3 (53) 2018 - Юридический журнал Правовое государство: теория и практика

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК

 

3 (53) 2018

3 (53) 2018
Feature

Modern Problems of State and Law

THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
Avdeev D.A.
Democracy and Elections in the Russian Federation: Some Results of the First Quarter of the Post-Soviet Period
Aznagulova G.M.
The Idea of Utility as a State Law Ideal of the English Liberalism of the XVIII Century
Vanyushova Y.V.
Slavery Today: the Voice of the Past or a Real Threat?
Galikeeva I.G.
On the Issue of the Status of Civil Society Institutions
Yelizarov M.V.
On the Role of the Spatial-Territorial Factor in the Life of Society and State Functioning
Enikeev R.N.
To the Problem of the Emergency of a Legitimate State
Zhunuskanov T.Z.
On the Institute of Sources of Law: Current Status or the Russian-Kazakh Reality
Ismagilov I.R.
The Crisis of the Legal Science of the XVIII century and Its Resolution in the Classical German Idealism
Larinbaeva I.I.
Tulupova E.O.
On the Right to Qualified Legal Assistance in the Rule-of- Law State
Mustafina L.S.
The Rule-of-Law State is the Most Important Institute of Modern Society
Orlova A.A.
Rozhkova I.Y.
To the Issue of Determining the Range of Subjects of Legality 
Polishchuk N.I.
Axiological Essence of the Principle of Legal Certainty
Prokofyev K.G.
Deduction of the Norms of Law and Morality in the Teachings of I. Kant and J.G. Fichte and its Value for National Theoretical Legal Studies
Salnikov V.P.
Romanovskaya V.B.
Shchepotkina-Marinina T.V.
The Legal Conception of Jurgen Habermas 
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
Artamonova N.V.
Legal Culture of Voters as a Basic Constitutional Legal Value
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
Zhemaletdinov R.M.
On Some Problems of Citizens’ Exercise of their Rights in Courts and Enforcement Agencies
Murzabulatov U. M.
Actual Issues of Improving the Effective Implementation of Judgments in Civil Cases in the Russian Federation
Sayfutdinova V.M.
Protection of Intellectual Property
Semenova Y.Y.
The Creation of Legal Clinics in Secondary Vocational Educational Institutions108
Trofimova M. S.
Ways to Improve Proceedings on the Cases over Introducing Corrections or Changes in Civil Registration in the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation
Khairlvarina L.I.
National Mechanism for Protecting Individual Rights to Housing
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
Aleksandrova E.A.
Criminological Characteristics of Convicted Pregnant Women and Women with Children under the Age of Three
Akhmadullin A.S.
The Concept of Criminal Law Policy as a Condition of Effective Protection of the Rights of the Individual, Society and State against Crimes
Grishin D.A.
Problems and Ways of Improving Activities of Servants of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia on Establishing Administrative Supervision over Persons Released from Prisons
Kuznetsova A.N.
The Characteristic and Features of Interpreting the Signs of Actus Reus of Bribery Mediation (p.1 of Art. 291.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation)
Khoroshko I.V
The Historical Aspect of the Evolution of Morality and Ethics as the content of the Norms of Penal Law
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
Polstovalov O.V.
“Environmental Forensics” as an Applied Project in Criminal Proceedings and in Different Spheres of Law Enforcement
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW
Nagaitsev K.
Use of Blockchain Technology and Digital Tokens in Committing Crimes Related to Fiscal Evasion
Usmanova R.M.
“Special Zones” as Mechanisms of Socio-Economic Development of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 
Lipinsky D.A
On the Frameworks of Environmental Law Responsibility Sanctions
Mustafin I.R.
Implementation of the Norms of International Environmental Law in the System of Russian Law
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY. 
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
Aliyeva G.V.
Limits of Authorities of International Human Rights Bodies for the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
Mazitov A.I.
Life and works of J.K. Bluntschli
Yamaletdinova N.V.
Crime in Italy: Features, Forms of Manifestation
TO THE AUTHORS
 
 
THEORY AND HISTORY OF LAW AND STATE.
HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINES OF LAW AND STATE
DEMOCRACY AND ELECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION:
SOME RESULTS OF THE FIRST QUARTER OF THE POST-SOVIET PERIOD
AVDEEV Dmitry Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Municipal Law, Institute of State and Law of the Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The experience of conducting election campaigns at both federal and regional levels in the Russian Federation during the last quarter of this century has revealed various shortcomings in the electoral process, and the imperfection of the electoral legislation, due to the search for the most optimal solutions to certain problems. According to the author, one of the main reasons for the stagnation of the electoral legislation is the fact that in the Constitution of the Russian Federation there are no provisions establishing the principles for forming public authorities of the Russian Federation and its subjects, no basis of the electoral system, no order of their formation. In addition, another important factor in developing democratic institutions and democracy itself in the country is the low level of constitutional legal consciousness of citizens, which manifests in the already common absenteeism, as evidenced by statistical data. The author concludes that it is necessary to conduct a final scientific and legal revision of the electoral legislation, to consolidate the principles and types of the electoral systems used in elections of both federal and regional (subjective) state authorities at the constitutional level if we really want to comply with the constitutional description of the Russian Federation as a democratic rule-of-law state.
Key words: constitution, democracy, elections, voters, authorities, constitutional legal consciousness, electoral legislation, absenteeism, Russian Federation. 
References
1. Avdeev D.A. Legitimnost' publichnoi vlasti v Rossii (Legitimacy of public authority in Russia), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i pravovye issledovaniya,
 2017, T. 3, No. 3.
2. Bobrova N.A. Konstitutsionnoe pravo kak instrument upravleniya budushchim, ili itogi vyborov-2016 (Constitutional law as a tool for managing the future, or election results-2016). Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2017, No. 1.
3. Bol'shoi yuridicheskii slovar'(Large legal dictionary), pod red. A.Ya. Sukhareva, V.E. Krutskikh. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, INFRA-M, 2001.
4. Gryaznova T.E. Kontseptsiya demokraticheskogo konstitutsionnogo tipa gosudarstva v rossiiskoi liberal'noi yuridicheskoi nauke kontsa XIX-nachala XX vv. (The concept of a democratic constitutional type of state in the Russian liberal legal science of the late 19th and early 20th centuries), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2011, No. 2.
5. Ereklintseva E.V. Suverenitet i demokratiya kak konstitutsionnye tsennosti sovremennoi Rossii (Sovereignty and Democracy as Constitutional Values of Modern Russia), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Chelyabinsk, 2010. 
6. Ionova A.A. Problemy formirovaniya otkrytoi politicheskoi sistemy v sovremennoi Rossii: institutsional'nyi aspekt (The problems of forming an open political system in modern Russia: institutional aspect), Pravo i politika, 2011, No. 2, pp. 157-158.
7. Kerimov A.A. Legitimnost' politicheskoi vlasti: problemy definitsii i osnovnye teoreticheskie modeli (Legitimacy of political power: the problems of its definition and the main theoretical models), Izvestiya Ural'skogo federal'nogo universiteta. Seriya 3: Obshchestvennye nauki, 2015, No. 1 (Tom 137).
8. Kravets I.A. Formirovanie rossiiskogo konstitutsionalizma (problemy teorii i praktiki) (Formation of Russian constitutionalism (problems of theory and practice). Moscow–Novosibirsk, OOO «Izdatel'stvo YuKEA», 2001.
9. Mamut L.S. Sovremennaya Rossiiskaya gosudarstvennost' i kul'tura demokratii (Modern Russian statehood and culture of democracy), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2009. No. 1.
10. Medushevskii, A.N. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva i strategiya modernizatsii Rossii (Theory of the rule-of-law state and the strategy of modernization of Russia), Zakonodatel'stvo, 2010, No. 6.
11. Pylin V.V. Gotovy li rossiyane osushchestvlyat' svoyu zhiznedeyatel'nost' na sovre-mennykh printsipakh demokratii? (Are Russians ready to carry out their vital activity on the modern principles of democracy?), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2011, No. 3.
12. Rayanov F.M. Razvitie sovremennykh predstavlenii o sushchnosti federativnogo gos-udarstva (Development of modern ideas on the essence of a federated state), Rossiiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 1999, No. 1, pp. 110-118.
Received: 22.07.2018
THE IDEA OF UTILITY AS A STATE LAW IDEAL OF THE ENGLISH LIBERALISM OF THE XVIII CENTURY
AZNAGULOVA Guzel Mukhametovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Principal Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The political, legal and moral ideas of F. Bacon, T. Hobbes and the thinkers of the French Enlightenment in the conditions of resurgent capitalist relations in England of the XVIII century, supported by A. Smith’s economic liberalism, generated I. Bentham's utilitarian doctrine in all sphere of social phenomena, in policy and law treating then the idea of utility as a state law ideal. The Bentham principle of “happiness for the greatest number of people” is insolvent from the point of view of moral positions and moral state of modern society, despite humanistic ideas of justice and equality recognized already in the Enlightenment. It is proved that in a complex system of diverse human relations, Bentham’s mechanistic approach to social phenomena of general nature cannot be consistent. Detailed justification of this statement should be sought in methodological principles of functioning of complex systems.
Key words: jurisprudence, philosophy of law, political and legal thought, law, legislation, state, utilitarianism, legal interest, benefit, happiness.
References
1. Lenin V.I. Tri istochnika i tri sostavnykh chasti marksizma: V.I. Lenin. Izbr. proizvedeniya. V 3 t. T.1 (Three sources and three components of Marxism: V.I. Lenin. Selected works. In 3 V. V1). Tri istochnika i tri sostavnykh chasti marksizma. Moscow, Izd. polit. lit., 1976. 
2. Gel'vetsiy K.A. Ob ume (On the mind). Soch. v 2-kh t. T.1. Moscow, Mysl', 1974.
3. Bentam, Iyeremiya. Izb. soch. Tom 1. Vvedeniye v osnovaniye nravstvennosti i zakonoda-tel'stva. Osnovnyye nachala grazhdanskogo kodeksa. Osnovnyye nachala ugolovnogo kodeksa (Introduction to the foundation of morality and legislation. The basic principles of the civil code. The basic principles of the criminal code), per. po angl. izd. Bouringa i frants. Dyumona A.N. Tsepina i A.N. Nevedomskogo ; pre-disl. YU.G. Zhukovskogo. St.Petersburg, izd. Russkoy knizhnoy torgovli, 1807. LXII. 
4. Engel's F. Nabroski k kritike politicheskoy ekonomii (Sketches to the critique of political economy), K.Marks i F.Engel's Soch. Izd. vtoroye. T. 1. Moscow, Gos.izd.polit.lit., 1955.
5. Gegel' G.V.F. Sistema nravstvennosti (The system of morality). V kn. Gegel' Politicheskiye proizvedeniya, red. kolleg. D.A. Kerimov, otv. red. L.S. Mamut, V.S. Nersesyants. Moscow, Nauka, 1978, pp. 276-367.
6. Aznagulova G.M. Ponyatiyno-kategorial'nyy i strukturno-funktsional'nyy sostav pravovoy sistemy Rossii (teoretiko-metodologicheskoye issledovaniye) (Conceptual-categorical and structural-functional composition of the legal system of Russia (theoretical and methodological research), avtoref. dis. … d-ra nauk. Moscow, 2015. 
7. Marks K., Engel's F. Nemetskaya ideologiya (German ideology). Soch. Izd. vtoroye. T. 3. Moscow, Gos. izd. polit. lit., 1955. 
8. Tsitseron o gosudarstve (Cicero on the State). V kn. Tsitseron Dialogi, per. V.O. Gorshteyna ; otv. red. S.L. Utchenko. Moscow, Nauka, 1966, pp. 7-86.
9. Istoriya politicheskikh i pravovykh ucheniy (History of political and legal doctrines), pod obshch. red. V.S. Nersesyantsa. 4-ye izd. pe-rerab. i dop. Moscow, Norma, 2007.
Received: 15.08.2018
SLAVERY TODAY: THE VOICE OF THE PAST OR A REAL THREAT?
VANYUSHOVA Yana Vladimirovna
Instructor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Human trafficking, bonded (slave) labor – all this seems to have already gone to the past. However, this is the present that such an institution not only determines the life of a huge number of people on the planet, but also affects many economic, social and political processes in the countries traditionally considered “adherents of democracy”. The everyday life of many people living in these states is to some extent confronted with this “legacy of the past”. Not only in developing countries, but also in the states that are among the most advanced in socio-economic and political terms, the need to repay person's debts often leads to complete dependence or actual slavery, that is, enslavement. Sometimes fragmentation of family ties pushes a burnt-out person to the point beyond which he becomes a victim of today's widespread criminal business, which has received such international legal qualifications as “human trafficking”. Therefore, the problem of combating human trafficking makes raise alarm and calls upon all members of the world community to take measures to end this phenomenon, which is unworthy of the slightest mention, except in the pages of history textbooks.
Key words: human trafficking, slavery, emigration, everyday goods.
Библиографические ссылки. References
1. www.freetheslaves.net (дата обращения: 23.07.2018) (accessed date: 23.07.2018).
2. The Japan times, July, 22-th, 2018.
Received: 20.05.2018
ON THE ISSUE OF THE STATUS OF CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In accordance with modern scientific concepts and realities of today, one of the conditions for the development of a rule-of-law state is the existence of a sufficiently mature civil society. At the same time, the main institutions of civil society, without which it is impossible to run the society at such a high level, are formed in the process of state law development of the society and their full-fledged functioning is possible only in the conditions of the rule-of-law state. As the society develops in state law sense, the institutions inherent in civil society begin to act as the basic criteria for determining the social and legal status of the state. However, appropriate political, economic and social conditions are necessary to make the society a civil one. Therefore, the society must be at the proper level of its political, economic and social development in order to meet the requirements characterizing civil society.
Key words: civil society, social contract, social and legal status, civil society institutions, rule-of- law state.
References
1. Novyi entsiklopedicheskii slovar'(New Encyclopedic Dictionary). Moscow, RIPOL klassik, 2012. 
2. Krasnov Yu.K., Nadvikova V.V., Shkatulla V.I. Sotsiologiya prava (Sociology of law), uchebnik dlya magistrov. Moscow, Prometei, 2017.
3. Ekaterina II. Nakaz Komissii o sostavlenii proekta novogo Ulozheniya. Glava V. St. 34 (Catherine II. Commission instruction on the drafting of a new Code. Chapter V. Art. 34), Ekaterina II. O velichii Rossii. Moscow, Izd-vo Eksmo, 2003. 
4. Yuridicheskii entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (Legal encyclopaedic dictionary), sost. E.A. Yanykh, V.A. Zakharkina. Moscow, AST; Kiev: NKP, 2009. 
5. Ozhegov S.I. i Shvedova N.Yu. Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo yazyka: 80000 slov i frazeo-logicheskikh vyrazhenii (Dictionary of the Russian language: 80000 words and phraseological expressions), Rossiiskaya akademiya nauk. Institut russkogo yazyka im. V.V. Vinogradova. 4-e izd., dop. Moscow, OOO «A TEMP», 2010. 
6. Bol'shaya yuridicheskaya entsiklopediya (The Great Encyclopedia of Law). Moscow, Izd-vo Eksmo, 2007. 
7. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyanie, puti pereosmysleniya (Theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: status, ways of rethinking), LexRussica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 14-25.
8. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoe obshchestvovedenie (Legal Civics). Moscow, Yurlitinform. 2018. 
9. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva: istoriko-tsivilizatsionnyi podkhod (The essence of the rule-of-law state: historical and civilization approach), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2012, No. 4 (30), pp. 8-15.
10. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosu-darstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2 (32), pp. 10-19.
11. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 1 (39), pp. 6-15.
12. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoe gosudarstvo dlya postsovetskoi Rossii: tsennostno-tekhnologicheskie aspekty realizatsii (The Rule-of-law state for Post-Soviet Russia: value and technological aspects of implementation), Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2007, No. 7 (31), pp. 4-8.
13. Nikitina E.E. Institutsializatsiya grazhdanskogo obshchestva v Rossii: istoriko-teoreticheskii aspekt (The institutionalization of civil society in Russia: historical and theoretical aspect), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava, 2017, No. 2, pp. 30-41.
14. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura v informatsionnom prostranstve grazhdanskogo obshche-stva i pravovogo gosudarstva (Legal culture in the information space of civil society and the rule–of-law state), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2011, No. 3 (65), pp. 25-32.
15. Nikitina E.E. Sistema institutov grazhdanskogo obshchestva v Rossii: konstitutsionno-pravovoi aspekt (The system of civil society institutions in Russia: constitutional and legal aspect), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava, 2017, No. 6, pp. 37-49.
16. Burd'e P. O gosudarstve: kurs lektsii v Kolledzh de Frans (1989-1992) (On the state: acourse of lectures at the College de France (1989-1992), per. s fr. Moscow, Izdatel'skii dom «Delo» RANKhiGS, 2016.
17. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura kak pravovaya samoorganizatsiya poryadka (Legal culture as a legal self-organization of order), Pravo i politika, 2011, No. 4, pp. 640-675.
18. Rayanov F.M. Sushchnost' pravovogo gosudarstva. Osnovnye kontseptsii pravovogo gosu-darstva i ikh analiz (The essence of the rule-of-law state. The main concepts of the rule-of-law and their analysis). Saarbryukken, 2012.
19. Rayanov F.M. Aktual'nye problemy teorii i praktiki pravovogo gosudarstva (Actual problems of theory and practice of the rule-of-law state), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2010, No. 1 (19), pp. 4-10.
20. Galiev F.Kh. Istoricheskaya obuslovlennost' pravovoi kul'tury (Historical conditionality of legal culture), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2010, No. 19, pp. 34-39.
22. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v oteche-stvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, Sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudar-stvo: teoriya i praktika». Ufa, 2015, pp. 3-11.
Received: 11.06.2018
ON THE ROLE OF THE SPATIAL-TERRITORIAL FACTOR IN THE LIFE OF SOCIETY AND STATE FUNCTIONING 
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Nowadays, the spatial-territorial dimension of political processes seems to be extremely important for understanding the essence of international relations. At all times, people were willing to exercise some political control over the space where they lived, in order to extract and exploit natural resources and maintain their cultural identity. Great empires emerged and disappeared from the political map of the world in the struggle for space. The vital state space is the territory on which it exists. The territory for the state is of extremely important interest for two reasons. First, the territory includes subsoil resources. In this context, particular importance is given to soil chemistry. Secondly, the territory is of great interest in terms of establishing and maintaining the social and cultural community of its citizens, for example, through passport policy (I am a Russian, a Frenchman, an American, etc.). A very convincing proof that the territory is an essential attribute of a person's identity is the question that is usually asked first of all to a stranger: “Where are you from?” In addition, the answer, as a rule, can tell us a lot about a person. Nowadays, the state is the center of activity of representatives of different regions, cultures, occupations, professions and interests. At the same time, almost every person on Earth is related to a certain state and through it to a specific political, legal, social and economic system.
Key words: space, territory, habitat, resources, social space, city, state, people, identity, legal space.
References
1. Brodel' F. Istoriya i obshchestvennye nauki. Istoricheskaya dlitel'nost' (History and Social Sciences. Historical Duration), Filosofiya i metodologiya istorii, sb. st., obshch. red. I.S. Kona. Moscow, Progress, 1977, pp. 115-142. 
2. Vinogradskii V. G. Sotsial'naya organizatsiya prostranstva (Social Organization of Space). Moscow, Nauka, 1988. 
3. Gegel' G.V.F. Raboty raznykh let : v 2 t.T. 1 (Works of Different Years: In 2 V. V. 1). Moscow, Mysl', 1972. 
4. Gosudarstvo. Obshchestvo. Lichnost' (State. Society. Personality), pod red. R.A. Romashova. Moscow, Yurist, 2005.  
5. Il'in I. A. Put' k ochevidnosti (The Way to Evidence). Moscow, «Respublika», 1993.  
6. Il'in I.A. Rodina i my. Stat'I (Motherland and We. Articles). Smolensk, Posokh, 1995.
7. Kant. Kritika chistogo razuma (Critique of Pure Reason). Moscow, 1994. 
8.  Engel's F. Anti-Duhring. K. Marks, F.Engel's. Sochineniya. T. 20. 2 izd. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1961. 
9. Rak I.V. Mify Drevnego i rannesrednevekovogo Irana (zoroastrizm) (Myths of Ancient and Early Middle Ages Iran (Zoroastrianism). Moscow, «Letnii Sad», 1998. 
10. Platon. Timei (Timaeus). Moscow, Izd-vo: Kniga po Trebovaniyu, 2011.  
11. Perepiska s Klarkom. Leibnits G.-V. Sochineniya, v 4 t. T. I (Correspondence with Clark. Leibniz G.-V. Works, in 4 V. V. I). Moscow, Mysl', 1982. 
12. Sorokin P.A. Chelovek. Tsivilizatsiya. Obshchestvo (Human. Civilization. Society), obshch. red., sost. A.Yu. Sogomonov, per. s angl. Moscow, Politizdat, 1992. 
13. Trainin I.P. Voprosy territorii v gosudarstvennom prave (Questions of Territory in State Law), Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR, 1947, No. 4. 
14. Anderson, B. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism, B. Anderson. Rev. and extended ed., 2nd ed. London, Verso, 1991. 
15. Cassirer E. An Essay on Man. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1962. 
16. Foucault M. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, Ed. G Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991.
17. Milner H. The Assumption of Anarchy in International Relations Theory: A Critique. Review of International Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 67-85. 
18. Sack R. Human territoriality: Its theory and history. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Received: 12.04.2018
TO THE PROBLEM OF THE EMERGENCY OF A LEGITIMATE STATE
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor at the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The issues of the causes and features of the emergency of a legitimate state have always provoked genuine interest among researchers from various science fields. In accordance with it, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of state law institutions based on Modern Times values. At the same time, it is especially important to disclose why some countries of the world are currently among the developed countries, while others lag behind in their development. In the essential content of the concept “legitimacy”, there are moments associated with the values, traditions and customs accepted in the society, charisma, constitutional norms, democratic elections, referendum or plebiscite, which are simultaneously conditioned by the development of civil society and the rule-of-law state. Simultaneously, the need to address the problem of the legitimacy of the state requires taking up more correct positions, which are scientifically verified and tested in practice of developed countries. Without this, we cannot develop a legitimate state in our country. Moreover, the rule-of-law state is the only legitimate state, because only a rule-of-law state is established by civil society, which is the only source of state power and functions with the consent of the will of the same civil society.
Key words: natural state in the development of mankind, modern times values, mankind's getting into position of civil society, modern principles of social science, mentality of the people, universal human values.
References
1. Lyubashits V. Ya., Mordovtsev A.Yu., Mamychev A.Yu. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of State and Law), uchebnik 2-e izd., dop. i pererab. Rostov-na-Donu, Feniks, 2010.
2. Rayanov F. M. Pravovoe obshchestvovedenie (Legal social studies). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018. 
3. Rayanov F.M. Kontseptsiya ustoichivogo razvitiya i rossiiskaya gosudarstvenno-pravovaya deistvitel'nost' (The concept of sustainable development and the Russian state law reality), Pravo i politika, 2004, No. 12 (60), pp. 5-10.
4. Rayanov F. M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyanie, puti pereosmysleniya (Theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: status, ways of rethinking), Lex Russica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 14-25.
5. Rayanov F. M. Aktual'nye problemy teorii i praktiki pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Actual problems of theory and practice of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2010, No. 1 (19), pp. 3-8.
6. Galiev F.Kh. Konstitutsiya i obshchestvennoe soznanie (Constitution and public consciousness), Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsionalizma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi ekonomicheskii universitet, 2017, pp. 114-122. 
7. Rayanov F.M. Krizis ponimaniya prava v otechestvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i puti ego preodoleniya (Crisis of understanding of law in national legal science and ways to overcome it), Metodologicheskie problemy osvoeniya pravovoi deistvitel'nosti, materialy III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo seminara (14-15 maya 2015 goda). Chelyabinsk, YuUrGU, 2015, pp. 145-150.
8. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva (Theory of the rule-of-law state), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2014. 
9. Novyi entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (New encyclopedic dictionary). Moscow, RIPOL klassik, 2012.   
10. Drozdova A.M., Komarov S.A. Legitimatsiya i otvetstvennost' vlasti vo vzaimootno-sheniyakh gosudarstva i lichnosti (sotsial'no-filosofskie i pravovye aspekty) (Legitimation and responsibility of the authorities in the relations between the state and the individual (socio-philosophical and legal aspects)), monografiya. 2-e izd. St. Petersburg, Izd-vo Yuridicheskogo instituta (Sankt-Peterburg), 2011.  
11. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura: sotsial'no-filosofskie problemy (Legal culture: socio-philosophical problems), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 7, pp. 182-190.
12. Komarov S.A. Pravovoe gosudarstvo, lichnost', vlast' (Rule-of-law state, personality, power), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2013. № 2 (32). pp. 25-31. 
13. Galiev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i kul'turnye traditsii: sushchnostno-soderzhatel'noe vzaimodeistvie (Legal culture and cultural traditions: essential content interaction), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2009, No. 4 (18), pp. 8-9.
14. Rayanov F.M. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosu-darstva v Rossii (Theoretical and practical problems of the formation of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 2 (32), pp. 10-19. 
15. Shaburov A.S. Pravovoe gosudarstvo: obshcheteoreticheskie i prakticheskie problemy formirovaniya v Rossii (The rule-of-law state: general theoretical and practical problems of its formation in Russia), Problemy formirovaniya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii, materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii 20-21 marta 2013 g. Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2013, pp. 15-24. 
16. Rayanov F.M. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo i pravovoe gosudarstvo – sut' vsei sovremennoi teorii obshchestvennogo razvitiya (Civil society and the rule-of-law state are the essence of the whole modern theory of social development), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2015, No. 1 (39), pp. 6-14. 
17. Rayanov F.M. Filosofiya prava: diskursivnyi analiz i novye vyvody (Philosophy of law: discursive analysis and new conclusions), monografiya. Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2017. 
18. Lipatov A.A., Kupreichenko A.B., Gromova A.I., Shrader Kh. Pravil'noe obshchestvo (Correct society), pod. red. Yu.V. Veselova. St. Petersburg, Piter, 2015. 
19. Rayanov F.M. Ponimanie grazhdanskogo obshchestva i pravovogo gosudarstva v oteche-stvennoi yuridicheskoi nauke i sovremennye potrebnosti v ego pereosmyslenii (Understanding of civil society and the rule-of-law state in national legal science and modern needs for its rethinking), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: problemy ponimaniya i realizatsii, sbornik statei Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 10-letiyu zhurnala «Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika» (g. Ufa 16-17 aprelya 2015 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiev. V 2-kh ch. Ch. 1. Ufa, RITs BashGU, 2015, pp. 3-11.
Received: 20.04.2018
ON THE INSTITUTE OF SOURCES OF LAW: CURRENT STATUS OR THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKH REALITY
ZHUNUSKANOV Tolybek Zhunuskanuly
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the PEI HE “Law Institute” (Saint Petersburg), Lawyer of the Kostanay Regional Bar Association, Kostanay, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the process of clarifying the content and formulating the definition of the concept “the institute of sources of constitutional law”, problems of a theoretical and legal nature turn up. These problems draw attention to scientists’ synonymous and homonymous approaches to this institutional phenomenon. The definition of the concept “sources of constitutional legislation” proposed by the author is formulated with account of all these details. Herein, the main source of constitutional law of the modern state is normative legal acts (only laws) containing constitutional law norms based on the norms of the Constitution. An obligatory condition is the adoption of laws by the highest legislative body of the state without any reference to extraordinary circumstances, etc., according to a special, collegial procedure or personally by the people, therefore other normative legal acts, whatever special they may be, are subordinate acts. Sources of constitutional legislation must also be formed in the same way, as they are fundamental components and the basis of the Constitution itself, through which its fundamental principles must be realized.
Key words: constitution, constitutional legislation, law, source of law, form of law.
References
1. Zakon Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 6 aprelya 2016 goda № 480-V «O pravovykh aktakh», v red. ot 1 yanvarya 2017 goda (Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of April 6, 2016 No. 480-V “On Legal Acts”, in red. from January 1, 2017), Vedomosti Parlamenta RK, 2016, No. 7-I, St. 46.
2. Grazhdanskiy protsessual'nyy kodeks Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 31 oktyabrya 2015 goda No. 377-V ZRK, v red. ot 18 aprelya 2017 goda (Civil Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of October 31, 2015 No. 377-V ZRK, ed. from April 18, 2017), Kazakhstanskaya pravda, 2015, No. 210.
3. Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 27 yanvarya 1999 goda No. 2-P «Po delu o tolkovanii statey 71 (punkt «g»), 76 (chast' 1) i 112 (chast' 1) Konstitutsii RF» (Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of January 27, 1999 No. 2-P “On the case of the interpretation of articles 71 (paragraph “g ”), 76 (part 1) and 112 (part 1) of the Constitution of the Russian Federation”). URL: httr//www.base.garant.ru (accessed date: 27.04.2017) i t.d. Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Soveta RK ot 6 marta 1997 goda No. 3 «Ob ofitsial'nom tolkovanii punkta 1 stat'i 4, punkta 1 stat'i 14, podpunkta 3) punkta 3 stat'i 77, punkta 1 stat'i 79 i punkta 1 stat'i 83 Konstitutsii RK» v red. ot 8 noyabrya 2007 goda (The decision of the Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 6 March 1997 No. 3 “On the official interpretation of clause 1 of Article 4, clause 1 of Article 14, subparagraph 3) of paragraph 3 of Article 77, clause 1 of Article 79 and clause 1 of Article 83 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan” Ed. dated November 8, 2007). URL: httr://www.adilet.zan.kz/rus (accessed date: 27.04.2017). 
4. Punkt 1 st. 90 Konstitutsii Rossiyskoy Federatsii [ofitsial'nyy tekst]: [prinyata na vsenarodnom golosovanii 12 dekabrya 1993 g.]: po sostoyaniyu na 21 iyulya 2014 goda (Clause 1 of Article 90 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (official text), (adopted by popular vote on December 12, 1993) as of July 21, 2014), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 1996, No. 3, St. 152.
5. Normy punkta 2 st. 61 Konstitutsii Respubliki Kazakhstan [ofitsial'nyy tekst]: [prinyata na respublikanskom referendume 25 dekabrya 1995 g.]: po sostoyaniyu na 10 marta 2017 goda (The norms of clause 2 of Article 61 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (official text), (adopted at the republican referendum on December 25, 1995) as of March 10, 2017), Vedomosti Parlamenta RK, 1996, No. 4, St. 217.
6. Ruchimskaya Ye.M. Sinonimiya i omonimiya v yazyke i rechi (Synonymy and homonymy in language and speech), Russkaya rech', 2014, No. 5, pp. 55-56.
7. Kechek'yan S.F. O ponyatii istochnika prava (On the concept of the source of law), Uchenyye zapiski MGU, Vyp. 116, Kn. 2, Moscow, 1946, p. 3.
8. Komarov S.A. Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava (General theory of state and law), Uchebnik. 8-ye izd. St. Petersburg, Izd-vo Yuridicheskiy institut, 2012.
9. Chirkin V.Ye. Zakon kak istochnik prava v razvivayushchikhsya stranakh (Law act as a source of law in developing countries), Istochniki prava. Moscow, 1985, p. 5.
10. Muromtsev G.I. Istochniki prava: Teoreticheskiye aspekty problemy (Sources of law: Theoretical aspects of the problem), Pravovedeniye, 1992, No. 2, pp. 23-30.
11. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Respubliki Kazakhstan (Obshchaya chast') ot 27 dekabrya 1994 goda, v red. ot 27 fevralya 2017 goda (Civil Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan (General part) of December 27, 1994, in red. from February 27, 2017), Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RK, 1994, St. 23-24.
12. Marks K., Engel's F. Debaty po povodu zakona o krazhe lesa (Debate on the law on forest theft). Sochineniya. 2-ye izd. T. 1. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoye izdatel'stvo politicheskoy literatury, 1955.
13. Kutafin O.Ye. Istochniki konstitutsionnogo prava v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Sources of constitutional law in the Russian Federation). Moscow, Izd-vo Yurist', 2002.
14. Sapargaliyev G.S. Konstitutsionnoye pravo Respubliki Kazakhstan (Constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan), uchebnik. Almaty, 2002.
15. Konstitutsionnoye pravo Respubliki Kazakhstan (Constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan), uchebnik, sost. A.T. Ashcheulov. Almaty, Izd-vo Kaz GYUA, 2001.
16. Abel'dinov A.K., Kopabayev O.K. Konstitutsionnoye pravo zarubezhnykh stran (The Constitutional Law of Foreign Countries), uchebnik. Almaty, 1997.
17. Baishev Zh. Konstitutsionnoye pravo Respubliki Kazakhstan (Constitutional Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan), uchebnik. Almaty, 2001.
Received: 21.04.2018
THE CRISIS OF THE LEGAL SCIENCE OF THE XVIII CENTURY AND ITS RESOLUTION IN THE CLASSICAL GERMAN IDEALISM
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate lawyer of Eurasian Resources Group (Luxembourg). E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The German classical philosophy of law did not deny the tradition of humanism and enlightenment formed in the legal science in the 18th century, but developed its own doctrine of law and state on the basis of a completely new methodological paradigm. This paradigm relied on the idea of the unity of the cognizable and cognizing, the subject and object, the basis and result of cognition. The transition to a new paradigm of legal thought allowed overcoming the crisis of rationalistic and empirical methodology in law. The doctrine of human inalienable rights, of monarchical rule based on the rule of law, as well as moral foundations of law, had already developed in the era of antiquity and reached a level of systematic interpretation in the classical works of the 17th century, which became the theoretical ground of teachings of the greatest representatives of the Enlightenment. The principle of historicism in the XVIII century had not yet received sufficient concreteness either in the works of Montesquieu, or in the writings of Giambattista Vico and Gustav Hugo appealing to the idea of historicism. The new social reality, which manifested itself in the practice of the Great French Revolution, in the ideas of humanism, enlightenment, republicanism and human rights laid the foundation for the epoch-making legal documents (the American Declaration of Human Rights of 1776 and the French Declaration of Human Rights and Citizen of 1789 ), demanded its reflection on a fundamentally new theoretical and methodological basis. Its ground was the transcendental interpretation of the essence of freedom as the basis of law.
Key words: natural law, law, justice, state, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, T. Hobbes, J. Locke.
References
1. Abubakarov A.A., Ismagilov I.R., Klimenko O.A. Gosudarstvennyi suverenitet kak konstitutsionnaya tsennost' (sravnitel'nyi analiz traktovki ponyatiya suvereniteta Kantom i Gegelem) (State sovereignty as a constitutional value (comparative analysis of interpreting the concept of sovereignty by Kant and Hegel)), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2017, No. 44-45(54-55), pp. 116-122.
2. Abubakarov A.A., Ismagilov I.R., Lezhneva O.Yu. Ponyatie suda kak elementa grazhdan-skogo obshchestva i gosudarstva v «Filosofii prava» G.V.F. Gegelya (The concept of the court as an element of civil society and state in the “Philosophy of Law” by G.W.F. Hegel), Pravovoe gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2017, No. 4(50), pp. 121-126.
3. Verkhovodov E.V., Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. «Estestvennoe pravo» i «dobrodetel'» v trudakh Aristotelya (“Natural law” and “virtue” in the writings of Aristotle), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2015, No. 8, pp. 201-208.
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5. Gegel' G.V.F. Fenomenologiya dukha (Phenomenology of the spirit). Moscow, 1959.
6. Gobbs T. Izbrannye proizvedeniya. V 2 t. T. 2 (Selected works. In 2 vols. V. 2). Moscow, 1991.
7. Zenn M. Istoriya prava – Kul'turno-istoricheskii ocherk (History of Law – Cultural and historical essay). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskii institut (Sankt-Peterburg), 2016.
8. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoi filosofii prava (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law). R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyaeva; pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2012. 
9. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Konvergentsiya v filosofii i bogoslovii v tvorchestve Fomy Akvinskogo kak obespechenie ustoichivosti kontseptsii estestvennogo prava (Convergence in philosophy and theology in the work of Thomas Aquinas as ensuring the sustainability of the concept of natural law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 10. pp. 176-184.
10. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Platon, Aristotel', Foma Akvinskii i ideya spravedlivosti v estestvenno-pravovoi traditsii (Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and the idea of justice in the natural law tradition), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 9, pp. 19-26.
11. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Poisk empiricheskikh osnovanii spravedlivosti i prava v tvorchestve Tomasa Gobbsa, Dzhona Lokka, Sharlya Montesk'e i Zhana-Zhaka Russo (The search for empirical grounds for justice and law in the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Charles Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 10, pp. 38-44.
12. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskie traditsii i sovremennye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoi analiz teoreticheskikh issledovanii aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v ХХ-ХХI vv.) (Law and justice: Historical traditions and modern models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of actual issues of the relationship of the idea of law and the idea of justice in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries)), monografiya. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2017. (Seriya: «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
13. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Filosofiya I. Kanta i G.V.F. Gegelya: refleksiya nachal spravedlivosti i prava (Philosophy of I. Kant and G.W.F. Hegel: the reflection of the principles of justice and law), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2016, No. 5, pp. 155-164.
14. Ismagilov I.R., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K. Gegel' o suverenitete kak konstitutsionnoi tsennosti (Hegel on sovereignty as a constitutional value), Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsionalizma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi ekonomicheskii universitet, 2017, pp. 138-144. 
15. Istoriya filosofii prava (History of Philosophy of Law), monografiya. A.P. Al'bov, V.M. Baranov, Z.Sh. Idrisov, D.V. Maslennikov, A.I. Peshkov, M.B. Revnova, V.P. Sal'nikov, M.V. Sal'nikov, N.N. Sotnikova, L.A. Chegovadze, otv. red.: A.P. Al'bov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov. St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskii institut (Sankt-Peterburg), Sankt-Peterburgskii un-t MVD Rossii, 1998. 
16. Kalinina E.V., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Spetsifika gosudarstvennoi kontseptsii Fomy Akvinskogo (Specificity of the state concept of Thomas Aquinas), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 4, pp. 17-23.
17. Kozlikhin I.Yu., Polyakov A.V., Timoshina E.V. Istoriya pravovykh i politicheskikh uchenii (History of legal and political doctrines). St. Petersburg, 2007.
18. Korkunov N. M. Istoriya filosofii prava (History of Philosophy of Law). St. Petersburg, 1915.
19. Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov V.P. Idei estestvennogo prava v trudakh Gugo Grotsiya (Ideas of natural law in the works of Hugo Grotius), Evraziiskii yuridicheskii zhurnal, 2014, No. 12 (79), pp. 120-122.
20. Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov V.P., Romanovskaya V.B. Osobennosti metodologii nauchnogo tvorchestva Samuelya Pufendorfa (Peculiarities of Samuel Pufendorf's methodology of scientific creativity), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2015, No. 36 (46), pp. 111-114.
21. Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov V.P., Fomichev M.N. Printsip «sotsiabil'nosti» v tvorchestve Samuila Pufendorfa (The principle of “sociability” in creative work of Samuel Pufendorf), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2015, No. 4 (90), pp. 42-47.
22. Lezhneva O.Yu., Ponomarev A.A., Pyleva O.V. Uchenie I. Kanta o konstitutsionnykh pravakh i svobodakh lichnosti i traditsiya Prosveshcheniya (Teaching of I. Kant on constitutional rights and freedoms of the individual and the tradition of the Enlightenment), Uchenye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta. 2017. No. 44-45 (54-55).
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24. Maslennikov D.V. Bogochelovek i ideya prava (God-man and the idea of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 12, pp. 167-172.
25. Maslennikov D.V., Ponomarev A.V. Kantovskaya filosofiya prava v sisteme paradigm pravovoi mysli (Kant's philosophy of law in the system of paradigms of legal thought), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2016, No. 42, pp. 40-46.
26. Montesk'e Sh. O dukhe zakonov (On the spirit of the laws), Izbrannye proizvedeniya. Moscow, 1955.
27. Musaev M.A. Epokha antichnosti i nachalo stanovleniya idei o pravakh cheloveka: rol' pravovogo gumanizma (The epoch of antiquity and the beginning of the formation of the idea of human rights: the role of legal humanism), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2015, No. 10, pp. 97-108.
28. Sal'nikov V.P., Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Razvitie politiko-pravovoi mysli ot Gugo Grotsiya k predstavitelyam germanskoi gosudarstvenno-pravovoi nauki (Development of political and legal thought from Hugo Grotius to the representatives of the German state law science), Pravovoe pole sovremennoi ekonomiki, 2014, No. 10, pp. 11-19.
29. Sal'nikov S.P., Klimenko O.A., Mirzoev A.K., Tret'yakov I.L. Zhan-Zhak Russo i Dzhon Lokk: nekotorye idei o suverenitete i estestvennom prave (Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke: Some ideas of sovereignty and natural law), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 5, pp. 173-179.
30. Gungoren B. Die Bedeutung von Hegels Spinosa – Lekture fur seine Staats- und Rechtstheorie. Berlin: Logos Verlag, 2011
31. Przylebski A. Hegel und die Idee des internationalen Rechts. Recht ohne Gerechtigkeit? Hegel und die Grundlinien des Rechtsstaatepp. Herausgegeben von Wischke Moscow, Przylebski. Wurzburg: Konigshausen – Neumann, 2010.
2. Siemek M. Hegel als Philosoph des modernen Rechtsstaates. Recht ohne Gerechtigkeit? Hegel und die Grundlinien des Rechtsstaatepp. Herausgegeben von Wischke Moscow, Przylebski. Wurzburg: Konigshausen – Neumann, 2010.
Received: 25.04.2018
ON THE RIGHT TO QUALIFIED LEGAL ASSISTANCE  IN THE RULE-OF- LAW STATE
LARINBAEVA Ilmira Ishmurzovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation guarantees the citizens of the Russian Federation the right to receive qualified legal assistance. At the same time, the issue of the content of the concept “qualified legal assistance”, essence, legal nature, subjects, general system of implementation and guarantees for its provision remains open. This is the reason for the necessity of a comparative analysis of those definitions of this concept that are proposed by different authors. It is preferable to disclose the content of this concept in terms of forms in which qualified legal assistance is provided. The issue of the subject composition also requires special attention, i.e. the issue of those who are associated with providing qualified legal assistance. This problem is not as definitive as it seems to be at first glance, and has a direct relationship not only to theory of law, but, more importantly, to legislative and law enforcement practice. Therefore, there is an obvious need for a more careful approach to resolving the problems noted in order to eliminate disputes and disagreements in understanding the constitutional norm, so urgent for the rule-of-law state, which will directly affect the specifics of its implementation in modern conditions.
Key words: Rule-of-law state, state duties, qualified legal assistance, lawyer, notary, jurist, state mechanism.
References
1. Larinbayeva I.I., Tulupova Ye.O. Osobennosti konstitutsionnogo protsessa v sub"yekte Federatsii (Features of the constitutional process in a Federation Unity), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2018, No. 1 (51). pp. 93-98.
2. Minyaylenko N.N. Pravo na yuridicheskuyu pomoshch' i mekhanizm yego obespecheniya v sovremennoy Rossii (teoretiko-pravovoy aspekt) (The right to legal assistance and the mechanism of its provision in modern Russia (theoretical and legal aspect), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. St. Petersburg, 2000.
3. Kudryavtsev V.L. Realizatsiya konstitutsionno-pravovogo instituta kvalifitsirovannoy yuridicheskoy pomoshchi v deyatel'nosti advokata (zashchitnika) v rossiyskom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: teoreticheskiye osnovy i problemy obespecheniya (Realization of the constitutional legal institution of qualified legal assistance in the activities of a lawyer (advocate) in Russian criminal proceedings: theoretical bases and problems of ensuring), avtoref. dis. ... d-ra yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2008.
4. Yefimenko V.I. Yuridicheskaya pomoshch' grazhdanam i organizatsiyam: ponyatiye i mesto v sisteme pravookhrany (Legal assistance to citizens and organizations: the concept and place in the law enforcement system), Aktual'nyye problemy zakonodatel'stva i pravoprimenitel'noy praktiki, sb. stat'i. Moscow, 1988. Dep. v INION AN SSSR No. 37457, pp. 43-45.
5. Lyubovenko Ye.S. Konstitutsionnoye pravo na polucheniye kvalifitsirovannoy yuridicheskoy pomoshchi i yego garantirovaniya: rossiyskiy i zarubezhnyy opyt (The constitutional right to receive qualified legal assistance and the mechanism for its guarantee: Russian and foreign experience), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2008.
6. Kachalov V.I., Kachalova O.V. Yuridicheskaya pomoshch' v Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Skhemy i kommentarii (Legal assistance in the Russian Federation. Schemes and comments). Moscow, EKSMO, 2002.
7. Mel'nichenko R.G. Konstitutsionnoye pravo na yuridicheskuyu pomoshch'(Constitutional right to legal assistance), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Volgograd, 2001.
8. Bugarenko A.I. Teoriya, pravovyye aspekty i praktika dostupa grazhdanam besplatnoy yuridicheskoy pomoshchi advokaty (Theory, legal aspects and practice of providing citizens with free legal aid by lawyers), avtoref. dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2010.
9. Smagin G.A. Konstitutsionno-pravovyye voprosy okazaniya yuridicheskoy pomoshchi v Rossii-skoy Federatsii (Constitutional law questions of providing legal help in the Russian Federation), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2003.
10. Krasnov I.V. Konstitutsionnoye pravo na kvalifitsirovannuyu yuridicheskuyu pomoshch' i yego obespecheniye v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (The constitutional right to qualified legal assistance and its provision in the Russian Federation), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Penza, 2003.
11. Poluyaktova N.L. Realizatsiya konstitutsionnogo prava na kvalifitsirovannuyu yuridicheskuyu pomoshch' kak osnovnoye soderzhaniye deyatel'nosti notariata Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Realization of the constitutional right to qualified legal aid as the main content of the activities of the notary of the Russian Federation), dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2004.
12. Panchenko V.YU. Yuridicheskaya pomoshch' (voprosy obshchey teorii) Legal assistance (issues of general theory). Moscow, Direkt – Media, 2014.
13. Larinbayeva I. I. Printsip ravnopraviya v pravovom gosudarstve (The Principle of equality in a rule-of-law tate), Mezhdunarodniy akademiyamicheskiy vestnik, 2015, No. 3 (9), pp. 63-65.
14. Tulupova Ye.O., Aleksandrov V.A. Primeneniye norm mezhdunarodnogo prava v voprosakh za-shchity prav cheloveka i grazhdanina (Application of the norms of international law in the protection of human and civil rights), Nauka segodnya: teoreticheskiye i prakticheskiye aspekty, materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, g. Vologda, 28 dekabrya 2016 g. V 2 ch. Ch. 1. Vologda, OOO «Marker», 2017, pp. 116-117.
Received: 20.05.2018
THE RULE-OF-LAW STATE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INSTITUTE OF MODERN SOCIETY 
MUSTAFINA Liliya Salavatovna
Postgraduate Student of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, our country is the rule-of-law state. Nevertheless, the debates over whether the Russian Federation is really a rule-of-law state do not subside, which justifies the need to study scientifically the problems related not only to the definition of the concept “rule-of-law state”, but also to the intrinsic content of the rule-of-law state. At the same time, the majority of those who are interested in the optimal organization of their life activities are concerned with the ways of forming such a state that ensures the decent development of human society in accordance with people’s common ideas on the state. Precisely this state in the modern world has been called “rule-of-law state”. In modern conditions, the rule-of-law state as an organization of political power is a special institution of civil society that functions in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution adopted by popular vote, and therefore is a social contract.
Key words: society, civil society, social contract, state, law, rule-of-law state.
References
1. Mal'tsev G.V. Ponimaniye prava. Podkhody i problemy (Understanding the law. Approaches and problems). Moscow, Prometey, 1999.
2. Khraponyuk V.N. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of State and Law), ucheb. posobiye dlya vyssh. ucheb. zaved., pod red. prof. V.G. Strekozova. Moscow, 2001.
3. Alekseyev S.S. Uroki. Tyazhkiy put' Rossii k pravu (Lessons. Russia's hard way to the law). Moscow, Yurist", 1997.
4. Rayanov F.M. Aktual'nyye problemy teorii i praktiki pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Actual problems of theory and practice of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2010, No. 1 (19), pp. 3-8.
5. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyaniye, puti pereosmysleniya (Theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: status, ways of rethinking), LexRussica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 14-25.
6. Shakhray S.M. O Konstitutsii. Osnovnoy zakon kak instrument pravovykh i sotsial'no-politicheskikh preobrazovaniy (On the Constitution. The basic law as an instrument of legal and socio-political transformations). Moscow, Nauka, 2013
7. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoye obshchestvovedeniye (Legal social studies). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018.
8. Galiyev F.Kh. Konstitutsiya i obshchestvennoye soznaniye (Constitution and public consciousness), Metodologiya sovremennogo konstitutsionalizma: konstitutsionalizatsiya pozitivnogo prava; konstitutsionnaya aksiologiya proportsional'nosti, materialy XIV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii po konstitutsionnomu pravu, Sankt-Peterburg, 20-22 maya 2016 g., pod obshch. red. A.A. Liverovskogo, V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», Sankt-Peterburgskiy gosudarstvennyy ekonomicheskiy universitet, 2017, pp. 114-122.
9. Rayanov F.M. Krizis ponimaniya prava v otechestvennoy yuridicheskoy nauke i puti yego preodoleniya (Crisis of understanding of law in the national legal science and ways to overcome it), Metodologicheskiye problemy osvoyeniya pravovoy deystvitel'nosti, materialy III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo seminara (14-16 maya 2015 goda). Chelyabinsk, YUUrGU, 2015, pp. 145-150.
Received: 20.05.2018
TO THE ISSUE OF DETERMINING THE RANGE OF SUBJECTS OF LEGALITY 
ORLOVA Alexandra Andreevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROZHKOVA Irina Yurievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. 
E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
According to the traditional understanding of legality, all subjects of law are considered as its subjects: the state and its bodies, officials, public organizations, citizens. When considering the question of citizens' belonging to the subjects of legality, it is necessary to divide the latter into two categories: citizens who are not endowed with any powers, and citizens who are endowed with certain powers. At the same time, it is possible to single out a group of citizens who are not state employees, but in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, they are temporarily endowed with various types of power. The following group includes citizens who may not be civil servants, but, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, are temporarily vested with various kinds of power - these are members of election commissions. It is necessary to note one more group of citizens who may not be civil servants, but, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, are temporarily vested with various kinds of power - these are members of public supervisory commissions created on the basis of Part 2 of Art. 9 of the Federal Law “On the Basics of Public Control in the Russian Federation”.
Key words: legality, law and order, subjects of legality, power authorities, citizens.
References
1. Aleksandrov N.G. Pravo i zakonnost' v period razvernutogo stroitel'stva kommunizma (Law and legality in the period of the extensive construction of communism). Moscow, 1961.
2. Vitruk N.V. Zakonnost': ponyatiye, zashchita i obespecheniye. Konstitutsionnaya zakonnost' i konstitutsionnoye pravosudiye (Legality: concept, protection and security. Constitutional legality and constitutional justice), Obshchaya teoriya gosudarstva i prava. V 2 t., pod red. M.N. Marchenko. Moscow, 1998.
3. Strogovich M.S. Problemy obshchey teorii prava (Problems of general theory of law). Izbr. tr. Moscow, 1990.
4. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii (The Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation) ot 18.12.2001 № 174-FZ (red. ot 23.04.2018) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 01.06.2018), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2001, 22 dek.
5. Federal'nyy zakon ot 10 iyunya 2008 g. № 76-FZ "Ob obshchestvennom kontrole za obespe-cheniyem prav cheloveka v mestakh prinuditel'nogo soderzhaniya i o sodeystvii litsam, nakho-dyashchimsya v mestakh prinuditel'nogo soderzhaniya" (Federal Law No. 76-FZ of June 10, 2008 “On Public Control of the Protection of Human Rights in Constrained Places and on Assistance to Persons in Constrained Places") (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 07.06.2017), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2008, 18 iyunya.
6. Federal'nyy zakon ot 12.06.2002 № 67-FZ (red. ot 18.04.2018) "Ob osnovnykh garantiyakh izbiratel'nykh prav i prava na uchastiye v referendume grazhdan Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (Federal Law No. 67-FZ of 12.06.2002 (as amended on 18.04.2018) “On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right to Participate in a Referendum of Citizens of the Russian Federation”) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 06.05.2018), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2002, 15 iyunya.
7. Federal'nyy zakon ot 20.08.2004 № 113-FZ (red. ot 01.07.2017) "O prisyazhnykh zaseda-telyakh federal'nykh sudov obshchey yurisdiktsii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (Federal Law No. 113-FZ of August 20, 2004 (as amended on July 1, 2017) “On jury members of federal courts of general jurisdiction in the Russian Federation”). Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2004, 25 avg.
8. Federal'nyy zakon ot 21 iyulya 2014 g. № 212-FZ "Ob osnovakh obshchestvennogo kontrolya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (Federal Law of July 21, 2014 No. 212-FZ "On the Basics of Public Control in the Russian Federation") (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 29.12.2017), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2014, 23 iyulya.
9. Cherdantsev A.F. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava (Theory of State and Law). Moscow, 2001.
Received: 29.05.2018
AXIOLOGICAL ESSENCE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGAL CERTAINTY
POLISHCHUK Nikolay Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.ъ
The issue of the functional value of the principle of legal certainty in modern state lawmaking and law-enforcement policies remains today topical. This is due to the fact that any legal regulatory activity should be formulated quite definitely, excluding the possibility of ambiguous understanding and interpreting. Legal certainty should be understood as a legally qualitative uniform presentation, understanding, interpretation and implementation of normative legal acts, which promotes subjects of legal relations to predict the result of legal consequences in advance. The principle of legal certainty is a basic, system-forming, general legal principle that dialectically complements and develops other general legal, intersectoral and sectoral principles. The essence of other principles cannot be fully disclosed in isolation from it, since the implementation of any of them is always commensurate with the principle of legal certainty. Deficiencies in the field of legal certainty cause inconveniences or harm not only to a particular person, a group of persons, a collective or a society, but also to the state itself, since the low effectiveness of the legal norms it has adopted does not contribute to the achievement of the set goals and objectives, but compromises state power, is economically flawed, and also generates a nihilistic attitude to the law.
Key words: legal certainty, consistency of legal norms, collisions, legal regulation, lawmaking, legal text, principle of legal certainty.
References
1. Anishina V.I., Nazarenko T.N. Realizatsiya printsipa pravovoy opredelennosti v rossiyskoy sudebnoy sisteme (Realization of the principle of legal certainty in the Russian judicial system), Nauka i obrazovaniye: khozyaystvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel'stvo; pravo i upravleniye, 2013, No. 2, pp. 40-47.
2. Ashirbekova M.T., Omarova A.S. Novaya kassatsiya v prizme deystviya printsipa pravovoy opredelennosti (New cassation in the prism of the principle of legal certainty), Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2012, No. 6, pp. 61-63.
3. Vlasenko N.A. Razumnost' i opredelennost' v pravovom regulirovanii (Reasonability and certainty in legal regulation). Moscow, 2015.
4. Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti otdel'nykh polozheniy statey 7, 15, 107, 234 i 450 Ugolovno-protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii v svyazi s zaprosom gruppy deputatov Gosudarstvennoy Dumy: Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 29 iyunya 2004 g. No. 13-P. St. 2804 (In the case on the verification of the constitutionality of certain provisions of articles 7, 15, 107, 234 and 450 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation in connection with the request of a group of deputies of the State Duma: Resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation No. 13-P of June 29, 2004. Art. 2804), SPS «Konsul'tant Plyus».
5. Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti polozheniya chasti pervoy stat'i 188 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii v svyazi s zhaloboy grazhdanki M.A. Aslamazyan: Postanovleniye Konstitutsionnogo Suda RF ot 27 maya 2008 g. No. 8-P (In the case on the verification of the constitutionality of the provision of part one of Article 188 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in connection with the complaint of the citizen M.A. Aslamazyan: Resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of May 27, 2008 No. 8-P), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF. 2008. No. 24. St. 2892.
6. Polishchuk N.I. Dualizm podkhodov v voprosakh opredeleniya momenta obreteniya osnovnykh prav cheloveka v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (The dualism of approaches in questions of determining the moment of obtaining fundamental human rights in the Russian Federation), Vestnik obshchestvennoy nauchno-issledovatel'skoy laboratorii «Vzaimodeystviye ugolovno-ispolnitel'noy sistemy s institutami grazhdanskogo obshchestva: istoriko-pravovyye i teoretiko-metodologicheskiye aspekty». Vypusk No. 10, nauch.-prakt. zhurn. Ryazan', Akademiya FSIN Rossii, 2017, pp. 10-17.
7. Polishchuk N.I. Moratoriy na smertnuyu kazn' i yego legitimnost' (Moratorium on the death penalty and its legitimacy), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2015, No. 2, pp. 68-74.
8. Rukavishnikova (Plashevskaya) A.A. Genezis kategorii «pravovaya opredelennost'» v sovremennoy yuridicheskoy nauke (Genesis of the category “legal certainty” in modern legal science), Vestn. Tom. Gos. un-ta. Pravo, 2014, No. 3 (13).
9. Rukavishnikova (Plashevskaya) A.A. Genezis kategorii «pravovaya opredelennost'» v sovremennoy yuridicheskoy nauke (Genesis of the category “legal certainty” in modern legal science), Vestn. Tom. Gos. un-ta. Pravo, 2014, No. 3 (13), p. 70.
10. Sultanov A. R. Pravovaya opredelennost' – chast' dolzhnoy pravovoy protsedury ili kak v zakon ob ekstremizme pravovuyu opredelennost' vvodili (Legal certainty is a part of due legal procedure or how legal certainty was introduced in the law of extremism), Advokat, 2015, No. 1, pp. 5-17.
Received: 20.06.2018
DEDUCTION OF THE NORMS OF LAW AND MORALITY IN THE TEACHINGS OF I. KANT AND J.G. FICHTE AND ITS VALUE FOR NATIONAL THEORETICAL LEGAL STUDIES
PROKOFYEV Konstantin Georgiyevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Acting Rector of the Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Transcendentalism of I. Kant and J.G. Fichte supposing to include the activity of the subject of cognition in the object of his reflection, determined the necessity of deducing law from the subject’s activity on the basis of the idea of his freedom. Both classics solve this task in different ways: for Kant, a higher moral law mediates the transition from the subject’s freedom to the norms of law, for Fichte this transition is direct, therefore he separates the law from morality and ethics from jurisprudence. Despite the difference in views, the works of these two thinkers of the past - I. Kant and J.G. Fichte - on the law and morals remain relevant today. This is the reason to study and analyze problems related to the relationship between law and morality, taking into account the achievements of modern national historical and legal studies. 
Key words: philosophy of law, transcendentalism, freedom, law, morality, Kant’s doctrine, Fichte’s doctrine. 
References
1. Sal'nikov V.P., Maslennikov D.V. Filosofiya prava F.M. Dostoyevskogo kak istochnik razvitiya teorii rossiyskogo gosudarstva i prava (Philosophy of Law of F.М. Dostoevsky as a source of development of theory of Russian state and law), Problemy statusa sovremennoy Rossii: istoriko-pravovoy aspekt, Materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (g. Ufa, 5–6 aprelya 2018 g.), otv. red. F.Kh. Galiyev. V 2-kh ch. CH. 1. Ufa, RITS BashGU, 2018, pp. 72-79.
2. Istoriya filosofii prava (History of Philosophy of Law), otv. red. V.P. Sal'nikov, D.V. Maslennikov. St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy institut (Sankt-Peterburg), Sankt-Peterburgskiy un-t MVD Rossii, 1998.
3. Maslennikov D.V. Priroda logicheskogo v filosofii absolyutnogo idealizma (Gegel' i Fikhte) (The nature of the logical in the philosophy of absolute idealism (Hegel and Fichte). St. Petersburg, NOIR, 2011.
4. Kant I. Osnovy metafiziki nravstvennosti. Kritika prakticheskogo razuma. Metafizika nravov (Fundamentals of metaphysics of morality. Criticism of practical reason. Metaphysics of morals). St. Petersburg, 1995.
5. Maslennikov D.V. Bogochelovek i ideya prava (God-man and the idea of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2015, No. 12, pp. 167-173.
6. Fikhte I.G. Sochineniya v dvukh tomakh (Works in two volumes). T. 1. St. Petersburg, 1993.
7. Sal'nikov V.P., Kurzenin E.B., Sal'nikov M.V. Razvitiye politiko-pravovoy mysli ot Gugo Grotsiya k predstavitelyam germanskoy gosudarstvenno-pravovoy nauki (Development of political and legal thought from Hugo Grotius to the representatives of the German state law science), Pravovoye pole sovremennoy ekonomiki, 2014, No. 10, pp. 11-19.
8. Rayanov F.M. Pravovoye obshchestvovedeniye (Legal social studies). Moscow, Yurlitinform, 2018. 
9. Rayanov F.M. Aktual'nyye problemy teorii i praktiki pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii (Actual problems of theory and practice of the rule-of-law state in Russia), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2010, No. 1 (19), pp. 3-8.
10. Rayanov F.M. Teoriya pravovogo gosudarstva v Rossii: sostoyaniye, puti pereosmysleniya (Theory of the rule-of-law state in Russia: status, ways of rethinking), Lex Russika, 2015, No. 8, pp. 14-25.
Received: 11.06.2018
THE LEGAL CONCEPTION OF JURGEN HABERMAS
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal “Legal Science: History and Modernity”, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SHCHEPOTKINA-MARININA
Tatiana Vladimirovna
Second-year Master Student of the Faculty of Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Among legal conceptions, special attention is drawn to the conception of the outstanding German scientist of the twentieth century, philosopher and sociologist, Jurgen Habermas, author of the theory of communicative action. According to Jurgen Habermas, the law is based on the principle of discourse, which means that it should be the sphere of communicative reason. In his opinion, legal means are a condition for the possibility of social integration, and the law acts as a structure for mediating a communicative action. Being one of the most influential thinkers of modern Germany, Jurgen Habermas enjoys great popularity in other countries of the Western world, and especially in the United States, where his theories are studied in many universities.
Key words: law, communication, discourse, morality, concept, reason, reflection, law, coercion, freedom.
References
1. Arkhipov S.I. Diskursivnaya teoriya prava i demokratiya YU. Khabermasa (Discursive theory of law and democracy of J. Habermas), Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2016, No. 3, pp. 5-14.
2. Galiyev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura i kul'turnyye traditsii: sushchnostno-soderzhatel'noye vzaimodeystviye (Legal Culture and Cultural Traditions: Essential Content Interaction), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2009, No. 4 (18), pp. 8-9.
3. Galiyev F.Kh. O sinkretizme pravovoy kul'tury (On syncretism of legal culture), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2013, No. 4 (34), pp. 36-73.
4. Galiyev F.Kh. Pravovaya kul'tura: sotsial'no-filosofskiye problemy (Legal Culture: Socio-Philosophical Problems), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2016, No. 7, pp. 182-190.
5. Galiyev F.Kh. Istoricheskaya obuslovlennost' pravovoy kul'tury (Historical conditionality of legal culture), Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2010, No. 19, pp. 34-39.
6. Galiyev F.Kh. Sinkretizm pravovoy kul'tury sovremennoy Rossii: teoretiko-metodologicheskoye i istoriko-prikladnoye issledovaniye (Syncretism of legal culture of modern Russia: theoretical and methodological and historic-applied research), avtoref. dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Mos, Rossiyskaya akademiya narodnogo khozyaystva i gosudarstvennoy sluzhby pri Pre-zidente Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2014.
7. Galiyev F.Kh. Sinkretizm sovremennoy pravovoy kul'tury (Syncretism of modern legal culture: monograph), monografiya. Ufa, BashGU, 2011.
8. Yeremeyeva N.V. Problemy sovremennogo obshchestva v kontseptsii Yu. Khabermasa (Problems of modern society in the concept of Yu. Habermas). Tezisy dokladov. Minsk, BGU, 2004, pp. 105-124.
9. Zhdanov P.S., Romanovskaya V.B., Sal'nikov V.P. Dobro kak dolzhnoye i zlo kak real'nost' (o kategorii «zla» v russkoy filosofii prava) (Good as due and evil as reality (on the category of “evil” in Russian philosophy of law), Mir politiki i sotsiologii, 2013, No. 12, pp. 186-191.
10. Zakhartsev S.I., Sal'nikov V.P., Khabibulin A.G., Mursalimov K.R. Filosofiya prava, dobra, zla i prestupnosti. Retsenziya na knigu A.I. Aleksandrova «Filosofiya zla i filosofiya prestupnosti (voprosy filosofii prava, ugolovnoy politiki i ugolovnogo protsessa)», Vstupitel'noye slovo Chlen-korrespondenta rossiyskoy akademii nauk, doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, professora D.A. Kerimova. – SPb.: SPbGU, 2013. – 598 s. (Philosophy of law, good, evil and crime. Review of the book by A.I. Alexandrov “Philosophy of Evil and Crime Philosophy (Issues of Philosophy of Law, Criminal Policy and Criminal Procedure)”, Opening Remarks by Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Law, Professor D.A. Kerimov. - St. Petersburg: SPbGU, 2013. - 598 p.), Yuridicheskaya nauka: istoriya i sovremennost', 2016, No. 2, pp. 185-196.
11. Ideya spravedlivosti v traditsiyakh postklassicheskoy filosofii prava (The idea of justice in the traditions of postclassical philosophy of law), R.F. Ismagilov, D.V. Maslennikov, V.P. Sal'nikov, S.I. Zakhartsev, M.V. Sal'nikov, L.K. Petrosyan, A.V. Chernyayeva; pod obshch. red. V.P. Sal'nikova. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2012.
12. Ismagilov R.F., Sal'nikov V.P. Pravo i spravedlivost': istoricheskiye traditsii i sovremennyye modeli (Istoriko-pravovoy analiz teoreticheskikh issledovaniy aktual'nykh voprosov otnosheniya idei prava i idei spravedlivosti v XX-XXI vv.) ( Law and justice: historical traditions and modern models (Historical and legal analysis of theoretical studies of topical issues of the relationship between the idea of law and the idea of justice in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries), monografiya. St. Petersburg, Fond «Universitet», 2017. (Seriya: «Nauka i obshchestvo»).
13. Klenner G. Ot prava prirody k prirode prava (From the law of nature to the nature of law), per. s nem. Moscow, Progress, 1988.
14. Klimenko O.A. Problema sootnosheniya suvereniteta gosudarstv, narodov i lichnosti v kontseptsii deliberativnoy demokratii Yu. Khabermasa (The problem of the correlation of the sovereignty of states, peoples and individuals in the concept of deliberal democracy of J. Habermas), Uchenyye zapiski yuridicheskogo fakul'teta, 2015, No. 39 (49), pp. 172-178.
15. Kornilov N.S. Gosudarstvo i obshchestvennost' v kontekste pravovykh idey Yurgena Kha-bermasa (State and the public in the context of Jurgen Haebermas' legal ideas), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2016, No. 1 (93), pp. 21-27.
16. Lukasheva Ye.A. Pravo, moral', lichnost' (Law, morality, personality). Moscow, Nauka, 1986.
17. Ryadinskaya M.V. Yu. Khabermas i kommunikativnyy podkhod kak novaya metodologiya istoricheskogo poznaniya (J. Habermas and the communicative approach as a new methodology for historical cognition), Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2010, No. 2, pp. 164-187.
18. Farman I.P. Sotsial'no-kul'turnyye proyekty Yu. Khabermasa (Social and cultural projects of J. Habermas). Moscow, 1999. 
19. Khabermas Yu. Vovlecheniye drugogo. Ocherki politicheskoy teorii (Involvement of another. Essays on political theory). St. Petersburg, Nauka, 2001, pp. 118-412.
20. Khabermas Yu. Demokratiya. Razum. Nravstvennost' (Democracy. Mind. Morality), lektsii i interv'yu. Moscow, 1995, pp. 88-204.
21. Khabermas Yu. Esse k konstitutsii Yevropy (Essays to the Constitution of Europe). Moscow, Ves' mir, 2013. 
22. Shul'ts V.L. Metod poznaniya sotsial'nykh yavleniy Yu. Khabermasa. Sovremennaya za-padnaya sotsiologiya (Method of knowledge of social phenomena of J. Habermas. Modern Western sociology), mezhvuzovskiy sbornik. Leningrad, LGU, 1979.
23. Shul'ts V.L. Ot dialektiki k dialogu: sotsial'no-filosofskaya kontseptsiya Yu. Khabermasa (From dialectics to dialogue: the socio-philosophical concept of J. Habermas), Dialog v filosofii: Traditsii i sovremennost'. St. Petersburg, 1995.
24. Shul'ts V.L. Filosofiya Yu. Khabermasa (Philosophy of J. Habermas). Moscow, Nauka, 2005.
25. Yazykova V.M. Ideya narodnogo suvereniteta v kontekste filosofsko-pravovykh vozzreniy Yu. Khabermasa (The idea of people's sovereignty in the context of philosophical and legal views of J. Habermas), Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta, 2014, No. 3, pp. 219-257.
26. Habermas J. Erkenntniss und Interesse. Frankfurt, 1968.
27. Habermas J. Theorie und Praxis. Frankfurt, 1982.
28. Habermas J. Vorstudien und Ergaenzungen zur Theorie des kommunikativen Handlung. Francfort s/M., 1984.
Received: 20.05.2018
CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL PROCEDURE.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES. INFORMATION LAW 
LEGAL CULTURE OF VOTERS AS A BASIC CONSTITUTIONAL LEGAL VALUE 
ARTAMONOVA Natalya Vyacheslavna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Municipal Law, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Bryansk Branch), Bryansk, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
One of the most important tasks of the modern rule-of-law state is developing a high-level legal culture of Russian citizens. In this context, currently, in theory and practice of legal science, significant attention has been paid to the phenomenon of legal culture of voters (electoral and legal culture). There are different points of view on the problem of legal culture of voters in modern science. It is necessary to note two approaches to understanding legal culture of voters: narrow one and broad one. In a narrow sense, electoral legal culture is the culture of citizen voters. Broadly defined, electoral and legal culture is the culture of an election campaign or even an election process. It should be highlighted that there is a close relation between law and culture in context of the correlation of social values. Law itself is a significant cultural value, and legal culture is a legal value. Legal culture of voters is a basic constitutional, legal and social value, and also the ground for functioning of the electoral system, regulated by the constitutional law.
Key words: electoral legal, legal, culture, voters, electoral law,  process, constitutional and legal values.
References
1. Artamonova N.V. Razvitie pravovoi kul'tury izbiratelei v Rossii: konstitutsionno-pravovoi aspekt (Development of legal culture of voters in Russia: constitutional and legal aspect), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2008.
2. Vedeneev Yu.A. Politicheskaya demokratiya i elektoral'no-pravovaya kul'tura grazhdan (Political democracy and electoral legal culture of citizens), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1997, No. 2, p. 36.
3. Vedeneev Yu.A., Lysenko V.I. Izbiratel'nyi protsess v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: politiko-pravovye i tekhnologicheskie aspekty (Election process in the Russian Federation: political, legal and technological aspects), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1997, No. 8, p. 5.
4. Gomerov I.N. Elektoral'naya kul'tura: politologicheskii analiz (Electoral culture: political analysis), avtoref. dis. … d-ra polit. nauk. Moscow, 1995. 
5. Keizerov N.M., Smolina I.G. Pravovaya kul'tura izbiratel'noi kampanii: v pomoshch' izbiratelyam i organizatoram vyborov (Legal culture of the election campaign: to help voters and election organizers). Abakan, Izd-vo Khakasskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1995.
6. Knyazev S.D. Ocherki rossiiskogo izbiratel'nogo prava (Essays on Russian electoral law). Vladivostok, Izd-vo Dal'nevostochnogo universiteta, 1999.
7. Konstitutsionnoe pravo: entsiklopedicheskii slovar' (Constitutional law: encyclopedic dictionary), otv. red. S.A. Avak'yan. M., 2000.
8. Lazarev V.V. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva (General theory of law and state). Moscow, YuRIST, 2001.
9. Maitekovich M.S. Problemy pravovogo regulirovaniya vyborov v zakonodatel'nye i ispolnitel'nye organy gosudarstvennoi vlasti sub"ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Problems of legal regulation of elections to legislative and executive bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1998, No. 7, p. 55.
10. Naval'nyi S.V. Elektoral'no-pravovaya kul'tura: voprosy teorii i praktiki (Electoral legal culture: theory and practice), avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Nizhnii Novgorod, 1999.  
11. Fedorov Yu. Osobennosti politicheskoi bor'by v Rossii (Features of political struggle in Russia). Obozrevatel', 1992, No. 3, p. 12.
12. Chuchelina N.N. Pravovaya kul'tura v sfere izbiratel'nogo prava i izbiratel'nogo protsessa v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (voprosy teorii) (Legal culture in the sphere of electoral law and electoral process in the Russian Federation (theory issues), dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2005.
Received: 29.05.2018
CIVIL AND FAMILY LAW. BUSINESS AND PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW. CIVIL
AND ARBITRATION PROCESS
ON SOME PROBLEMS OF CITIZENS’ EXERCISE OF THEIR RIGHTS IN COURTS AND ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
ZHEMALETDINOV Rustem Maratovich
Candidate of Sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The main purpose of civil proceedings is the protection of violated or contested rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of citizens. Regardless of the presence or absence of legal education and other circumstances, everyone is equal before the law and the court. Meanwhile, non-compliance by citizens with individual formalities due to lack of knowledge of the subtleties of legal proceedings in some cases makes it impossible to enforce judgments and administer justice. In this situation, responsibility and consequences rest with the participants of the process, who often belong to vulnerable segments of the population. Therefore, it is proposed to simplify the interaction of citizens and the bodies carrying out justice and enforcement, clarify the laws on the state responsibility and its bodies for violations committed in this sphere, in some cases shift the emphasis from the principles of adversariality and disposition of civil proceedings to the principle of legality. 
Key words: civil legal proceedings, justice, judicial decisions, protection of rights, citizens, accessibility, legality.
References
1. Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii (prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniyem 12 dekabrya 1993 g.) (The Constitution of the Russian Federation (adopted by popular vote on December 12, 1993), Ofitsial'nyy internet-portal pravovoy informatsii http://www.pravo.gov.ru.
2. Grazhdanskiy protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 14 noyabrya 2002 goda № 138-FZ (red. ot 03.04.2018) (The Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation of November 14, 2002 No. 138-FZ (as amended on 03/04/2018), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2002, No. 46, St. 4532.
3. Postanovleniye Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF ot 23 iyunya 2015 goda № 25 «O primenenii sudami nekotorykh polozheniy razdela I chasti pervoy Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Fe-deratsii» (Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of June 23, 2015 No. 25 “On the application by courts of certain provisions of Section I of Part One of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation”), Byulleten' Verkhovnogo Suda RF, 2015, No. 8.
4. Murzabulatov U.M. Problema obespecheniya zakonnykh prav i interesov vzyskatelya v so-vremennom ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve (The problem of securing the lawful rights and interests of the recoverer in the current enforcement proceedings), Aktual'nyye problemy gosudarstva i obshchestva v oblasti obespecheniya prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina. Ufimskiy yuridicheskiy institut MVD RF, 2017, No. 1-1, pp. 114-117.
5. Murzabulatov U.M. Kontseptual'nyye probely v zakonodatel'stve ob ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve (Conceptual gaps in the law on enforcement proceedings), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2014, No. 1 (35), pp. 44-47.
6. Instruktsiya po sudebnomu deloproizvodstvu v rayonnom sude. Utverzhdena Prikazom Su-debnogo departamenta pri Verkhovnom Sude RF ot 29 aprelya 2003 goda № 36 (red. ot 09.01.2018) (Instruction on judicial record keeping in the district court. Approved by the Order of the Department of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of April 29, 2003 No. 36 (Edited on 09.01.2018), SPS «Konsul'tant Plyus».
Received: 11.05.2018
ACTUAL ISSUES OF IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF JUDGMENTS IN CIVIL CASES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION 
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Attitude to the debtor at all times was of a special character. