 19-26. 
16. Sal'nikov V.P., Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Razvitiye politiko-pravovoy mysli ot Gugo Grotsiya k predstavitelyam germanskoy gosudarstvenno-pravovoy nauki (The development of polit-ical and legal thought from Hugo Grotius to representatives of the German state law science), Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2014, No. 10, pp. 11-20. 
17. Sal'nikov S.P., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Zhan-Zhak Russo i Dzhon Lokk: nekotoryye idei o suverenitete i yestestvennom prave (Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke: some ideas about sovereignty and natural law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 5, pp. 173-179. 
18. Spinoza B. Izbrannyye proizvedeniya (Selected works). T. I. Moscow, 1957.
19. Berges A. Der freie Wille als Rechtsprinzip. Untersuchungen zur Grundlegung des Rechts bei Hobbes und Hegel, Hamburg, Felix Meiner Verlag, 2012. 
20. Gungoren B. Die Bedeutung von Hegels Spinosa – Lekture fur seine Staats- und Rechtstheorie, Berlin, Logos Verlag, 2011. 
21. Senn M. Historische Fundamente der europaischen, nordamerikanischen, indischen sowie chinesischen Rechts- und Gesellschaftsphilosophie. Eine Einfuhrung mit Quellenmaterial, Zurich, Dike Verlag, 2012. 
22. Walther M. Institution, Imagination und Freicheit bei Spinoza, Politische Institutionen im Ge-sellschaftlichen Umbruch. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1990, pp. 246-275.
23. Walther M. Politische und ethische Freiheit oder Spinozas Dialektik der Freiheit, Ethik, Recht und Politik bei Spinoza, Zurich, Schultess, 2001, pp. 89-103.
Received: 24.10.2019
THE IDEA OF FREEDOM AS A PREREQUISITE FOR THE FORMATION OF THE CONCEPT OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES
ZORINA Natalya Vladimirovna
Attorney at the Bar Association “St. Petersburg Bar Association of the Naryshkiny”, St. Petersburg, Russia.
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate Lawyer of the Eurasian Resources Group, Luxembourg.
KLIMENKO Oksana Alekseevna
Employee of the Faculty of Training Investigators of the Oryol Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after V.V. Lukyanov, Oryol, Russia. 
On the basis of the natural law paradigm in the late Middle Ages, the concept of sovereignty is developed for the first time, which can be seen as an extrapolation of the concept of free will to the level of political education, despite the fact that the very concept of freedom is interpreted primarily in the aspect of subjectivity, id est. self-determination, self-restraint and self-development of society as a single political actor.
Key words: Marcilius Patavensis, Machiavelli, Bodin, Hegel, freedom, subjectivity, sovereignty.
References
1. Galiyev F.Kh., Rayanov F.M. Obshchestvovedeniye v XXI veke: teoretiko-pravovoy aspekt (So-cial Studies in the XXI Century: Theoretical and Legal Aspect), Ufa, Bashk. entsikl., 2018. 
2. Gegel' G.V.F. Politicheskiye proizvedeniya (Political works), Moscow, Nauka, 1978. 
3. Gegel' G.V.F. Filosofiya prava (Philosophy of law), Moscow, 1990. 
4. Zakhartsev S.I., Maslennikov D.V., Sal'nikov V.P. Logos prava: Parmenid – Gegel' – Dostoyev-skiy. K voprosu o spekulyativno-logicheskikh osnovaniyakh metafiziki prava (Logos of law: Par-menides – Hegel – Dostoevsky. To the question of speculative-logical foundations of the metaphys-ics of law), Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2019. 
5. Zorina N.V., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K. Suverenitet kak vyrazheniye svobody voli ob-shchestva: kontseptsiya Marsiliya Paduanskogo (Sovereignty as an expression of the free will of so-ciety: the concept of Marsilius of Padua), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2019, No. 4, pp. 173-179. 
6. Ismagilov I.R. Ponyatiye svobody v sisteme pravovykh kategoriy «Filosofii prava» G.V.F. Gegelya (The concept of freedom in the system of legal categories “Philosophy of Law” by G.W.F. Hegel), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016. No. 11. pp. 192-195. 
7. Ismagilov I.R., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K. Gegel' o suverenitete kak konstitutsionnoy tsen-nosti (Hegel on sovereignty as a constitutional value), Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsional-izma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova, St. Pe-tersburg, Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskiy gosudarstvennyy ekonomicheskiy universitet, 2017, pp. 138-144. 
8. Klimenko O.A. Ideya gosudarstvennogo suvereniteta i yeye formirovaniye ot antichnosti i sred-nevekov'ya do iskhodnykh nachal Nikkolo Makiavelli i Zhana Bodena (The idea of state sovereignty and its formation from antiquity and the Middle Ages to the initial principles of Niccolo Machiavelli and Jean Boden), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2014, No. 11, pp. 90-94. 
9. Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K. Razvitiye ponyatiya suvereniteta ot Marsiliya Paduanskogo do Gegelya (The development of the concept of sovereignty from Marcilius Patavensis to Hegel), Yuridicheskaya nauka, 2016, No. 3, pp. 22-29. 
10. Klimenko O.A., Mirzoyev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Politicheskaya kontseptsiya absolyutnogo su-vereniteta Marsiliya Paduanskogo i Zhana Bodena v kontekste sinkretizma sovremennoy pravovoy kul'tury (The political concept of absolute sovereignty of Marcilius Patavensis and Jean Bodin in the context of syncretism of modern legal culture), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 3, pp. 22-27. 
11. Kozlikhin I.Yu., Polyakov A.V., Timoshina Ye.V. Istoriya politicheskikh i pravovykh ucheniy (History of political and legal doctrines), St. Petersburg, Izdatel'skiy Dom SPbGU, Izdatel'stvo yuridicheskogo fakul'teta SPbGU, 2007. 
12. Marsiliy Paduanskiy. Zashchitnik mira. Defensor pacis (Defender of the world. Defensor pacis), per. s frants. B.U. Yesenova; nauch. red., vstup. st., primech. G.P. Lupareva. Moscow, Dashkov i Ko, 2014. 
13. Mirzoyev A.K. Suverenitet: genezis i kontseptual'naya evolyutsiya predstavleniy v politiko-pravovoy nauke (iskhodnyye nachala – Nikkolo Makiavelli i Zhan Boden) (Sovereignty: the genesis and conceptual evolution of ideas in political and legal science (the initial principles are Niccolo Machiavelli and Jean Bodin), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2013, No. 11, pp. 149-157. 
14. Rayanov F.M. Osnovnyye metodologicheskiye problemy sovremennoy otechestvennoy yuridicheskoy nauki (The main methodological problems of modern domestic legal science), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2017, No. 2 (48), pp. 7-13. 
15. Sal'nikov V.P., Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov M.V. Platon, Aristotel', Foma Akvinskiy i ideya spravedlivosti v yestestvenno-pravovoy traditsii (Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and the idea of justice in the natural legal tradition), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 9, pp. 19-26. 
16. Tarasova T.A. Stanovleniye form gosudarstva i optimal'nyye sposoby upravleniya obshchestvom (cherez prizmu ucheniya N. Makiavelli) (Formation of state forms and optimal ways of managing society (through the prism of the teachings of N. Machiavelli), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sov-remennost', 2015, No. 7, pp. 45-50. 
17. Khabibulin A.G. Politicheskaya sub"yektnost' i ideologiya kak tsennostnyye svoystva gosudar-stva (Political subjectivity and ideology as the value properties of state), Yuridicheskaya nauka: is-toriya i sovremennost', 2012, No. 8, pp. 7-13.
Received: 14.10.2019
LEGAL PROBLEMS OF ENSURING PERSONAL SAFETY IN TRANSPORT IN THE CONDITIONS OF USING INDIVIDUAL ELECTRIC TRANSPORT
IROSHNIKOV Denis Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory of Law, History of Law and International Law of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport (MIIT). Moscow, Russia. 
The role of transport in society is difficult to overestimate. Today's pace of life, especially felt in large cities and megacities, makes new demands on human mobility. In this regard, previously unknown transport solutions are becoming popular. Individual electric vehicles are widely used in different countries of the world (Segway, gyroscope, electric scooter, monocycle, etc.). The number of such vehicles is growing exponentially, and since any vehicle is a source of increased danger personal safety in transport should be given special attention, not only in practice, but also in theory. On the basis of the analysis of the current Russian and foreign legislation, materials of judicial practice, as well as Russian and foreign scientific sources, the legal problems of ensuring personal safety when using individual electric transport are analyzed. In conclusion, on the basis of generalization of scientific and regulatory sources, the amendments to the current legislation of the Russian Federation are substantiated.
Key words: personal safety, traffic safety, traffic rules, pedestrian, individual electric transport, electric scooter, Segway, gyroscope, monocycle.
References
1. Postanovleniye Pravitel'stva RF ot 23.10.1993 No. 1090 «O Pravilakh dorozhnogo dvizheniya» (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 10.23.1993 No. 1090 “On the Rules of the Road Traffic”), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
2. Prikaz Ministerstva stroitel'stva i zhilishchno-kommunal'nogo khozyaystva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 29.11.2018 No. 773/pr «Ob utverzhdenii svoda pravil "Naberezhnyye. Pravila gradostroitel'nogo proyektirovaniya» (Order of the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Communal Services of the Russian Federation of November 29, 2018 No. 773/pr “On approval of the set of rules “Em-bankments. Rules of urban planning”), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
3. Prikaz departamenta transporta i razvitiya dorozhno-transportnoy infrastruktury g. Moskvy ot 21.06.2019 No. 61-02-276/9 «Ob utverzhdenii Pravil ekspluatatsii punktov prokata samokatov i rekomenduyemoy formy zayavleniya o vydache razresheniya na razmeshcheniye punkta (punktov) prokata samokatov»( Order of the Department of Transport and the Development of Road Transport Infrastructure of Moscow dated 06/21/2019 No. 61-02-276/9 “On approval of the Rules for the op-eration of scooter rental centers and the recommended application form for a permit to place a scooter rental center”), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
4. Apellyatsionnoye opredeleniye Leninskogo rayonnogo suda g. Kemerovo ot 19 fevralya 2019 g. po delu No. 1 1-19/2019 (Appeal ruling of the Leninsky District Court of Kemerovo on February 19, 2019 in the case No. 1 1-19/2019), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
5. Resheniye Khamovnicheskogo rayonnogo suda goroda Moskvy ot 4 aprelya 2019 g. No. 12-542/19 (Decision of the Khamovnichesky District Court of Moscow dated April 4, 2019 No. 12-542/19), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
6. Postanovleniye Verkhovnogo suda Udmurtskoy Respubliki ot 10 noyabrya 2015 goda po delu No. 4a-743 (The decision of the Supreme Court of the Udmurt Republic of November 10, 2015 in the case No. 4a-743), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
7. Postanovleniye Golovinskogo rayonnogo suda goroda Moskvy ot 07.12.2017 po delu No. 05-2186/2017 (The decision of the Golovinsky district court of the city of Moscow dated December 7, 2017 in the case No. 05-2186/2017), SPS «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
8. Ayupova G.Sh., Makeyeva I.S. Osobennosti kvalifikatsii narusheniya pravil dorozhnogo dvizheniya i ekspluatatsii transportnykh sredstv, obuslovlennyye priznakami predmeta (Features of the qualification of violation of traffic rules and the operation of vehicles, due to the signs of the subject), Ugolovnoye pravo, 2019, No. 1. 
9. Burova I.L., Rudov M.V. O nekotorykh problemakh pravovogo regulirovaniya novykh vidov transportnykh sredstv s elektrodvigatelem (On some problems of legal regulation of new types of vehicles with electric motor), Imushchestvennyye otnosheniya v Rossiyskoy Fe-deratsii, 2019, No. 2. 
10. Bystro, udobno, ekologichno: v Moskve otkrylsya prokat elektrosamokatov (Fast, convenient, environmentally friendly: electric scooter rentals have opened in Moscow), MOS.RU Ofitsial'nyy sayt Mera Moskvy. 18 maya 2018, URL: https:/www.mos.ru/mayor/themes/2299/4755050. 
11. Na svoikh dvoikh (On foot), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2017, 1 noyabrya. 
12. Khavtasi N.V. Analiz i tendentsii razvitiya rynka elektrotransporta individual'nogo pol'zovaniya na B2B rynke v Rossii (Analysis and development trends of the market of electric vehicles for indi-vidual use on the B2B market in Russia), Nauka, obrazovaniye i kul'tura, 2018, No. 5 (29). 
13. Chuchayev A.I., Pozharskiy A.Yu. Transportnyye prestupleniya: ponyatiye, vidy, kharakteri-stika (Transport crimes: concept, types, characteristics), Monografiya, Moscow, Prospekt, 2018.
14. U.S. Code. Title 15. Commerce and trade Chapter 47. Consumer product safety. Section 2085. Low-speed electric bicycles, URL: https:/www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/2085
15. Electric bikes: licensing, tax and insurance. Rules in England, Scotland and Wales. UK Gov-ernment, URL: https:/www.gov.uk/electric-bike-rules.
16. Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 Of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2013 on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles (Text with EEA relevance), URL: https:/eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri= CELEX:32013R0168.
17. Proposal for a Directive of the European parliament and of the council amending Directive 2009/103/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 September 2009 relating to insurance against civil liability in respect of the use of motor vehicles, and the enforcement of the obligation to ensure against such liability. Brussels, 24.05.2018 COM (2018). 336 final. 2018/0168 (COD), URL: https:/eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0008: FIN:EN:PDF.
18. Recommendations on Rules and Code of Conduct for Cycling and The Use of Personal Mobility Devices. Recommendations by the Active Mobility Advisory Panel Submitted to Coordinating Min-ister for Infrastructure, and Minister for Transport, Mr Khaw Boon Wan on 17 March 2016, URL: https:/www.lta.gov.sg/data/apps/news/press/2016/20160317_AMAPPanelReport%28final%29.pdf
19. D. Roider, C. Busch, R. Spitaler, H. Hertz. Segway related injuries in Vienna: report from the Lorenz Bohler Trauma Centre, European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, April 2016, Volume 42, Issue 2.
20. Delfin Jimenez, Yolanda de la Fuente, Jesus Hernandez-Galan. Diversity of "Pedestrians on Wheels", New Challenges for Cities in 21st Century, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2018. Volume 256: Transforming our World Through Design, Diversity and Education. 
21. Erika Akman. Sahkopotkulaudat tulevat tanaan kaikkien kayttoon Helsingissa – ja sen voi jattaa melkein minne tahansa, Taloussanomat, 18.03.2019, URL: https:/www.is.fi/taloussanomat/art-2000006038969.html.
22. Jun Xua, ShiShang, Guizhen Yu, Hongsheng Qi, Yunpeng Wang, Shucai Xu. Are electric self-balancing scooters safe in vehicle crash accidents?, Accident Analysis & Prevention. Volume 87, February 2016.
23. Keith Boniface, Mary PatMcKay, Raymond Lucas, Alison Shaffer, Neal Sikka. Serious Injuries Related to the Segway Personal Transporter: A Case Series, Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol-ume 57, Issue 4, April 2011,
24. Lieswyn, J, M Fowler, G Koorey, A Wilke and S Crimp (2017) Regulations and safety for elec-tric bicycles and other low-powered vehicles. NZ Transport Agency research report 621. New Zeland, 2017. 
25. Susan A. Shaheen, Caroline J. Rodier, and Amanda M. Eaken. Improving California’s Bay Area Rapid Transit District Connectivity and Access with Segway Human Transporter and Other Low-Speed Mobility Devices, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. Volume 1927, Issue 1, 2005.
26. Yu Hasegawa, Charitha Dias, Miho Iryo-Asano, Hiroaki Nishiuchi. Modeling pedestrians’ sub-jective danger perception toward personal mobility vehicles, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2018, Volume 56
Received: 11.11.2019
PROGNOSTIC FUNCTION OF THEORY OF STATE AND LAW AND LEGAL FUTUROLOGY
KASIMOV Timur Salavatovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
Prominent Russian scientists note the importance of prognostic function of theory of state and law. In recent years, representatives of various branches of science have published papers with forecasts for the future, including those that describe development scenarios that include alternatives to the expected course of events. Based on the established regularities, trends and technocratic achievements of society, futurology studies the degree of probability of the implementation of various options for a possible and desired future. Although the problem of any multi-aspect and long-term forecast for the future is the low probability of its implementation, studies of the concepts of future state and forecasts for future state are promising directions for the development of theory of state and law. They can be combined into one sphere of knowledge called legal futurology, which as a direction of science is divided into futurology of state and futurology of law.
Key words: theory, future, concepts, development, prognostic function, forecasts, state, law, legal futurology.
References
1. Kasimov T.S. Kontseptsii sushchnosti gosudarstva (Concepts of the essence of state), Praovogoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 4 (42), pp. 44-48.
2. Alekseev S.S., Perevalov V.D. Glava 1. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava kak nauka. Ee predmet i mesto v sisteme yuridicheskikh nauk (Chapter 1. Theory of state and law as a science. Its subject and place in the system of legal sciences), Teoriya gosudarstva i prava, Uchebnik dlya vuzov, Otv. red. V.D. Perevalov, 3th edition, revised and add. Moscow, Norma, 2006. 
3. Lazarev V.V., Temnov E.I. Tema 1. Predmet teorii gosudarstva i prava (Theme 1. The subject of theory of state and law), Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstvo, uchebnik, pod red. V.V. Lazareva, 5th edition, revised and add, Moscow, Norma, 2013, pp. 14-28.
4. Kerimov D.A. Metodologiya prava (predmet, funktsii, problemy filosofii prava) (Methodology of law (subject, function, problems of philosophy of law), 2-e izd., Moscow, Avanta+, 2001. 
5. Turchin A.V. Batin M.A. Futurologiya. XXI vek: bessmertie ili global'naya katastrofa? (Futurol-ogy. XXI century: immortality or global disaster?), Moscow, INOM. Laboratoriya znanii, 2014. 
6. Kasimov T.S. Kontseptsii kibergosudarstva, ehlektronnogo pravitel'stva i kriptoanarkhii (Concepts of cyber state, electronic government and crypto-anarchy), Mir yuridicheskoi nauki, 2010, No. 9, pp. 26-32.
7. Glebov I.N. Pravovaya futurologiya: postanovka problemy iskusstvennogo yuridicheskogo razuma (Legal futurology: statement of the problem of artificial legal intelligence), Rossiiskoe gosudar-stvovedenie, 2018, No. 1, pp. 12-29. 
8. Novichkov V.E. Ugolovno- politicheskaya futurologiya v sfere bor'by s prestupnost'yu (ponyati-inaya i predmetnaya oblast' (Criminal-political futurology in the field of combating crime (conceptual and subject area), Krymskii nauchnyi Vestnik, 2015, No. 6 (6), pp. 324-344.
Received: 21.10.2019
THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXTERIOR FORMS OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTS COOPERATION 
LATYPOVA Natalia Sergeyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The paper analyzes various forms of cooperation of local governments, from local level (cooperation of Volga region cities) to regional level (cooperation of local governments within the framework of the Eurasian cooperation organization) as well as at international level (cooperation of local governments within the organization (“United cities and local authorities”). The author makes a detailed analysis of the activities of these organizations, the level of their cooperation and influence on international and national legal systems in terms of legal regulation of the organization of local self-government. The subject of the analysis are unions of local governments at various levels, as well as specific results of their activities: resolutions, legislative initiatives and international treaties. The analysis of the participation of the Republic of Bashkortostan local governments in international, regional and local cooperation is carried out, a comparative cross-section with the municipalities of neighboring subjects of the Russian Federation is made. As a result of the study, the author concludes that international and regional cooperation of local governments strengthens as well as the position of local authorities in the world political arena. 
Key word: municipality, cooperation, local self-government, association of municipalities, cooperation of municipalities, local self-governments, international cooperation of municipalities, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, local self-government reform.
References
1. Federal'nyj zakon ot 06.10.2003 № 131-FZ (red. ot 02.08.2019) «Ob obshchih principah organi-zacii mestnogo samoupravleniya v Rossijskoj Federacii» (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 13.08.2019) (Federal law No. 131-FZ of 06.10.2003 (ed. of 02.08.2019) “Оn General principles of local self-government in the Russian Federation”). Rossijskaya gazeta. 2003. 8 oktyabrya. 
2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 22.10.1998 № 1281 «O Kongresse municipal'nyh obrazovanij Rossijskoj Federacii» (Presidential decree of 22.10.1998 No. 1281 “Оn the Congress of municipalities of the Russian Federation”). Rossijskaya gazeta. 1998. 31 oktyabrya. 
3. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 02.11.2007 № 1451 «O Sovete pri Prezidente Rossijskoj Federacii po razvitiyu mestnogo samoupravleniya» (Presidential decree of 02.11.2007 No. 1451 “Оn the presi-dential Council for the development of local self-government”). URL: https:/base.garant.ru/192123/ (accessed date 10.09.2019)
4. Oficial'nyj sajt Associacii gorodov Povolzh'ya (Official website of the Association of cities of the Volga region). URL: http:/agpsamara.ru/ (accessed date: 10.08.2019).
5. Oficial'nyj sajt Evrazijskogo regional'nogo otdeleniya Vsemirnoj organizacii «Ob"edinennye Go-roda i Mestnye Vlasti» (Official website of the Eurasian regional office of the world organization “United Cities and Local Authorities”). URL: http:/euroasia-uclg.ru/about/history (accessed date 08.08.2019)
6. Huan Klos Habitat III – konferenciya Ob"edinyonnyh Nacij (Joan Clos habitat III – conference of the United Nations). Hronika OON. Tom III. № 3. 2016. 
7. Official site of United cities and Local Governments. URL: https:/www.uclg. org/en (accessed date: 10.08.2019).
Received: 06.10.2019
LAW AND MORALITY BEFORE THE TRIBUNAL OF COMMUNICATIVE REASON IN THE CONCEPT OF JURGEN HABERMAS
LEZHNEVA Olga Yuryevna
Judge of the Moscow City Arbitration Court, Moscow, Russia. 
PROKOFIEV Konstantin Georgievich
Deputy Director for Innovative Development of the Federal Scientific Center for Biological Systems and Agricultural Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russia. 
CHUDIN-KURGAN Fedor Olegovich
General Director, Russian Business Company, Moscow, Russia. 
The ethical and legal teaching of Jurgen Habermas, developed by him on the basis of the communicative theory of reason, excludes the concept of absolute beginning of law. Habermas rejects the idea of absolute objectivity in law, giving preference to intuition and the irrational definition of value measurement of legal norms. This leads to the relativization of the relationship of morality and law, to erosion of the value basis of law.
Key words: Habermas, communicative reason, absolute, court, morality, law.
References
1. Alekseyev N.N. Vvedeniye v izucheniye prava (Introduction to the study of law), Moscow, 1918. 
2. Galiyev F.Kh. Sinkretizm sovremennoy pravovoy kul'tury (Syncretism of modern legal culture), monografiya, Ufa, BashGU, 2011. 
3. Galiyev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura: sotsial'no-filosofskiye problem (Legal culture: socio-philosophical problems), Mir politiki i sotsiologii. 2016, No. 7, pp. 182-190. 
4. Galiyev F.KH., Rayanov F.M. Obshchestvovedeniye v XXI veke: teoretiko-pravovoy aspect (So-cial Studies in the XXI Century: Theoretical and Legal Aspect), Ufa, Bashk. entsikl., 2018. 
5. Denikina Z.D. Stanovleniye osnovnykh filosofsko-pravovykh paradigm noveyshego vremeni (The formation of the main philosophical and legal paradigms of modern times), dis. ... d-ra filos. nauk, Moscow, 2005. 
6. Zakhartsev S.I., Maslennikov D.V., Sal'nikov V.P. Logos prava: Parmenid Gegel' – Do-stoyevskiy. K voprosu o spekulyativno-logicheskikh osnovaniyakh metafiziki prava (Logos of law: Parmenides Hegel – Dostoevsky. To the question of speculative-logical foundations of the meta-physics of law.), Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2019. 
7. Zakhartsev S.I., Maslennikov D.V., Sal'nikov V.P. K voprosu o znachenii logicheskoy formy filosofii dlya ponimaniya prirody absolyutnogo v prave (To the question of the significance of the logical form of philosophy for understanding the nature of the absolute in law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2018, No. 2, pp. 178-187. 
8. Kun T. Struktura nauchnykh revolyutsiy (The structure of scientific revolutions), Moscow, OOO «Izdatel'stvo ACT», 2003. 
9. Maslennikov D.V. Pravo kak forma razlicheniya dobra i zla (Law as a form of distinguishing be-tween good and evil), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2015, No. 6, pp. 42-47. 
10. Melkevik B. Yurgen Khabermas i kommunikativnaya teoriya prava (Jurgen Habermas and the communicative theory of law), St. Petersburg, OOO Izdatel'skiy Dom «Alef-Press», 2018. 
11. Motroshilova N.V. Yu. Khabermas (J. Habermas), Istoriya filosofii: Zapad – Rossiya – Vostok, Kn. 4, Moscow, 1999, pp. 261-286. 
12. Rayanov F.M. Gorizonty otechestvennogo gosudarstvenno-pravovogo myshleniya i o po-trebnostyakh v ikh rasshirenii (Horizons of national state law thinking and the needs for their expan-sion), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2018, No. 2 (52), pp. 7-13. 
13. Russkaya filosofiya prava: Antologiya (Russian philosophy of law: Anthology), avt.-sost. A.P. Al'bov, D.V. Maslennikov, M.V. Sal'nikov, avt. i ruk. proyekta V.P. Sal'nikov, 2-ye izd., dop., St. Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburgskiy un-t MVD Rossii, Aleteyya, 1999. 
14. Sal'nikov V.P., Maslennikov D.V. Instituty prava v ideye absolyutnogo Dobra (Law institutions in the idea of Absolute Good), Gosudarstvenno-pravovyye instituty sovremennogo obshchestva, sbornik statey k Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu Respubliki Bashkortostan (g. Ufa, 14 dekabrya 2018 g.), otv. red. F.M. Rayanov, Ufa, RITS Bash-GU, 2018, pp. 32-40. 
15. Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V., Gorbunov M.D. Absolyutnoye i ot-nositel'noye v yestestvennom prave (Absolute and relative in natural law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 11, pp. 22-29. 
16. Sal'nikov V.P., Sal'nikov M.V. Pravovaya kul'tura i politiko-pravovyye traditsii v kontekste ab-solyutnykh tsennostey (Legal culture and political and legal traditions in the context of absolute val-ues), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2014, No. 4 (84), pp. 70-86. 
17. Khabermas Yu. Vovlecheniye drugogo: Ocherki politicheskoy teorii (Involvement of another: Essays on political theory), St. Petersburg, Nauka, 2001. 
18. Khabermas Yu. Demokratiya. Pazum. Nravstvennost' (Democracy. The reason. Moral). Moscow, 1992. 
19. Khabermas Yu. Demokratiya. Razum. Nravstvennost'. Moskovskiye lektsii i interv'yu (Democ-racy. The reason. Moral. Moscow lectures and interviews), Moscow, 1995. 
20. Khabermas YU. Esse k konstitutsii Yevropy (Essays on the Constitution of Europe), Moscow, «Ves' mir», 2013. 
21. Shaveko N.A. Pravovoy ideal: neokantianskiye i sovremennyye kantianskiye ucheniya o spravedlivosti (Legal ideal: neo-Kantian and modern Kantian teachings on justice), Moscow, Yurlit-inform, 2017. 
22. Shachin S.V. Kommunikativnaya teoriya razuma Yurgena Khabermasa (Communicative Reason Theory of Jurgen Habermas), Murmansk, 2010. 
23. Shul'ts V.L. Filosofiya Yu. Khabermasa (The philosophy of J. Habermas), Moscow, Nauka, 2005. 
24. Habermas J. Faktizitat und Geltung: Beitrag zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des dem. Rechtsstaates. Frankfurt/Main, 1994. 
25. Habermas J. Moralbewusstsein und kommunikatives Handeln. Frankfurt/Main, 1983. 
26. Habermas J. Strukturwandel der Offentlichkeit. Frankfurt/Main, 1990. 
27. Honneth A. Kritik der Macht: Reflexionstufen einer kritischen Gesellschaftstheorie. Frank-furt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1985. 
28. XXVI World Congress of Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy. – Belo Horizonte: Fo-rum, 2013.
Received: 21.10.2019
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LAW AND MORALITY IN HERBERT HART’S SCIENTIFIC WORK
PROKOFIEV Konstantin Georgievich
Deputy Director for Innovative Development of the Federal Scientific Center for Biological Systems and Agricultural Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, 
Russia. 
The paper is dedicated to the founder of analytical jurisprudence H. Hart, who entering into a correspondence debate with H. Kelsen, sought to substantiate the empirical nature of normative facts, which he brought from the sphere of pure legal reason to the sphere of empirically given reality. Justifying the possibility of scientific knowledge of the “sphere of normative facts”, H. Hart established a distinction between primary and secondary moral and legal rules. According to H. Hart, law must comply with morality, but this correspondence is not simple and straightforward, just as it seemed in the classical theory of natural law.
Key words: Kelsen, Hart, norm, law, morality, analytical jurisprudence.
References
1. Bazhenova Ye.A. Filosofiya prava G.L.A. Kharta (Philosophy of Law by H.L.A. Hart), Vladimir, VlGU, 2016. 
2. Zakhartsev S.I., Maslennikov D.V., Sal'nikov V.P. Logos prava: Parmenid – Gegel' – Dostoyev-skiy. K voprosu o spekulyativno-logicheskikh osnovaniyakh metafiziki prava (Logos of law: Par-menides – Hegel – Dostoevsky. To the question of the speculative and logical foundations of the metaphysics of law), monografiya, Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2019. 
3. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskiye traditsii i sovremennyye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoy analiz teoreticheskikh issledovaniy aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.) (Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of relevant issues of the relationship between the idea of law and the idea of justice in the XX-XXI centuries), monografiya. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2017, (Seriya: «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
4. Kasatkin S.N. Kak opredelyat' sotsial'nyye ponyatiya?: kontseptsiya askriptivizma i otmenyaye-mosti yuridicheskogo yazyka Gerberta Kharta (How to define social concepts ?: the concept of as-criptivism and the abolition of the legal language of Herbert Hart), Samara, Samarskaya gumani-tarnaya akademiya, 2014. 
5. Kasatkin S.N. Postskriptum k «Ponyatiyu prava» G. Kharta (Postscript to “The Concept of Law” by H. Hart), Rossiyskiy yezhegodnik teorii prava, No. 1, 2008, pod red. d-ra yurid. nauk. A.V. Poly-akova, St. Petersburg, OOO «Universitetskiy izdatel'skiy konsortsium «Yuridicheskaya kniga», 2009.
6. Kasatkin S.N. Problemy spetsifikatsii yuridicheskogo yazyka v uchenii Gerberta Kharta 1949 goda (Problems of legal language specification in the teachings of Herbert Hart of 1949), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Filosofiya. Sotsiologiya. Politologiya, 2017, No. 37, pp. 46-56.
7. Krushel'nitskiy M.A., Maslennikov D.V. Ponyatiye osnovnoy normy kak predposylka neokanti-anskoy modernizatsii Gansom Kel'zenom yuridicheskogo pozitivizma (The concept of the basic norm as a prerequisite for neo-Kantian modernization of legal positivism by Hans Kelsen), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2016, No. 6, pp. 49-53. 
8. Ogleznev V.V. G.L.A. Khart i formirovaniye analiticheskoy filosofii prava (H.L.A. Hart and the formation of an analytical philosophy of law), Tomsk, Tomskiy universitet, 2012. 
9. Ogleznev V.V., Surovtsev V.A. Analiticheskaya filosofiya prava G. Kharta i pravovoy realizm (H. Hart's analytical philosophy of law and legal realism), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Pravovedeniye, 2013, No. 4 (309), pp. 134-147. 
10. Sal'nikov V.P., Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov M.V. Platon, Aristotel', Foma Akvinskiy i ideya spravedlivosti v yestestvenno-pravovoy traditsii (Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and the idea of justice in the natural legal tradition), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 9, pp. 19-26. 
11. Khart G.L.A. Ponyatiye prava (The concept of law), St. Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburgskiy univer-sitet, 2007. 
12. Khart G.L.A. Filosofiya i yazyk prava (Philosophy and language of law), Moscow, Kanon+, 2017.
13. Barauna M. Normative Facts: Kelsen vs. Hart, XXVI World Congress of Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy, Belo Horizonte, Forum, 2013.
14. Senn M. Historische Fundamente der europaischen, nordamerikanischen, indischen sowie chinesischen Rechts- und Gesellschaftsphilosophie, Eine Einfuhrung mit Quellenmaterial, Zurich, Dike Verlag, 2012. 
Received: 08.10.2019
S.S. ALEKSEYEV IS A LEGAL THINKER: STAGES OF LIFE AND CREATIVE PATH
SEMITKO Alexey Pavlovitch
Doctor of Law, Senior Research Scientist of RAS, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Liberal Arts University, Professor and Head of the Chair of Public Law, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
A general overview of the life and creativity of the great Soviet and Russian scientist is given, and two periods in his development are distinguished – early and late, or Soviet and post-Soviet, special legal and philosophical legal, theoretical and practical, reformatory. These stages correspond to two epochs of Russian society. Despite the existence of these two stages, the fundamental grounds of the legal thinker’s teaching remained the same throughout his creative life; they are a piety to Law as the most important social value and personal dignity, human rights and freedoms enshrined in Law, which is their “repository. The thinker paid attention to legal education as an essential means of enhancing legal culture of society and ensuring the rule of law in its life. The scientist tried to translate his main ideas – as far as possible – into reality in the Soviet period, but all conditions for this arose only during the restructuring period of our country’s development. The peculiarities of Soviet scientific discourse are also considered and the relevance of a number of his ideas for today is shown.
Key words: law, value of law, philosophy of law, theory of law, special legal theory, positivism, non-positivistic law understanding, socialism, communism, creativity.
References
1. Alekseyev S.S. Azbuka zakona (The alphabet of law), Sverdlovsk, 1982. 
2. Alekseyev S.S. Voskhozhdeniye k pravu. Poiski i resheniya (Ascent to law. Searches and solu-tions), Moscow, 2001. 
3. Alekseyev S.S. Obshchaya teoriya prava (The general theory of law), Kurs v 2 t., T. 1. Moscow, 1981. 
4. Alekseyev S.S. Pravo i nasha zhizn' (Law and our life), Moscow, 1978. 
5. Alekseyev S.S. Pravo: azbuka – teoriya – filosofiya. Opyt kompleksnogo issledovaniya (Law: al-phabet – theory – philosophy. Integrated research experience), Moscow, 1999. 
6. Alekseyev S.S. Sobraniye sochineniy v 10 t. (Collected works in 10 volumes), Spravochnyy tom. Sostavitel' M. F. Kazantsev. Moscow, 2010. 
7. Alekseyev S.S. Sotsial'naya tsennost' prava v sovetskom obshchestve (The social value of law in Soviet society), Moscow, 1971. 
8. Alekseyev S.S. Sotsial'naya tsennost' prava v sovetskom obshchestve (The social value of law in Soviet society), predisl. S.A. Stepanova, vstup. st. A.P. Semitko, Yekaterinburg, Gumanitarnyy uni-versitet, 2019, LXXX, Seriya «Prednaznacheniye i mogushchestvo prava». 
9. Alekseyev Sergey Sergeyevich: Pravoved. Myslitel'. Publitsist. Bibliografiya: K 85-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya uchenogo (Alekseev Sergey Sergeevich: Lawyer. Thinker. Publicist. Bibliography: On the 85th birthday of a scientist), M.F. Kazantsev, V.N. Rudenko, Ye.M. Surina, otv. red. V.N. Rudenko, Yekaterinburg, UrO RAN, 2009. 
10. Voskhozhdeniye k pravu (Ascent to law). Dokumental'nyy fil'm o S.S. Alekseyeve. Pervyy fil'm trilogii «Epokha Sergeya Sergeyevicha Alekseyeva» (V), Avtor idei i stsenariya S.A. Stepanov, Yekaterinburg, Muzey S.S. Alekseyeva, UrGYUU, 2019, URL: https:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9XSVmbYObw. 
11. Kozyrev G.I. Konfliktnyy potentsial sovremennogo rossiyskogo obshchestva (The conflict po-tential of modern Russian society), Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya, 2017, No. 6, pp. 68-78. 
12. Nersesyants V.S. Yurisprudentsiya. Vvedeniye v kurs obshchey teorii prava i gosudarstva (Law. Introduction to the course of the general theory of law and state), Moscow, 1998. 
13. Semitko A.P. Vstupitel'naya stat'ya (Introductory article), Alekseyev S.S. Sotsial'naya tsennost' prava v sovetskom obshchestve, predisl. S. A. Stepanova, vstup. st. A.P. Semitko, Yekaterinburg, Gumanitarnyy universitet, 2019, LXXX, (Seriya «Prednaznacheniye i mogushchestvo prava»). 
14. Semitko A.P. Kontseptual'noye vvedeniye: Pravo, lichnost', prava cheloveka: perso-notsentristskiy podkhod k pravu i pravovoy kul'ture (Conceptual introduction: Law, personality, human rights: a person-centered approach to law and legal culture), Prava cheloveka: entsiklopedi-cheskiy slovar', otv. red. S.S. Alekseyev, Moscow, Norma, 2018. 
15. Semitko A.P. O personotsentristskom i sotsiotsentristskom tipakh gosudarstva i prava kak teoret-icheskoy konstruktsii (On the personocentric and sociocentric types of state and law as a theoretical construct), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2016, No. 3 (45), pp. 7-14. 
16. Semitko A.P. Personotsentristskiy podkhod k pravu i pravovoy kul'ture (Personcentric approach to law and legal culture), Vestnik Gumanitarnogo universiteta, 2013, No. 1 (1), pp. 86-94. 
17. Semitko A.P. Rossiyskaya pravovaya kul'tura i osobennosti yeye modernizatsii: k 100-letiyu Oktyabr'skogo gosudarstvennogo perevorota v Rossii (Russian legal culture and the features of its modernization: on the 100th anniversary of the October coup in Russia), Vestnik Gumanitarnogo universiteta, 2017, No. 4 (19), pp. 32-72. 
18. Semitko A.P. S.S. Alekseyev: tsennost' prava – v utverzhdenii tsennosti lichnosti, yeye prav i svobod, vysokoy organizovannosti i poryadka v zhizni obshchestva (S.S. Alekseev: the value of law is in the affirmation of personal value, human rights and freedoms, high organization and order in the life of society), Vestnik Gumanitarnogo universiteta, 2019, No. 3, pp. 14-55. 
19. Sergey Sergeyevich Alekseyev: biograficheskiy ocherk (Sergey Sergeevich Alekseev: biograph-ical essay), Alekseyev S.S. Sobraniye sochineniy v 10 t., Spravochnyy tom, Sost. M. F. Kazantsev, Moscow, 2010, pp. 156-171. 
20. Tille A.A. Pravo absurda: sotsialisticheskoye feodal'noye pravo (The law of the absurd: socialist feudal law), MP "Kont", 1992.
Received: 25.10.2019
CIVILIZING MISSION OF THE INSTITUTE OF HUMAN RIGHTS
UTYSHEV Marat Mukharovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
KHABIBULLINA Regina Ayratovna
Master’s Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
In the paper, the authors reflect on civilizing mission of human rights. They declare that the highest achievement of the Earth’s civilization is respect of human rights and freedoms. The recognition by state authorities of their responsibility for respecting and protecting human and civil rights and freedoms is the first and necessary condition for the country's advancement towards civility. A brief excursion of human progress from barbarism to civility demonstrates progressive advance and perseverance in the development of humanitarian relations. This is a rejection of serfdom; the creation of the League of Nations and later the United Nations; the development of unique international standards such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Geneva Convention, the Declaration of Children's Rights, the ILO documents and many others. The authors also substantiate the view that education in general and human rights and freedoms study in particular lead to civility. Education, training and public information of human rights is essential to promote stability and harmony as well as to strengthen understanding, tolerance and peace.
Key words: civilization, humanism, rights, human freedoms, UN, declaration, personality, recognition, protection.
References
1. Nial Fergyuson. Tsivilizatsiya. Chem Zapad otlichayetsya ot ostal'nogo mira (Civilization. How the West differs from the rest of the world), per. s ang. K. Bandurovskogo. Moscow, OOO AST, 2014. 
2. Vernadskiy V.I. Stat'i ob uchenykh i ikh tvorchestve (Papers on scientists and their work), Mos-cow, Nauka, 1997. 
3. Korneychuk B.V. Ekonomicheskiye vozzreniya M.I. Tugan-Baranovskogo (Economic views of M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky), St. Petersburg, Nauka, 2008. 
4. Kistyakovskiy B.A. Sushchnost' gosudarstvennoy vlasti (The essence of state power), Yaroslavl', 1973, URL: http:/base.garant.ru/6186155/ (accessed date: 27.08.2019). 
5. Yelistratov A.I. Ocherk gosudarstvennogo prava. Konstitutsionnoye pravo (Essay on state law. Constitutional law), 2-ye izd., pere-rab, Moscow, Tip. i tsinkogr. t./d. «Mysl'», 1915.
Received: 20.10.2019
LEGAL REGULATION OF THE  INTEREST IN THE GLOBAL SYSTEM OF HUMANITY
KHAYRETDINOVA Alina Ilyasovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa. Russia. 
Today, one of the most important global problems is environmental problem. There are more and waste products, so changes are required to organize the entire system, as well as in the approach to deal with garbage dumps and landfills. In the modern world, the composition of garbage has changed a lot, plastic has appeared, and disposal methods are outdated. Currently, the pollution problem is not just a difficulty; it is already a global environmental disaster. Bashkortostan is also actively involved in the implementation of the “Clean Country” project. In May 2019, an international congress of regional operators was held in the republic; there the issue of the difficulties of implementing the garbage reform was discussed. A quadripartite agreement on cooperation in the implementation of investment projects was signed at the congress.
Key words: UN, UNEP, environmental protection, “garbage” reform, “Clean Country”, pollution problem.
References
1. Gasanova V. S. Deyatel'nost' Organizatsii Ob"yedinennykh Natsiy v sfere ekologicheskoy zash-chity i yeye razvitiya (Activities of the United Nations in the field of environmental protection and its development). Molodoy uchenyy, 2015, No. 21, pp. 585-587. URL: https:/moluch.ru/archive/101/22883/ (accessed date: 02.06.2019).
2. Rezolyutsiya GA OON «Organizatsionnyye i finansovyye meropriyatiya po mezhdunarodno-mu sotrudnichestvu v oblasti okruzhayushchey sredy» № 2997 (XXVII) ot 17 dekabrya 1972 g. (Reso-lution of the UN General Assembly "Organizational and financial measures for international cooper-ation in the field of the environment" No. 2997 (XXVII) of December 17, 1972) . URL: http:/daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/273/21/IMG/NR027321.pdf? OpenEle-ment (accessed date: 02.06.2019). 
3. Elektronnaya ekologicheskaya biblioteka. Sroki razlozheniya bytovykh otkhodov (Electronic en-vironmental library. Terms of decomposition of household waste). URL: http:/ecology.aonb.ru/sroki-razlozhenija-bytovyh-othodov.html (accessed date: 02.06.2019). 
4. Trudnosti realizatsii musornoy reformy obsudili na Mezhdunarodnom s"yezde regional'nykh op-eratorov v Ufe. 16 maya 2019 GTRK «Bashkortostan» (The difficulties of implementing the garbage reform were discussed at the International Congress of Regional Operators in Ufa. May 16, 2019 GTRK Bashkortostan). URL: https:/gtrk.tv/novosti/133887-trudnosti-realizacii-musornoy-reformy-obsudili-mezhdunarodnom-sezde-regionalnyh (accessed date: 02.06.2019).
Received: 10.10.2019
LENINISM АS AN ATTEMPT TO REALIZE INTO PRACTICE A THEORY OF SOCIALISTIC REVOLUTION
SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
This paper reveals the theoretical aspects of the Marxism social-political theory development by V.I. Lenin, which led to the creation of his own revolution theory, which significantly differs from the K. Marx social-political theory. For example, Lenin renounced the main conditions for the possibility to realize a socialist revolution and the thesis of the proletarian dictatorship was never put in practice. 
Key words: Marxism, communism, Leninism, bolshevism, communist, social-political theory, production relations, productive forces, labour movement, revolutionary situation, socialistic revolution, totalitarian regime, deputy.
References
1. Engel's F. Polozheniye rabochego klassa v Anglii (The position of the working class in England). K. Marks i F. Engel's. Sochineniya, 2-ye izd., T. 2. Moscow, 1955, pp. 231-517. 
2. Marks K., Engel's F. Manifest Kommunisticheskoy partii (Manifesto of the Communist Party). K. Marks i F. Engel's. Sochineniya, 2-ye izd., T. 4. Moscow, 1955, pp. 419-459. 
3. Tseny 1913 goda v sovremennykh rublyakh (Prices of 1913 in modern rubles). URL: https:/www.krasplace.ru/ceny-1913-goda-v-sovremennyx-rublyax. 
4. Tseny i zhalovaniya v Tsarskoy Rossii v nachale XX veka (Prices and salaries in Tsarist Russia at the beginning of the 20th century). URL: rus-pravda.info/TSeni-i-zhalovaniya-v-TSarskoy-Rossii-v-nachale-XX-veka-2407.html. 
5. Engel's F. Printsipy kommunizma (The principles of communism). K. Marks i F. Engel's. So-chineniya, 2-ye izd., T. 4. Moscow, 1955, pp. 322-339. 
6. Marks K. K kritike politicheskoy ekonomii (To the criticism of political economy). K. Marks i F. Engel's. Sochineniya, 2-ye izd., T. 13. Moscow, 1955, pp. 1-167. 
7. Lenin V.I. Kak V. Zasulich ubivayet likvidatorstvo (How V. Zasulich kills liquidationism). Lenin V.I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5-ye izd., T. 24. Moscow, 1973, pp. 22-44. 
8. Lenin V.I. Shag vpered, dva shaga nazad (Krizis v nashey partii) (A step forward, two steps back (The crisis in our party). Lenin V.I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5-ye izd., T. 8. Moscow, 1973. pp. 185-414. 
9. Lenin V.I. Pis'mo k S"yezdu. Pis'mo k s"yezdu, mezhdu 23 dekabrya 1922 g. i 4 yanvarya 1923 g. (Letter to the Congress. Letter to the congress, between December 23, 1922 and January 4, 1923). URL: https:/www.1000dokumente.de/index.html?c=dokument_ru&dokument=0013_tes&object= translation&l=ru. 
10. Lenin V.I. Detskaya bolezn' «levizny» v kommunizme (Children's disease of "leftism" in com-munism). Lenin V.I. Poln. sobr. soch, 5-ye izd., T. 41. Moscow, 1973, pp. 1-104. 
11. Lenin V.I. Tezisy ko II Kongressu Kommunisticheskogo Internatsionala (Abstracts to the II Congress of the Communist International). Lenin V.I. Poln. sobr. soch. 5-ye izd. T. 41. Moscow, 1973, pp. 159-212. 
12. Shonin N.Ye. Partiya «zelenykh» v FRG: opyt tipologizatsii partii v svete evolyutsii organi-zatsionno-ideologicheskikh printsipov (The Green Party in the Federal Republic of Germany: The Experience of Party Typologization in the Light of the Evolution of Organizational and Ideological Principles), dis. ... kand. polit. nauk. Ufa, 1997. 
13. Postanovleniye VTSIK i SNK ot 27.12.1932 «Ob ustanovlenii yedinoy pasportnoy sistemy po Soyuzu SSR i obyazatel'noy propiske pasportov» (Resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of 12/27/1932 “On the establishment of a uni-fied passport system for the USSR and mandatory registration of passports”). URL: https:/ru.wikisource.org/wiki/Postanovleniye_TSIK_i_SNK_SSSR_ot_27.12.1932_ob_ustanovlenii_yedinoy_pasportnoy_sistemy_po_Soyuzu_SSR_i_obyazatel'noy_propiski_pasportov. 
14. Postanovleniye SM SSSR ot 28 avgusta 1974 g. No. 677 «Ob utverzhdenii polozheniya o pas-portnoy sisteme v SSSR» (Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of August 28, 1974 No. 677 "On approval of the regulations on the passport system in the USSR"). URL: https:/ru.wikisource.org/wiki/Postanovleniye_Soveta_Ministrov_SSSR_ot_28.08.1974_№_677.
15. Lenin V.I. Zadachi soyuzov molodozhi. Rech' na III Vserossiyskom s"yezde Rossiyskogo Kommunisticheskogo Soyuza Molodezhi 2 oktyabrya 1920 goda (The tasks of youth unions. Speech at the III All-Russian Congress of the Russian Communist Youth Union on October 2, 1920). URL: https:/www.politpros.com/library/13/252/. 
16. Mstislavskiy S.D. Zapisi o Lenine (Notes about Lenin). URL: https:/leninism.su/memory/3481-zapisi-o-lenine.html.
Received: 11.08.2019
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIESTHE CONSTITUTION AND LEGAL CULTURE OF MODERN SOCIETY 
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
Legal culture, incorporating all that is proper to law, as a regulator of public relations, and culture, as a common material and spiritual heritage of people, by and large, represents current legislation knowledge requirements and the ability to use them in different life situations. The conditionality and interconnectedness of legislation requirements with constitutional guidelines makes it necessary to know, first of all, the Constitution of the country, and to respect it.
Key words: constitution, society, state, law, legal culture, legal consciousness.
References
1. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyaniye, puti pereosmysleniya (The theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: status, ways of rethinking). Lex Russica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 14-24. 
2. Rayanov F.M. Aktual'nyye problemy teorii i praktiki pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Actual problems of the theory and practice of the rule-of-law state in Russia). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teor-iya i praktika, 2010, No. 1 (19), pp. 3-8. 
3. Galiyev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i voprosy vospitaniya uvazhitel'nogo otnosheniya k konstitutsii strany (Legal culture and issues of developing respect for the country's constitution). Realizatsiya polozheniy Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii v zakonodatel'stve, materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvya-shchennoy 10-letiyu Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Ch. I. Chelyabinsk, 2013, pp. 87-88. 
4. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoye obshchestvovedeniye (Legal social science), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018. 
5. Mal'tsev G.V. Sotsial'nyye osnovaniya prava (Social grounds of law). Moscow, Norma, 2007. 
6. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva: istoriko-tsivilizatsionnyy podkhod (The es-sence of the rule-of-law state: a historical-civilizational approach). Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2012, No. 4 (30), pp. 8-16. 
7. Galiyev F.Kh., Rayanov F.M. Obshchestvovedeniye v XXI veke: teoretiko-pravovoy aspekt (So-cial Studies in the XXI Century: Theoretical and Legal Aspect). Ufa, Bashk. entsikl., 2018. 
8. Kerimov D.A. Metodologiya prava: predmet, funktsii, problemy filosofii prava (Methodology of law: subject, functions, problems of philosophy of law). 4-ye izd. Moscow, Izd-vo SGU, 2008. 
9. Galiyev F.Kh. Istoricheskaya obuslovlennost' pravovoy kul'tury (The historical conditionality of legal culture). Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2010, No.19, pp. 34-39. 
10. Galiyev F.Kh. Konstitutsiya i obshchestvennoye soznaniye (Constitution and public conscious-ness). Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsionalizma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskiy gosudarstvennyy ekonomicheskiy universitet, 2017, pp. 114–122. 
11. Matuzov N.I. Aktual'nyye problemy teorii prava (Actual problems of theory of law). Saratov, Izd-vo Sarat. gos. akademii prava, 2004.
Received: 11.11.2019
THE FEATURES OF ADMINISTRATIVE LEGAL STATUS OF A FEMALE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIAL
PETRANTSOV Alexander Semenovich
Instructor of the Department of Fire Training of the FSGEI HE «Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia», Voronezh, Russia.
For the decades of the existence of the Russian Federation and the implementation of its international obligations to improve the national legal system in the field of legal regulation of gender equality, domestic legislation lacks a legal definition of gender equality (equality of the genders), there is no single formal and doctrinal approach regarding the concept of gender equality and egalitarianism. De jure, the state secured the legal foundations of an emerging model of legal equality of the genders in public service, including the basis of the modern personnel policy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, as part of the state personnel policy. The current personnel policy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia is aimed at enhancing prestige and ensuring the quality of human resources for the activities of internal affairs bodies, guided by the basic principle of professional service selection and further service in a police department, eliminating quotas and discrimination, including gender discrimination. In the context of an updated legal policy of the state, a personnel policy is actively developing, its central link is also the formation of organizational and legal foundations of female persons’ service in internal affairs bodies, the number women in service is increasing from year to year.
Key words: discrimination, public service, gender equality, female police officer, internal affairs bodies.
References
1. Bakhrakh D.N. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba: osnovnyye ponyatiya, yeye sostavlyayushchiye, soderzhaniye, printsipy (Public service: basic concepts, its components, content, principles), Gosu-darstvo i pravo, 1996, No. 12, pp. 10-18.
2. O sluzhbe v organakh vnutrennikh del Rossiyskoy Federatsii i vnesenii izmeneniy v otdel'nyye zakonodatel'nyye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii : feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 30 noyabrya 2011 g. № 342-FZ : prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 17 noyabrya 2011 g. odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 25 noyabrya 2011 g. (On service in the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation and amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation: Fed-eral law of RF of November 30, 2011 No. 342-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal As-sembly of RF on November 17, 2011 approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of RF of the November 25, 2011), Rossiyskaya gazeta. 2011. 7 dekabrya.
3. O gosudarstvennykh posobiyakh grazhdanam, imeyushchim detey : feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot ot 19 maya 1995 g. № 81-FZ : prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 26 aprelya 1995 g. odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 4 maya 1995 g. (On state benefits to citi-zens with children: Federal law of RF of May 19, 1995 No. 81-FL: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of RF  of April 26, 1995 approved by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of RF of May 4, 1995), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 1995, 25 maya.
4. Kommentariy k Kodeksu Rossiyskoy Federatsii ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh (Commentary on the Code of the Russian Federation on administrative offenses), pod. obshch. red. Ye.N. Sidorenko. 5-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, TK Velbi, Izd-vo Prospekt, 2006.
5. Romanova V.V. Sluzhba zhenshchin v organakh vnutrennikh del : pravovyye i organizatsionnyye aspekty (Women's service in internal affairs bodies: legal and organizational aspects), dis. ...kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2007.
6. Konventsiya MOT otnositel'no diskriminatsii v oblasti truda i zanyatiy ot 25 iyunya 1958 goda № 111 (prinyata v g. Zheneve 25.06.1958 na 42-oy sessii General'noy konferentsii MOT) (ILO Con-vention on Discrimination in Labor and Occupation of June 25, 1958 No. 111 (adopted in Geneva on June 25, 1958 at the 42nd session of the ILO General Conference), Vedomosti Verkhovnogo So-veta SSSR, 1961, No. 44, St. 448.
7. Trudovoy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii : feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 30 dekabrya 2001 g. № 197-FZ : prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 21 dekabrya 2001 g. odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 26 dekabrya 2001 g. (The labor code of the Russian Federa-tion: Federal law of RF of December 30, 2001 No. 197-FZ: adopted by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of RF  of December 21, 2001 approved  by the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of RF of December 26, 2001), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2001, 31 dekabrya.
8. Kommentariy k Trudovomu kodeksu Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Commentary on the Labor Code of the Russian Federation), Pod red. zasluzhennogo yurista Rossiyskoy Federatsii, deystvitel'nogo gosudarstvennogo sovetnika Rossiyskoy Federatsii 3-go klassa S.A. Panina, Moscow, MTSFER, 2002.
9. Postanovleniye Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 28 yanvarya 2014 g. No. 1 «O primenenii zakonodatel'stva, reguliruyushchego trud zhenshchin, lits s semeynymi obyazannos-tyami i nesovershennoletnikh» (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Fed-eration of January 28, 2014 No. 1 “On the application of legislation governing the work of woman personnel with family responsibilities and minors”), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2014, 7 fevralya.
Received: 24.10.2019
TO THE ISSUE OF THE RATIO OF CONSTITUTIONAL LEGAL STATUS OF FOREIGN CITIZENS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
SHARIPOVA Elmira Azgarovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of State Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa.  The constitutional legal status of foreign citizens and administrative legal status of citizens in Russia are mutually dependent elements due to the supreme legal force of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and its direct application. However, administrative legal regulation of the order of entry, stay and residence of foreign citizens and stateless persons in the Russian Federation, the order of their employment in practice may lead to unjustified restriction of personal legal status, guaranteed by constitutional and legal norms.
Key words: migration law, temporarily residing foreign citizens, permanently residing foreign citizens, legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons.
References
1. Kodeks RF ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh ot 30 dekabrya 2001 g. № 195-FZ (v red. Feder. zakona ot 02.08.2019 N 317-FZ) (The Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Of-fenses of December 30, 2001 No. 195-FZ (as amended by the Federal Law of 02.08.2019 No. 317-ФЗ), [Electronic resource], Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
2. Federal'nyy zakon RF ot 25 iyulya 2002 g. № 115-FZ «O pravovom polozhenii inostrannykh gra-zhdan v Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (v red. Feder. zakona ot 02.08.2019 N 257-FZ) (Federal Law of the Russian Federation of July 25, 2002 No. 115-FZ “On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation” (as amended by the Federal Law of 02.08.2019 No. 257-FZ), [Electronic re-source], Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
3. Postanovleniye Yevropeyskogo suda ot 27 sentyabrya 2011 g. po delu «Alim protiv Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (The judgment of the European Court of September 27, 2011 in the case of Alim v. Rus-sia), [Electronic resource], Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoy sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus». 
4. Postanovleniye № 4A-170/2019 ot 29 aprelya 2019 g. po delu № 4A-170/2019 (Resolution No. 4A-170/2019 of April 29, 2019 in case No. 4A-170/2019), Sudebnyye i normativnyye akty RF, URL: http:/mon.gov.ru/dok/akt/5272/ sudact.ru/regular/doc/KDWoGMOligdz/ (accessed date: 27.10.2019).
5. Sharipova E.A. Svoboda sovesti i svoboda veroispovedaniya kak elementy struktury konstituci-onno-pravovogo i administrativno-pravovogo statusa lichnosti (Freedom of conscience and freedom of religion as an element of the structure of constitutional legal and administrative legal status of an individual), Evrazijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal, 2018, No. 12 (127), pp. 131-133. 
Received: 26.10.2019
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW.
CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCEDURE
CIVIL PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE
GORELOV Maxim Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
ZHEMALETDINOV Rustem Maratovich
Candidate of Science (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir state University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The paper deals with the relationship between civil procedure and administrative justice in Russia. The Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation, the Code of Administrative Procedure, including the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure are integrally connected with judicial activities. Judicial activities are subject to certain established rules, which do not depend on the type of proceedings and reflect the essence of judicial activities. Taking into account the current state of the legislation, the judicial form of administrative justice from the position of the Code of Administrative Judicial Procedure is judicial administrative procedure. The extra-judicial form of administrative justice is more typical for administrative procedure. 
Key words: judicial administrative procedure, civil procedure, administrative justice, rule-of-law state, administrative claim; administrative court.
References
1. Salogubova Ye.V. Osnovnyye grazhdanskiye protsessual'nyye instituty rimskogo prava (The main civil procedure institutions of Roman law), avtoref. … dis. kand. yurid. nauk, Yekaterinburg, 1995. 
2. Oriu M. Osnovy publichnogo prava (Fundamentals of public law), Moscow, Izd. Kommunistich-eskoy akademii, 1929. 
3. Kuplevaskiy N. Administrativnaya yustitsiya v Zapadnoy Yevrope. Chast' I. Administrativnaya yustitsiya vo Frantsii (Administrative justice in Western Europe. Part I. Administrative justice in France), Khar'kov, Universitetskaya tipografiya, 1879. 
4. D. Jacquemart. Le Conseil d'Etat juge de cassation, Paris, 1957. 
5. Chechot D.M. Administrativnaya yustitsiya (Administrative Justice), Leningrad, 1973. 
6. Korf S.A. Administrativnaya yustitsiya v Rossii (Administrative justice in Russia), Kniga vtoraya, St. Petersburg, 1910. 
7. Shvarts M.Z. Sistematizatsiya arbitrazhnogo protsessual'nogo zakonodatel'stva: Problemy teorii i praktiki primeneniya (Systematization of arbitration procedural legislation: Problems of theory and practice of application), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk, Sankt.-Peterb. gos. un-t., St. Petersburg, 2004.
Received: 28.10.2019
CURRENT STATE OF THE ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND WAYS TO IMPROVE IT
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
Enforcement proceedings in all states, including the Russian Federation, have their own specifics, determined, on the one hand, by the particularities of national legal system, and, on the other hand, by standing law enforcement practice. They are in need of qualitative improvement in the sphere of enforcement of judicial acts on the basis of filling gaps in the legislation on enforcement proceedings, as well as the formation of the institution of private bailiffs.
Key words: enforcement proceedings, law enforcement system, personnel core, employees’ social protection.
References
1. Galiyev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura v tsifrovykh pokazatelyakh (Legal culture in digital terms), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2012, No. 4 (72), pp. 33-39. 
2. Sadovskiy P.V. Ispolnitel'noye proizvodstvo. Problemy pravoprimeneniya. Osparivaniye otsenki, proizvodimoy v ramkakh ispolnitel'nogo proizvodstva (Enforcement proceedings. Enforcement is-sues. Challenging the assessment made in the framework of enforcement proceedings), Arbitra-zhnyye spory, 2006, No. 3. 
3. Murzabulatov U.M. Razvitiye sudebno-ispolnitel'noy sistemy Rossii i kontseptual'nyye probely v zakonodatel'stve ob ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve (The development of the judicial-executive system of Russia and conceptual gaps in the legislation on enforcement proceedings), monografiya. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2015. 
4. Genprokuratura trebuyet nakazat' rukovoditeley FSSP (The Prosecutor General's Office requires punishing the leaders of the FSSP), RBK Ekonomika, 2013, 16 sentyabrya. 
5. Murzabulatov U.M. Vliyaniye norm ispolnitel'nogo proizvodstva na ekonomicheskuyu bezopas-nost' Rossii (The impact of enforcement proceedings on the economic security of Russia), Ak-tual'nyye problemy sotsial'nogo, ekonomicheskogo i informatsionnogo razvitiya sovremennogo ob-shchestva, sbornik Vserossiyskaya nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, 20 maya 2016 g., Ufa, NITS «Aeteria», pp. 186-189. 
6. Federal'nyy zakon ot 2 oktyabrya 2007 goda № 229-FZ «Ob ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 14 oktyabrya 2014 goda № 307-FZ ) (Federal law of October 2, 2007 No. 229-FZ “On Enforcement Proceedings” (with the last amendments of October 14, 2014 No. 307-ФЗ), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2007, No. 41, st. 4849. 
7. Grazhdanskiy protsess v mezhkul'turnom dialoge: yevraziyskiy kontekst (Civil process in inter-cultural dialogue: Eurasian context), Vsemirnaya konferentsiya Mezhdunarodnoy assotsiatsii protsessual'nogo prava, 18-21 sentyabrya 2012 g., Moskva, Rossiya, sbornik dokladov, pod red. D.Ya. Maleshina, Moscow, Statut, 2012.
Received: 23.10.2019
CIVIL LAW LIABILITY OF MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS: PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION
SHAYAKHMETOVA Alina Rimovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan”, Ufa, Russia. 
The paper reveals the general conditions for the incurrence of civil law liability, within the terms of the contract, as well as within the non-contractual liability. It examines the judicial practice of applying various legal norms regulating relations in the chain: a medical organization-a patient. The author reveals the issues of the relationship of both general and special legal norms, regulated by health care legislation.
Key words: medical activities, liability, medical organization, consumer rights, non-quality service, tort liability, harm-doing, medical intervention, guilt, illegality, causal relationship.
References
1. Berillo M. S. Usloviya otvetstvennosti medicinskih organizacij za prichinenie vreda zdorov'yu pacienta medicinskim vmeshatel'stvom v sudebnoj praktike (Conditions of liability of medical or-ganizations for causing harm to the patient's health by medical intervention in judicial practice), Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika, 2016, T. 12, No. 1, pp. 64–72.
2. Malein N.S., Maleina M.N. Zakon i ohrana zdorov'ya grazhdan. (The law and the protection of public health), Moscow, Znanie, 1986. 
3. Opredelenie Sudebnoj kollegii po grazhdanskim delam Verhovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii ot 24.06.2019 № 74-KG19-5 (The determination of the Judicial Collegium for Civil Cases of the Su-preme Court of the Russian Federation of June 24, 2019 No. 74-KG19-5). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy Konsul'tant-Plyus.
4. Pavlova Yu.V. Yuridicheskaya zashchita medicinskoj organizacii pri primenenii norm, usta-navlivayushchih grazhdansko-pravovuyu otvetstvennost' bez viny (Legal protection of a medical or-ganization when applying the rules establishing civil liability without guilt), Medicinskoe pravo: teoriya i praktika, Moscow, Nacional'nyj institut medicinskogo prava, 2016, T. 2, No. 2 (4), pp. 196-205.
5. Reshenie Zlatoustovskogo gorodskogo suda Chelyabinskoj oblasti ot 8 noyabrya 2018 g. po delu № 2-2016/2018 (The decision of the Zlatoust city court of the Chelyabinsk region of November 8, 2018 in case No. 2-2016 / 2018). URL: https:/sudact.ru/regular/doc/0vpAyo9ppamj/.
Received: 11.12.2019
FORENSICS. FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITIES 
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE JUVENILE SUSPECT’S PERSONAL FORENSIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR VERIFYING TESTIMONY AT THE SCENE 
VARFOLOMEEV Roman Andreevich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Hhigher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The paper deals with the influence of the juvenile suspect’s personal characteristics on the procedure for preparing and conducting verification of testimony at the scene. On the example of individual components of socio-demographic, moral, psychological and biological properties, as well as on the basis of empirical data, the author justifies the importance of personal forensic characteristics for the successful production of verification of testimony at the scene. The role of family composition, social status and social views of its members in the formation of juvenile psychological characteristics is investigated, the dependence of socio-demographic personal traits and the specifics of juvenile suspect’s behavior during investigative actions is established. The author reveals the influence of personal moral and psychological characteristics on the order of preparation and verification of testimony at the scene. As part of the consideration of the significance of personal biological traits, special attention is paid to mental status.
Key words: forensics, investigative action, verification of testimony at the scene, personal characteristics, juvenile suspect, forensic tactics.
References
1. Arhiv Sovetskogo rajonnogo suda g. Ufy. Ugolovnoe delo № 1-50/2018 (Archive of the Soviet District Court. Ufa. Criminal case No. 1-50 / 2018).
2. Arhiv Sovetskogo rajonnogo suda g. Ufy. Ugolovnoe delo 1-463/2013 (Archive of the Soviet Dis-trict Court. Ufa. Criminal case No. 1-463/2013).
3. Arhiv Sovetskogo rajonnogo suda g. Ufy. Ugolovnoe delo 1-144/2013 (Archive of the Soviet Dis-trict Court. Ufa. Criminal case No. 1-144/2013).
4. Ahmedshin R.L. Kriminalisticheskaya harakteristika lichnosti prestupnika (Forensic characteristics of the offender's personality). Tomsk, Izd-vo Tom. un-ta, 2005.
5. Bednost' i razvitie rebenka (Poverty and child development), Pod red. D.A. Aleksandrova, V.A. Ivanyushinoj, K.A. Maslinskogo. Moscow, Rukopisnye pamyatniki Drevnej Rusi, 2015. 
6. Vardanyan A.V. Processual'no-takticheskij potencial proverki pokazanij na meste i osobennosti ego realizacii pri rassledovanii nasil'stvennyh prestuplenij, sovershennyh licami, imeyushchimi psihicheskie rasstrojstva, ne isklyuchayushchie vmenyaemosti (Procedural and tactical potential of verification of testimony at the scene and features of its implementation in the investigation of violent crimes committed by persons with mental disorders that do not exclude sanity). Izvestiya Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ekonomicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, 2017, No. 3-2, pp. 3-9.
7. Grigor'eva M.N. K probleme vzaimosvyazi napravlennosti lichnosti i asocial'nogo povedeniya (On the problem of interrelation of personality orientation and antisocial behavior). Vestnik Oren-burgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2006, No. 10, pp. 128-136.
8. Ivanchenko V.A. Social'no-psihologicheskie osobennosti detej iz nepolnyh semej (Socio-psychological characteristics of children from single-parent families). Izvestiya Saratovskogo uni-versiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya: Filosofiya. Psihologiya. Pedagogika, 2010, T. 10, No. 2, pp. 69-72.
9. Makarenko I.A. Kriminalisticheskoe uchenie o lichnosti nesovershennoletnego obvinyaemogo (Fo-rensic teaching on the identity of a minor accused), avtoref. dis. ... dokt. yurid. nauk. Saratov, 2007.
10. Makarenko I.A. Lichnost' nesovershennoletnego obvinyaemogo kak ob"ekt kriminalisticheskogo issledovaniya (The identity of a minor accused as an object of forensic research). Moscow, Iz-datel'stvo «Yurlitinform», 2006.
11. Rean A.A. Faktory riska deviantnogo povedeniya: semejnyj kontekst (Risk factors for deviant behavior: family context). Nacional'nyj psihologicheskij zhurnal, 2015, No. 4 (20), pp. 105-110.
12. Shilova T.A. Psihologicheskie osobennosti otklonyayushchegosya povedeniya podrostkov (Psy-chological characteristics of deviant behavior of adolescents). Sistemnaya psihologiya i sociologiya, 2012, No. 5, pp. 85-90.
13. Kriminalistika (Forensics), uchebnik, Otv. red. N.P. Yablokov. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, Yurist", 2005. 
Received: 23.10.2019
TRACES AS SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT A PERSON WHO COMMITTED A FRAUD ON THE INTERNET
MALYKHINA Natalya Ivanovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Forensics of the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.
KUZMINA Svetlana Vasilyevna
Master’s Student of the Institute of Postgraduate Training of the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.
The development of information technologies contributes to an increase in criminal assaults committed using the Internet. Internet fraud as a relatively new phenomenon has a high degree of latency, which makes it difficult to identify the person who committed the crime. The main sources of forensic information about the offender for such crimes are traces. Timely identification and comprehensive investigation of them helps to increase the effectiveness of the investigation and disclosure of fraud on the Internet. However, the successful implementation of this direction is determined by the need to address the debatable issues of understanding the varieties of traces and their essential content. The article analyzes individual problems of interpretation of the concepts of material, ideal and virtual traces in forensics. Informational significance is disclosed from the position of determining the properties and conditions of the person who committed fraud on the Internet.
Key words: Internet fraud, material traces, ideal traces, virtual traces, crime committer, forensic information.
References
1. Agibalov V.Yu. Virtual'nyye sledy v kriminalistike i ugolovnom protsesse (Virtual traces in fo-rensics and criminal procedure), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2012. 
2. Aleskovskiy S.Yu., Aubakirov A.F. Netraditsionnaya kriminalistika (Unconventional forensics), ucheb. posobiye, Almaty, AYU-VSHP «Adilet», 2003. 
3. Bayev O.Ya. Osnovy kriminalistiki (The basics of forensics), kurs lektsiy, Moscow, Eksmo, 2009. 
4. Belkin R.S. Kurs kriminalistiki (Forensics course), V 3 t., T 2, Chastnyye kriminalisticheskiye te-orii, Moscow, Yurist", 1997. 
5. Vvedenskaya O.Yu. Osobennosti sledoobrazovaniya pri sovershenii prestupleniy posredstvom seti Internet (Features of tracing when committing crimes on the Internet), Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravookhranitel'naya praktika, 2015, No. 4 (34), pp. 209-216. 
6. Vekhov V.B. Osnovy kriminalisticheskogo ucheniya ob issledovanii i ispol'zovanii komp'yuternoy informatsii i sredstv yeye obrabotki (Fundamentals of the forensic doctrine of the study and use of computer information and its processing tools), monografiya. Volgograd, VA MVD Rossii, 2008. 
7. Lytkin N.N. Ispol'zovaniye komp'yuterno-tekhnicheskikh sledov v rassledovanii prestupleniy pro-tiv sobstvennosti (The use of computer-technical traces in the investigation of crimes against proper-ty), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, Moscow, 2007. 
8. Meshcheryakov V.A. Prestupleniya v sfere komp'yuternoy informatsii: pravovoy i krimi-nalisticheskiy analiz (Crimes in the field of computer information: legal forensic analysis),Voronezh, Voronezhskiy gos. un-t, 2001. 
9. Milashev V.A. Problemy taktiki poiska, fiksatsii i iz"yatiya sledov pri nepravomernom dostupe k komp'yuternoy informatsii v setyakh EVM (Problems of tactics of search, fixation and removal of traces with unauthorized access to computer information in computer networks), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, Moscow, 2004. 
10. Rossinskaya Ye.R. Kriminalisticheskoye issledovaniye komp'yuternykh sredstv i sistem kak va-zhneyshiy element kriminalisticheskogo obespecheniya rassledovaniya prestupleniy (A forensic study of computer tools and systems as the most important element of forensic support for crime in-vestigation), Organizatsiya deyatel'nosti organov rassledovaniya prestupleniy: upravlencheskiye, pravovyye i kriminalisticheskiye aspekty (k 60-letiyu kafedry upravleniya organami rassledovaniya prestupleniy), sb. mater. Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf., V 2-kh ch., CH. 2,. Moscow, Akademiya upravleniya MVD Rossii, 2015, pp. 235-241. 
11. Cherkasov V.N. Yeshche raz o terminakh (Once more about the terms), Informatsionnaya be-zopasnost' regionov, 2008, № 2 (3), pp. 70-72. 
12. Shapovalova G.M. Vozmozhnost' ispol'zovaniya informatsionnykh sledov v kriminalistike (vo-prosy teorii i praktiki) (The possibility of using information traces in criminal statistics (theory and practice), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk, Vladivostok, 2005. 
13. Shevchenko B.I. Nauchnyye osnovy sovremennoy traseologii (Scientific basis of modern trase-ology), Osmotr mesta krazhi, sovershennoy s primeneniyem tekhnicheskikh sredstv, sb. nauch. tr., Moscow, LeksEst, 2004.
Received: 10.10.2019
THE TYPOLOGY OF INDIVIDUALS INCLINED TO ARSON ATTACKS AND HOOLIGANISM DURING STREET PROTESTS
TRETYAKOV Ivan Lvovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law of the Higher School of Jurisprudence and Forensic Technical Expertise of the Humanitarian Institute of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Socio-psychological and criminological nature of mass protests is of very significant scientific interest. Social media sources are full of news featuring protests with thousands of participants (rallies, processions, marches, demonstrations, flashmobs, etc.) in the world’s biggest cities. However, even a quick look at the events is enough to realize that not all the participants of protests aim at a dialogue with authorities, at unaggressive, constructive discussion of urgent issues. Based on the analysis of Russian and foreign sources, the article details personal characteristics of citizens representing the greatest public danger during street demonstrations in connection with their aggressiveness and intolerance. Destructive activity of such individuals includes violence, hooliganism, other people's property destruction, vandalism. The author attempts to typologize representatives of various groups of protesters, depending on the severity of their negative and positive individual personal attitudes, moral qualities and motives. In addition to this, the author takes into account the antisocial orientation, the nature of their illegal acts. 
Key words: protests, protest behavior, personality of protesters, typology, social networks, mass disorders, property destruction, hooliganism, vandalism, minors, mental disorders.
References
1. Baltodano U.A., Ponomarev N.A., Majlis A.A. «Cvetnye revolyucii» i nacional'no-gosudarstvennaya identichnost' (“Color Revolutions” and National-State Identity), PolitBook, 2019, No. 1, pp. 116-132.
2. Deviantnost' i sotsial'nyy kontrol' v Rossii (XIX–XX vv.): tendentsii i sotsiologicheskoye os-mysleniye (Deviance and social control in Russia (XIX – XX centuries): trends and sociological un-derstanding), Nauchnoye izdaniye, V. Afanas'yev [i dr.], otv. red. YA.I. Gilinskiy, St. Petersburg, Aleteyya, 2000. 
3. Dunaevskij I. Massovye besporyadki: dva cheloveka – v tyur'mu (The riots: two people – to pris-on), URL.: https:/rg.ru/2019/08/02/krupnye-shtrafy-i-gody-tiurmy-kak-v-mire-nakazyvaiut-za-nesankcionirovannye-akcii.html (accessed date: 01.11.2019).
4. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P. Zashchita prav cheloveka v informatsionnom prostranstve (Protec-tion of human rights in the information space), Strategicheskiye prioritety, 2018, No. 1(17), pp. 62-70.
5. Zahvati Uoll-strit (Capture Wall Street), URL: https:/ru.wikipedia.org (accessed date: 01.11.2019).
6. Karabanova O.A., Molchanov S.V. Riski negativnogo vozdejstviya informacionnoj produkcii na psihicheskoe razvitie i povedenie detej i podrostkov (Risks of the negative impact of information products on the mental development and behavior of children and adolescents), Nacional'nyj psi-hologicheskij zhurnal. 2018, No. 3 (31), pp. 37-46.
7. Kas'yanov V.V., Gafiatulina N.H., Samygin S.I. Kibersocializaciya kak riskogennyj faktor vliyaniya na social'noe zdorov'e rossijskoj molodezhi v epohu cifrovyh tekhnologij (Cyber socialization as a risk-generating factor of influence on the social health of Russian youth in the era of digital technologies), Gumanitarnye, social'no-ekonomicheskie i obshchestvennye nauki, 2019, No. 6, URL: https:/online-science.ru/m/productspunkt/number_6-2019 (accessed date: 01.11.2019).
8. Kovrov V.F., Hamitova R.M. K voprosu o vliyanii social'nyh setej na povedenie molodezhi (To the question of the influence of social networks on the behavior of youth), Gumanitarnye, social'no-ekonomicheskie i obshchestvennye nauki, 2019, No.1, URL: https:/online-science.ru/m/productspunkt /number_1-2019 (accessed date 01.11.2019).
9. Kolesnikov V.N., Mel'nik Yu.I, Teplova L.I. Internet–aktivnost' i problemnoe ispol'zovanie inter-neta v yunosheskom vozraste (Internet activity and problematic use of the Internet in adolescence), Nacional'nyj psihologicheskij zhurnal, 2019, No. 1 (33), pp. 34–46.
10. Kuzyutin I. I. Predposylki i vozmozhnost' osushchestvleniya «cvetnyh revolyucij» v Rossii (Background and the possibility of implementing "color revolutions" in Russia), Dostizheniya nauki i obrazovaniya, 2016, No. 7 (8), pp. 99-102.
11. Panchenko I.M. Social'nye seti kak novaya forma kommunikacii: pol'za ili opasnost' dlya ob-shchestva? (Social networks as a new form of communication: benefit or danger for society?), Soci-ologiya nauki i tekhnologij, 2018, No. 2, pp. 86-94. 
12. Savino Dzh., Novoderzhkin N.A. Revolyuciya vs «Cvetnaya revolyuciya» (Revolution vs “Color Revolution”), Lokus: lyudi, obshchestvo, kul'tury, smysly, 2017, No. 1, pp. 98-103. 
13. Sal'nikov V.P. Nezrimoye vtorzheniye. Negativnoye vozdeystviye informatsii na soznaniye che-loveka (Invisible invasion. The negative impact of information on human consciousness), Zashchita i bezopasnost', 1999, No. 1, pp. 26-27.
14. Sal'nikov V.P., Zaharcev S.I. Informacionnoe prostranstvo kak novaya global'naya ugroza che-lovechestvu i ego pravam: filosofskij i pravovoj podhody (The information space as a new global threat to humanity and its rights: philosophical and legal approaches), Pravovoe pole sovremennoj ekonomiki, 2015, No. 8, pp. 11-19. 
15. Khabibulin A.G., Abdrakhmanov A.I. MVD v informatsionnom pole narastayushchey global'noy napryazhennosti (Ministry of Internal Affairs in the information field of increasing global tension), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 1, pp. 23-31.
16. D’Arienzo, M.C., Boursier, V. & Griffiths, M.D. Addiction to Social Media and Attachment Styles: A Systematic Literature Review (2019) International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, August, Vol. 17, Issue 4, pp. 1094–1118, [Elektronnyy resurs], URL: https:/doi.org/10. 1007/s11469-019-00082-5 
17. Harpviken A.N. Psichological. Vulnerabilities and Extremism Among Western Youth: A Litera-ture Review (2019) Adolescent Research Review, Vo.1, pp. 1-26. 
Received: 16.10.2019
INVESTIGATIVE SITUATIONS AND PROCEDURE FOR INVESTIGATING  VIOLENT CRIMES IN FAMILY
KHALIULLINA Aigul Faatovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa,Russia. 
The paper reveals the content of the investigative situation. It proposes its own classification of investigative situations when investigating violence committed in family and it proposes an initial operating procedure aimed at collecting evidence against the subjects of illegal activity.
Key words: investigative situations, violence, family, crime, operating procedures, initial stage of investigation.
References
1. Volchetskaya T.S. Kriminalisticheskaya situalogiya (Criminalistic situation), monografiya, pod red. N.P. Yablokova, Moscow, 1997. 
2. Belkin R.S. Kurs kriminalistiki: Obshchaya teoriya kriminalistiki (Forensics course: General theory of forensics), V 3-kh tomakh, T. 1, Moscow, Yurist", 1997. 
3. Kustov A.M. Istoriya stanovleniya i razvitiya rossiyskoy kriminalistiki (The history of the for-mation and development of Russian forensics), Moscow, 2005. 
4. Shikanov V.I. Razrabotka teorii takticheskikh operatsiy – vazhneysheye usloviye sovershenstvo-vaniya metodiki rassledovaniya prestupleniy (The development of the theory of tactical operations is the most important condition for improving the methods of investigating crimes), Metodika rassle-dovaniya prestupleniy (obshchiye polozheniya), materialy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, 1976, pp. 155-159. 
5. Yablokov N.P. Kriminalistika v voprosakh i otvetakh (Forensics in questions and answers), ucheb. posobiye, Moscow, NORMA: INFRA-M, 2015.
Received: 12.12.2019
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. TAX LAW 
TO THE ISSUE OF THE LEGAL NATURE OF THE MONEY PAID IN FULFILMENT OF TAX OBLIGATIONS
ARUTYUNYAN Marina Samvelovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
KHISMATULLIN Oliver Yurievich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The paper reveals the essence and financial law nature of money, the specifics of the economic and legal regime of cash and non-cash funds. The authors analyze the possibility of extending the legal regime of property rights (property, economic management, operational management) to money. The authors establish legal indifference of belonging to concrete persons (taxpayer, payer of the tax) of the money paid in fulfillment of tax obligation, they conclude that the existing definition is not quite correct and therefore they formulate their variant of the definition of the tax.
Key words: tax payment, money, cash, fulfillment of tax obligation.
References
1. Kontseptsiya razvitiya grazhdanskogo zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii (The concept of the development of civil legislation of the Russian Federation). Vestnik Vysshego Arbitrazhnogo Suda Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2009, No. 11. 
2. Pis'mo Departamenta nalogovoy i tamozhennoy politiki Minfina Rossii ot 21 dekabrya 2018 g. № 03-04-05/93561 (Letter No. 03-04-05 / 93561 of the Department of Tax and Customs Policy of the Ministry of Finance of Russia dated December 21, 2018). Normativnyye akty dlya bukhgaltera, 2019, No. 3. 
3. Entsiklopediya resheniy. Bukhgalterskiy uchet perechisleniya nalogov i sborov s raschet-nogo scheta (Encyclopedia of solutions. Accounting for the transfer of taxes and fees from the current ac-count). URL: http:/i№ter№et.gara№t.ru/#/docume№t-relatio№s/10900200/1/0/45014:7. 
4. Korostelev M.A. Pravovoy rezhim nalichnykh deneg: k voprosu o sovershenstvovanii gra-zhdanskogo zakonodatel'stva Rossii (The legal regime of cash: on the issue of improving the civil legislation of Russia). Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2012, No. 12, pp. 101-112.
Received: 21.10.2019
MONEY AS NON-CASH: ISSUES OF LEGAL REGULATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
KRYLOV Oleg Mikhailovich,
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of State Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The effective organization of money circulation, which determines the success of the most significant economy processes, is the most important task of the Russian Federation. The legal constructions and legal means used to solve this problem require clarity and uniformity in understanding their content. At the same time, the issue of the content of one of the key legal categories – “non-cash funds” remains debatable. The identification of its essence from the standpoint of the economic functions performed by money made it possible to determine that non-cash funds in the Russian Federation acquire the status of money as a result of enforcing law provisions that ensure the fulfillment of the basic economic functions of money (measuring costs, payment, accumulation), as well as to establish restrictions on the executing functions as compared to cash.
Key words: money, non-cash funds, state, cash, restriction, circulation, payment, accumulation, facility, function.
References
1. Aktual'nyye problemy finansovogo prava (Actual problems of financial), monografiya, L.L. Ar-zumanova, N.M. Artemov, O.V. Boltinova i dr., otv. red. Ye.Yu. Gracheva. Moscow, NORMA, INFRA-M, 2016. 
2. Arzumanova L.L. Denezhnoye obrashcheniye i istoriya yego razvitiya (finansovo-pravovoy aspekt) (Money circulation and the history of its development (financial and legal aspect), mono-grafiya, pod red. Ye.Yu. Grachevoy. Moscow, Prospekt, 2013. 
3. Belov V.A. Denezhnyye obyazatel'stva (Monetary obligations), uchebnoye posobiye. Moscow, Eksmo, 2007. 
4. Bogdanov Ye.V. Pravovaya priroda beznalichnykh denezhnykh sredstv (Legal nature of non-cash funds). Yurist, 2018, No. 1, pp. 57-65. 
5. Vasil'yev G.S. Dvizhimyye veshchi (Movable things). Ob"yekty grazhdanskogo oborota, sb. st., otv. red. M.A. Rozhkova. Moscow, 2007, pp. 278-325. 
6. Gumarov I. Ponyatiye veshchi v sovremennom grazhdanskom prave Rossii (The concept of things in modern civil law of Russia). Khozyaystvo i pravo, 2000, No. 3, pp. 78-84. 
7. Den'gi. Kredit. Banki (Credit. Banks), ucheb., pod red. V.V. Ivanova, B.I. Sokolova. Moscow, TK Velbi, Izd-vo Prospekt, 2008. 
8. Den'gi. Kredit. Banki (Money. Credit. Banks), uchebnik dlya vuzov, A.Yu. Kazak [i dr.], pod red. prof. A.Yu. Kazaka, prof. M.S. Maramygina. Moscow, Ekonomist', 2007. 
9. Dolan E., Kempbell K., Kempbell R. Den'gi, bankovskoye delo i denezhno-kreditnaya politika (Money, banking and monetary policy). Leningrad, Avtokomp, 1991. 
10. Dolan E., Lindsey D. Makroekonomika (Macroeconomics). St. Petersburg, 1994. 
11. Kiduell D.S., Peterson R.L., Blekuell D.U. Finansovyye instituty, rynki i den'gi (Financial insti-tutions, markets and money). St. Petersburg, PITER, 2000. 
12. Kucherov I.I. Zakonnyye platezhnyye sredstva: teoretiko-pravovoye issledovaniye (Legal means of payment: theoretical and legal research), monografiya. Moscow, Institut zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya pri Pravitel'stve Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2016. 
13. Lunts L.A. Den'gi i denezhnyye obyazatel'stva v grazhdanskom prave (Money and monetary ob-ligations in civil law). Moscow, Statut, 1999. 
14. Makkonel K., Bryu S. Ekonomiks (Economics). Moscow, Infra-M, 2003. 
15. Maramygin M.S., Balashov A.V. Den'gi i denezhnyye surrogaty v rossiyskoy ekonomike (Money and money substitutes in the Russian economy), pod red. A.Yu. Kazaka. Yekaterinburg, 2000. 
16. Nam K. Pravovaya priroda dogovora bankovskogo scheta (The legal nature of the bank account agreement). Khozyaystvo i pravo, 1996, No. 7, pp. 107-110. 
17. Novoselova L.A. Protsenty po denezhnym obyazatel'stvam (Interest on monetary obligations). 2-ye izd. Moscow, Statut, 2003. 
18. Saks Dzh., Larren F. Makroekonomika. Global'nyy podkhod (Macroeconomics. The global ap-proach). Moscow, DELO, 1996. 
19. Sitnik A.A. Finansovo-pravovoye regulirovaniye denezhnogo obrashcheniya v Rossiyskoy Fede-ratsii (Financial and legal regulation of money circulation in the Russian Federation), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2010. 
20. Sitnik A.A. Den'gi i valyuta: finansovo-pravovoy aspekt (Money and currency: financial and le-gal aspects). Bankovskoye pravo, 2013, No. 5, pp. 34-40; 
21. Surodeyev Yu.V. «Bonusy» i den'gi: sravnitel'no-pravovaya priroda (“Bonuses” and money: comparative legal nature). Bankovskoye pravo, 2014, No. 6, pp. 62-67. 
22. Sukhanov Ye.A. Zayem i kredit. Finansirovaniye pod ustupku denezhnogo trebovaniya. Bankov-skiy vklad. Bankovskiy schet (Loan and credit aid. Factoring. Bank deposit. Bank account). Kho-zyaystvo i pravo, 1996, No. 7, pp. 21-22. 
23. Kharris L. Denezhnaya teoriya (Money theory). Moscow, Progress, 1990.
Received: 22.10.2019
LAND LAW. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
JUDICIAL PRACTICE IN THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. ON LEGAL REGULATION OF NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 
VERSHILO Nikolay Dmitrievich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Land and Environmental Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Russian State University of Justice”, Moscow, Russia. 
The Arctic is the northern polar region of the Earth, which includes water areas and territories beyond the Arctic Circle. In accordance with the “Fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period until 2020 and further perspective”, which were approved by the President of the Russian Federation on September 18, 2008, the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation should be considered as a strategic resource base of the Russian Federation, providing a solution to the country's socio-economic development. Therefore, the implementation of Russia's national interests in the Arctic should be based on a system of effective institutions, which provides necessary conditions for this region active development. Judicial practice along with legal regulation should be one of these institutions.
Key words: Arctic, arctic region, arctic zone, environmental protection, natural resource management, court decisions.
References
1. Kupryashkin Yu.V., Sivakov D.O. Arktika i pravo v voprosah i otvetah (Arctic and law in ques-tions and answers). Nauchno-prakticheskoe posobie. Moscow, «DiEmEjDzhiprint», 2014. 
2. Arktika na poroge 2018 goda (Arctic on the verge of 2018). URL: http:/www.prezidentpress.ru. (accessed date: 5.12.2018).
3. Vystuplenie Prezidenta RF V.V. Putina na Mezhdunarodnom forume: «Arktika – territoriyadialoga» 9 aprelya 2019g (Speech of the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin at the International Forum: “The Arctic is a Territory of Dialogue” April 9, 2019). URL:http:/www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/60 (accessed date: 27.05.2019). 
4. Bol'shaya reviziya v Arktike – problemy ekologii i nadzornyh vedomstv. Itogi vizita Genprokurora RF Yuriya Chajki na Yamal. (Large revision in the Arctic – environmental issues and regulatory agencies. The results of the visit of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation Yuri Chaika to Yamal). URL: http:/vesti-yamal.ru/ru/sobytija_njedjeli/bolshaya_reviziya _v_arktik (accessed date: 15.05.2019).
5. Prityagatel'naya Arktika (Attractive Arctic), URL: http:/nvinder.ru/node/13438. (accessed date: 12.05.2017).
6. Tekst Deklaracii (Text of the Declaration). URL: http:/www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/ dec-larations/declarat (accessed date: 8.12.2018). 
7. Tekst konvencii OON po morskomu pravu (Text of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea). URL:http:/www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_r.pdf (accessed date: 8.12.2018).
8. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 26 maya 2015 g. No. 19 «O vnesenii izmenenij v nekotorye postanovleniya Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii»; Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 18.10.2012 No. 21 «O primenenii sudami zakonodatel'stva ob otvetstven-nosti za narusheniya v oblasti ohrany okruzhayushchej sredy i prirodopol'zovaniya»; Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Sahalinskogo oblastnogos uda ot 22 iyulya 2011 g. No. 44u-69/11 (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of May 26, 2015 No. 19 “On Amending Certain Decisions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation”; Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of October 18, 2012 No. 21 “On the appli-cation by the courts of legislation on liability for violations in the field of environmental protection and nature management”; The decision of the Presidium of the Sakhalin Regional Court of July 22, 2011 No. 44u-69/11). Dostup izsprav.-pravovoj sistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
9. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 18.10.2012 No. 21 «O primenenii sudami za-konodatel'stva ob otvetstvennosti za narusheniya v oblasti ohrany okruzhayushchej sredy i pri-rodopol'zovaniya» (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of October 18, 2012 No. 21 “On the application by the courts of legislation on liability for violations in the field of environmental protection and nature management”). Dostupizsprav.-pravovojsistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
10. Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 26 maya 2015 g. No. 19 «O vnesenii izmenenij v nekotorye postanovleniya Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii» (Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of May 26, 2015 No. 19 “On Amending Certain Decisions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation”). Dostupizsprav.-pravovojsistemy «Konsul'tantPlyus».
Received: 02.10.2019
LAND LAW IN THE SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN LAW
GIZZATULLIN Ravil Khasanovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir state University”. 
In legal science, there are positions that the recognition of private land ownership has called into question the existence of land law as an independent branch of Russian law. There are also views that do not deny the independence of land law as a branch, but in accordance with them, the introduction of private land ownership and its recognition as immovable property in civil circulation, gives reason to attribute land law to private law branches. The author of the article does not agree with such views and provides justification for the fact that land law, as before, is a branch of Russian law, which has its own subject of legal regulation, and is a branch of public law with separate elements of private law regulation.
Keywords: land law, land relations, land, administrative law, civil law, public law, private law, public (social) interests, private interests.
References
1. Belov V.A. Grazhdanskoye pravo. T. 1. Obshchaya chast'. Vvedeniye v grazhdanskoye pravo (The general part. Introduction to civil law), uchebnik dlya bakalavriata i magistratury, 3-ye izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Yurayt, 2014. Seriya, Bakalavr i magistr, Akademicheskiy kurs. 
2. Brinchuk M.M. Ekologicheskoye pravo v pravovoy sisteme (Environmental law in legal system), Astrakhanskiy vestnik ekologicheskogo obrazovaniya, No. 1 (23), 2013. 
3. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), uchebnik, A.S. Pigolkin, A.N. Golo-vistikova, Yu.A. Dmitriyev, pod red. A.S. Pigolkina, Yu.A. Dmitriyeva, 2-ye izd. pererab. i dop., Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Yurayt, 2011. 
4. Syrodoyev N.A. Zemel'noye pravo. Kurs lektsiy (Land law. Lecture course: study guide), uchebnoye posobiye. Moscow, Prospekt, 2011. 
5. Zemel'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 25 oktyabrya 2001 g. No. 136-FZ (The Land Code of the Russian Federation of October 25, 2001 No. 136-FZ), prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 28 sent. 2001 g., odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 10 okt. 2001 g., Sobr. zakonodatel'stva Ros. Federatsii, 2001, No. 44, st. 4147. 
6. Krassov O.I. Zemel'noye pravo (Land law), uchebnik, 4-ye izd., pererab. i dop., Moscow, Norma, Infra-M, 2014. 
7. Yuridicheskaya entsiklopediya (Legal Encyclopedia), otv. red. B.N. Topornin, Moscow, Yurist", 2001. 
8. Kozlov Yu.M. Administrativnoye pravo (Administrative law), uchebnik, Moscow, Yurist", 2005. 
9. Ob oborote zemel' sel'skokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 24 iyulya 2002 g. No. 101-FZ (On the turnover of agricultural land: Federal law of RF of July 24, 2002 No. 101-FZ), prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 26 iyunya 2002 g., odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 10 iyulya 2002 g., Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2002, No. 30, st. 3018. 
10. O zemleustroystve: feder. zakon Ros. Federatsii ot 18 iyunya 2001 g. No. 78-FZ (On land man-agement: Federal law of RF of June 18, 2001 No. 78-FZ), prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 24 maya 2001 g.: odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 6 iyunya 2001 g., Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2001, No. 26, st. 2582. 
11. Ob utverzhdenii Polozheniya o gosudarstvennom zemel'nom nadzore: postan. Pravit. Ros. Fed-eratsii ot 02 yanv. 2015 g. No. 1 (On approval of the Regulation on state land supervision: Ruling of the Government of the Russian Federation from January 02 2015, No. 1), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2015, No. 2, st. 514. 
12. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Chast' pervaya ot 30 noyabrya 1994 g. No. 51-FZ (Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Part One of November 30, 1994 No. 51-FZ), prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 21 okt. 1994 g., Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 1994, No. 32, st. 3301. 
13. Lesnoy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 4 dekabrya 2006 g. No. 200-FZ (Forest Code of the Russian Federation of December 4, 2006 No. 200-FZ), prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Fed-eratsii 8 noyab. 2006 g., odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 24 noyab. 2006 g., Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2006, No. 50, st. 5278. 
14. Vodnyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 3 iyunya 2006 g. No. 74-FZ (The Water Code of the Russian Federation of June 3, 2006 No. 74-FZ), prinyat Gos. Dumoy Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 12 apr. 2006 g., odobr. Sovetom Federatsii Feder. Sobr. Ros. Federatsii 12 maya 2006 g., Sobraniye za-konodatel'stva RF, 2006, No. 23, st. 2381. 
15. Chervonyuk V.I. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of state and law), uchebnik, Moscow, INFRA-M, 2006. 
16. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva (General theory of law and tstate), uchebnik, pod red. V.V. Lazareva, 4-ye izd., pererab. i dop., Moscow, Yurist", 2007.
Received: 11.10.2019
LEGAL REGULATION OF THE POWERS OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTS TO ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 
USMANOVA Rezida Miniyrovna
Doctor of Law, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University, Sterlitamak, Russia.
The paper reveals the powers of local self-governments to ensure environmental safety. These powers are exercised by local governments in accordance with the principle of mandatory participation of local self-governments in environmental protection. The author concludes that local self-governments cannot be removed from their powers in this area; they cannot renounce their respective rights and obligations. In order to solve problems in the field of environmental safety, various municipal legal acts are adopted, among which a special role is given to municipal programs for environmental protection, which are one of the main tools for the implementation of the Environmental Safety Strategy of the Russian Federation. The paper analyzes a number of them, which indicate various measures to ensure the quality of water, air, environmental education and upbringing. At the same time, violations in implementation of these programs revealed by bodies of Prosecutor's office of the Russian Federation are considered. It is noted that local self-governments along with state authorities are meant to ensure achieving the indicators defined by the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation, Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2030, Strategy of Environmental Safety of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2025. Only with their coordinated participation, it is possible to achieve a balanced solution to environmental problems, preserve a favorable environment and ensure environmental safety.
Key words: environmental safety, local self-government, municipal programs, environment, powers, law.
References
1. Prokurory vyyavili sotni tysyach narusheniy pri obespechenii rossiyan vodoy (Prosecutors revealed hundreds of thousands of violations in providing Russians with water). URL: https:/news.ru/russia/prokurory-vyyavili-sotni-tysyach-narushenij-pri-obespechenii-rossiyan-vodoj (accessed date: 25.11.2019).
2. Drugov Yu.S. Analiz zagryaznennoy pochvy i opasnykh otkhodov (Analysis of contaminated soil and hazardous waste), prakticheskoye rukovodstvo. Moscow, BINOM, Laboratoriya znaniy, 2013. 
3. Rayanov F.M. Ot zemstva k grazhdanskomu obshchestvu: sovremennoye gosudarstvenno-pravovoye izmereniye mestnogo samoupravleniya (From Zemstvo to civil society: the modern state law dimension of local self-government), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2014, No. 3 (37), pp. 151-153.
Received: 18.10.2019
TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OF JUVENILE JUSTICE 
GABDRASHITOVA Venera Rauilevna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
The paper is devoted to the guarantees established by international legal acts for the protection of the rights of minors in the administration of justice in a criminal case. The concept of an international standard is considered, international legal acts, concerning juvenile justice are analyzed. It is concluded that the minimum guarantees for the protection of the rights of minors in the administration of justice in a criminal case are in some degree taken into account by the Russian legislator. Attention is drawn to the fact that many procedural guarantees of juvenile justice, provided for by international legal instruments, have not been fully taken into account. Judges survey also confirms this point of view. The conclusion is drawn on the need for further legislative work to bring juvenile justice in accordance with international standards.
Key words: international standard, juvenile justice, guarantees of the rights of minors, international standards of justice.
References
1. Yagofarov S.M. Mezhdunarodnyye standarty po pravam cheloveka v sfere rossiyskogo ugolov-nogo sudoproizvodstva (International human rights standards in the field of Russian criminal pro-ceedings), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Chelyabinsk, 2005. 
2. Spesivov N.V. Klassifikatsiya mezhdunarodnykh standartov prav nesovershennoletnikh uchast-nikov ugolovnogo protsessa (Classification of international standards of the rights of minor partici-pants in the criminal process). Vestnik Saratovskoy gosudarstvennoy yuridicheskoy akademii, 2014, No. 2 (97), pp. 215-219. 
3. Bangkokskaya deklaratsiya «Vzaimodeystviye i otvetnyye mery: strategicheskiye soyuzy v oblasti preduprezhdeniya prestupnosti i ugolovnogo pravosudiya». Prinyata 18-25 aprelya 2005 g. (Bangkok Declaration, “Interaction and Response: Strategic Unions in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice”. Adopted on April 18-25, 2005). Mezhdunarodnyye akty po voprosam ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva, khrestomatiya. V 3-kh t. T. II. Dokumenty OON, sost. Z.D. Yenikeyev, L.M. Ashirova, Ye.G. Vasil'yeva, Ye.V. Yezhova. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2007, pp. 163-172. 
4. Deklaratsiya prav rebenka ot 20 noyabrya 1959 goda (The Declaration of the Rights of the Child of November 20, 1959). URL: https:/www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_ conv/declarations/childdec.shtml (accessed date: 11.10.2019). 
5. Konventsiya OON o pravakh rebenka ot 20 noyabrya 1989 g. (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child of November 20, 1989). Mezhdunarodnyye akty o pravakh cheloveka: sbornik dokumentov, sost. d.yu.n., prof. V.A. Kartashkin, d.yu.n., prof. Ye.A. Lukasheva. 2-ye izd., dop. Moscow, Iz-datel'stvo NORMA (Izdatel'skaya gruppa NORMA-INFRA M), 2002, pp. 316-333. 
6. Mezhdunarodnyy pakt o grazhdanskikh i politicheskikh pravakh ot 16 dekabrya 1966 g. (Interna-tional Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of December 16, 1966). Mezhdunarodnyye akty o pravakh cheloveka : sbornik dokumentov, sost. d.yu.n., prof. V.A. Kartashkin, d.yu.n., prof. Ye.A. Lukasheva. 2-ye izd., dop. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo NORMA (Izdatel'skaya gruppa NORMA-INFRA•M), 2002, pp. 52-67. 
7. Minimal'nyye standartnyye pravila Organizatsii Ob"yedinennykh Natsiy, kasayushchiye-sya ot-pravleniya pravosudiya v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnikh («Pekinskiye pravila») ot 10 dekabrya 1985 g. (The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (“Beijing Rules”) of December 10, 1985). Mezhdunarodnyye akty o pravakh cheloveka : sbornik dokumentov, sost. d.yu.n., prof. V.A. Kartashkin, d.yu.n., prof. Ye.A. Lukasheva. 2-ye izd., dop. Moscow, Iz-datel'stvo NORMA (Izdatel'skaya gruppa NORMA-INFRA•M), 2002, pp. 294-315. 
8. Zamechaniye obshchego poryadka №10 (2007) «Prava detey v ramkakh otpravleniya pravosudiya v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnikh». Prinyato na sorok chetvertoy sessii Komiteta OON po pravam rebenka 25 aprelya 2007 g. (General comment No. 10 (2007) “Children's rights in the framework of the administration of juvenile justice”. Adopted at the forty-fourth session of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child on April 25, 2007). Voprosy yuvenal'noy yustitsii, 2007, No. 4 (13), pp. 50-64. 
9. Zaklyuchitel'nyye zamechaniya Komiteta OON po pravam rebenka: Rossiyskaya Federa-tsiya. Prinyaty na sorokovoy sessii (Zheneva, sentyabr' 2005 g.) (Concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Russian Federation. Adopted at the fortieth session (Geneva, September 2005). Voprosy yuvenal'noy yustitsii, 2006, No. 1 (6). URL: http:/juvenjust.org/index.php?showtopic=184 (accessed date: 11.10.2019). 
10. Rukovodyashchiye printsipy v otnoshenii deystviy v interesakh detey v sisteme ugolovnogo pra-vosudiya (Prilozheniye k Rezolyutsii 1997/30 Ekonomicheskogo i Sotsial'nogo Soveta ot 21 iyulya 1997 g.) (Guidelines for action for children in the criminal justice system (Annex to Economic and Social Council Resolution 1997/30 of July 21, 1997). URL: https:/www.unodc.org/pdf/compendium/compendium_2006_ru_part_01_02.pdf (accessed date: 11.10.2019). 
11. Rezolyutsiya Komissii OON po pravam cheloveka ot 23 aprelya 2002 g. «O pravakh cheloveka pri otpravlenii pravosudiya, v chastnosti pravosudiya v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnikh» (Resolu-tion of the UN Commission on Human Rights of April 23, 2002 “On human rights in the administra-tion of justice, in particular juvenile justice”). Mezhdunarodnyye akty po voprosam ugolovnogo su-doproizvodstva, khrestomatiya. V 3-kh t. T. II. Dokumenty OON, sost. Z.D. Yenikeyev, L.M. Ashirova, Ye.G. Vasil'yeva, Ye.V. Yezhova. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2007, pp. 307-313.
Received: 16.10.2019
TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNATIONAL LEGAL PERSONALITY OF COMPLICATED SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT (THE CASE OF THE USSR)
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
In 1944, amendments to the 1936 Constitution of the USSR were adopted that granted the soviet republics the right to establish direct contacts with foreign countries, to conclude agreements with them and exchange diplomatic and consular representatives. This reform was aimed at improving the representation of the Soviet Union in the future United Nations by admitting the Ukrainian and Belarusian Soviet Republics to its membership. Another equally important reason for the amendments of 1944 was the attempt to revive the political situation that had taken place before 1922, when the soviet republics were in fact sovereign states having their own foreign policy. By giving the soviet federative structure some features of confederation, the constitutional amendments of 1944 began the processes of gradual internal disintegration within the Soviet Union and played a significant role in the political debate and the national question of the late 1980s.
Key words: USSR, republics of the Soviet Union, federative structure, foreign relations, Constitution of the Soviet Union, international agreements, international legal personality, dissolution of the Soviet Union.
References
1. Vystupleniye V.M. Molotova na Plenume TSK VKP (b), (Speech by V.М. Molotov at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks) 27 yanvarya 1944 g., Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv obshchestvenno-politicheskikh organizatsiy (RGASPI), F. 82. Op. 2. D. 48. 
2. Galaychuk B. Natsiya ponevolena, ale depzhavna: Ukpai?ns'ka vizvol'na sppava z mizhnapodno-ppavovogo punktu bachennya (The Nation of the Ravaged, but the State: The Ukrainian Liberation Dispute from the International Law Point of View). Munich, Suchasna Ukpai?na, 1953. 
3. Diplomatiya Kazakhstana: stranitsy istorii (Diplomacy of Kazakhstan: pages of history), Il'yas Kozybayev; M-vo obrazovaniya i nauki Resp. Kazakhstan. Almat. gos. un-t im. Abaya. Almaty, ?rkeniyet, 2001. 
4. Zapiski G.V.Chicherina ot 6 dekabrya 1920 g., (Notes by G.V. Chicherin dated December 6, 1920) Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv obshchestvenno-politicheskikh organizatsiy (RGASPI in Moscow), F. 82, Op. 2, D. 8. 
5. Konstitutsiya SSSR 1936 goda, prinyataya na Chrezvychaynom VIII s"yezde Sovetov Soyuza SSR 5 de-kabrya 1936 g. (The USSR Constitution of 1936, adopted at the Extraordinary VIII Con-gress of Soviets of the USSR on December 5, 1936). Izvestiya TSIK SSSR i VTSIK Sovetov rabo-chikh, krest'yanskikh, krasnoarmeyskikh i kazach'ikh deputatov. 6 dekabrya 1936 goda. № 283. 
6. Protokol zasedaniya Politicheskoy komissii Moskovskoy russko-turetskoy konferentsii (Minutes of the meeting of the Political Commission of the Moscow Russian-Turkish Conference) (16 marta 1921 g.), RGASPI, F. 298, Op. 1, D. 106. 
7. Sbornik zakonov SSSR i ukazov Prezidiuma Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR. 1938 g. – iyul' 1956 g (Collection of USSR laws and decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. 1938 – July 1956), pod red. L.I. Mandel'shtam. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoye izdatel'stvo yuridicheskoy lit-eratury, 1956, p. 29. 
8. Soglasheniye o sozdanii Sodruzhestva Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv (Agreement on the establish-ment of the Commonwealth of Independent States). Vedomosti SND i VS RSFSR. 19.12.1991. № 51. st. 1798. 
9. Sovetskaya istoriko-pravovaya nauka. Ocherki stanovleniya i razvitiya (Soviet historical and legal science. Essays on the formation and development), A.M. Davidovich i dr.; redkol.: D.A. Gaydukov, V.M. Kuritsyn (otv. red.), S.L. Ronin. Moscow, Nauka, 1978. 
10. Soyuznyy raboche-krest'yanskiy dogovor mezhdu RSFSR I USSR ot 28 dekabrya 1920 g. (Un-ion Worker-Peasant Agreement between the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR of December 28, 1920). Obra-zovaniye Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik. Sbornik dokumentov. Moscow, 1972. 
11. Stalin I.V. Zaklyuchitel'noye slovo na IV soveshchanii TSK RKP (b) s otvetstvennymi rabot-nikami natsional'nykh respublik i oblastey 12 iyunya 1923 g. (Closing remarks at the IV meeting of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) With senior officials of the national republics and regions June 12, 1923). Chetvortoye soveshchaniye TSK RKP s otvetstvennymi rabotnikami natsional'nykh respublik i oblastey. Stenograficheskiy otchet. Moscow, 1923. 
12. Memo by H.F. Matthews to Dean Acheson, 23 June 1947, in Theofil I. Kis, Nationhood, State-hood and the International Status of the Ukrainian SSR/Ukraine. Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1989.
Received: 11.10.2019
STATUTE IN THE ENGLISH LEGAL DOCTRINE OF COMMON LAW
SAHAUTDINOV Dinar Fanilevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory of State and Law of the Ural State Law University, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the place and role of the statute in English legal doctrine and legal practice. The author uses the method of researching scientific concepts, the method of interpretation of judicial precedents, allowing to understand the statute as a special legal phenomenon. The paper notes three features of the statutes: 1) it is adopted in judicial procedure; 2) the statute regulates wide spheres of public relations, but at the same time, it regulates specific legal situations; 3) the statute is stable in its regulatory provisions. The author hypothesizes that local acts as statutes are derived (from higher statutes) in nature. This, in turn, allows us to formulate a thesis on the subordinate nature of the statutes of English law.
Key words: statute, doctrine, judicial precedent, English law, local regulatory act.
References
1. Friedman, Lawrence Meir (2005). A History of American Law (3rd ed.), New York, Simon and Schuster.
2. Ibbetson, David John (2001). Common Law and Ius Commune.Selden Society.
3. Morrison, Alan B. (1996). Fundamentals of American Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
4. Eisenberg, Melvin Aron. The nature of the common law, Melvin Aron Eisenberg, Cambridge (Mass.), London, Harvard univ. press, 1988.
5. BogdanovskayaI.Yu. Zakon v anglijskom prave (The statute in English law), Moscow, 1994
6. Marchenko M.N. Sravnitel`noe pravovedenie (Comparative Law). Moscow, 2011.
7. Mikhajlov A.M. Ocherki teorii i istorii anglijskogo prava (Essays on the Theory and History of English Law), monografiya, In-t gosudarstva i prava Rossijskoj akad. nauk, Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2015. 
8. Arkhipov S.I., Puchkov O.A., Cherdanczev A.F. i dr. Pravovy`e sistemy stran mira (Legal systems of the countries of the world), Ekaterinburg, Izd-voUrGYuA, 1995. 
9. Vasil`ev A.M. Pravovye kategorii: metodologicheskie aspekty` razrabotki sistemy` kategorij teorii prava (Legal categories: methodological aspects of developing a system of categories of theory of law), Moscow, Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1976. 
10. Govindarajan M. Classification of Statues, URL: https:/www.taxmanagementindia.com/ visitor/ detail_article.asp?ArticleID =6344 (accessed date: 16.11.2018).
11. Bentham J. A Fragment on Government; Or, A Comment on the Commentaries: Being an Ex-amination of What is Delivered on the Subject of Government in General, in the Introduction to Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries: With a Preface, in Which is Given a Critique on the Work at Large. Second Edition, Enlarger. London: W. Pickering, Linkoln's-Inn Fields; E. Wilson, Royal Ex-change, 1823.
12. Clegg M., Ellena K., Ennis D., Vickery Ch. The Hierarchy of Laws: Understanding and Imple-menting the Legal Frameworks that Govern Elections. – Arlington: International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 2016.
13. Zagajnova S.K. Sudebny`jpreczedent: problemy` pravoprimeneniya (Judicial precedent: en-forcement issues). Moscow, NORMA. 2002.
14. Alekseev S.S. Pravo na poroge novogo ty`syacheletiya: Nekotory`e tendenczii mirovogo pravovogo razvitiya – nadezhdai drama sovremennoj e`pokhi (Law on the threshold of the new mil-lennium: Some trends in global legal development are the hope and drama of the modern era). Mos-cow, Statut, 2000, pp. 25-26.
15. Zagajnova S.K. Sudebny`j preczedent: problemy` pravoprimeneniya (Judicial Precedent: En-forcement Issues). Moscow, Izdatel`stvo NORMA, 2002. 
16. Landlord and Tenant Act 1954.
17. Fisher v. Taylors Furnishing Stores [1956] 2 QB 78.
18. Landes W., Posner R. Legal Precedent: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, Journal of Law and Economics, 1976, Vol. 19, pp. 249-251.
19. Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992).
20. Puchkov V.O. Sudebny`e resheniya v mekhanizme rassmotreniya mezhdunarodny`kh kom-mercheskikh sporov sudami Rossii i SShA: aktual`ny`e problem (Judicial decisions in the mechanism of settling international commercial disputes by the courts of Russia and the USA: actual problems), Vestnik Arbitrazhnogo suda Moskovskogo okruga, 2017, No. 4, pp. 71-73.
21. Ott J.S., Dicke L.A. The Nature of the Nonprofit Sector. – Boulder: Westview Press, 2011, pp. 386-387. 
22. Subordinate Legislation Act 1989, NSW Government Gazzete. 1990. No. 1.
23. Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979, NSW Government Gazzete. 1979. No. 91.
Received: 11.10.2019
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
TO THE AUTHORS
 
ARUTYUNYAN Marina Samvelovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
BEREZINA Elena Aleksandrovna 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law of the Ural State Law University,Yekaterinburg, Russia.
GABDRASHITOVA Venera Rauilevna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
GALIEV Farit Khatipovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
GIZZATULLIN Ravil Khasanovich
Doctor of Sciences (Law), Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir state University”. 
GORELOV Maxim Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
GVOZDETSKY Dmitry Sergeevich 
Master’s Degree Student of the Federal State Scientific Research Institution “Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law Under the Government of the Russian Federation”, Moscow, Russia. 
IROSHNIKOV Denis Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory of Law, History of Law and International Law of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport (MIIT). Moscow, Russia. 
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate Lawyer of the Eurasian Resources Group, Luxembourg.
CHUDIN-KURGAN Fedor Olegovich
General Director, Russian Business Company, Moscow, Russia. 
KASIMOV Timur Salavatovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
KHABIBULLINA Regina Ayratovna
Master’s Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
KHALIULLINA Aigul Faatovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa,Russia.
KHAYRETDINOVA Alina Ilyasovna
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa. Russia. 
KHISMATULLIN Oliver Yurievich 
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Assistant Professor of the Chair of Financial and Environmental Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
KLIMENKO Oksana Alekseevna
Employee of the Faculty of Training Investigators of the Oryol Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after V.V. Lukyanov, Oryol, Russia. 
KRYLOV Oleg Mikhailovich,
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of State Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
KUZMINA Svetlana Vasilyevna
Master’s Student of the Institute of Postgraduate Training of the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.
LATYPOVA Natalia Sergeyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia
LEZHNEVA Olga Yuryevna
Judge of the Moscow City Arbitration Court, Moscow, Russia. 
MALYKHINA Natalya Ivanovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Forensics of the Saratov State Law Academy, Saratov, Russia.
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
UTYSHEV Marat Mukharovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
USMANOVA Rezida Miniyrovna
Doctor of Law, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University, Sterlitamak, Russia.
PETRANTSOV Alexander Semenovich
Instructor of the Department of Fire Training of the FSGEI HE «Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia», Voronezh, Russia.
PROKOFIEV Konstantin Georgievich
Deputy Director for Innovative Development of the Federal Scientific Center for Biological Systems and Agricultural Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russia. 
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
SAKHAUTDINOVA Indira Venerovna
Master’s Student of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
SEMITKO Alexey Pavlovitch
Doctor of Law, Senior Research Scientist of RAS, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Liberal Arts University, Professor and Head of the Chair of Public Law, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
SHAYAKHMETOVA Alina Rimovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan”, Ufa, Russia.
SAHAUTDINOV Dinar Fanilevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory of State and Law of the Ural State Law University, Yekaterinburg, Russia. 
SHARIPOVA Elmira Azgarovna
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of State Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa. 
SHONIN Nikolay Egorovich
Candidate of Political Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
TRETYAKOV Ivan Lvovich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law of the Higher School of Jurisprudence and Forensic Technical Expertise of the Humanitarian Institute of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution  Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.
VARFOLOMEEV Roman Andreevich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Forensics of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Hhigher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. 
VERSHILO NikolayDmitrievich
Doctor of Law, Professor of the Department of Land and Environmental Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Russian State University of Justice”, Moscow, Russia. 
ZHEMALETDINOV Rustem Maratovich
Candidate of Science (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir state University”, Ufa, Russia. 
ZORINA Natalya Vladimirovna
Attorney at the Bar Association “St. Petersburg Bar Association of the Naryshkins”, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
 
 

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК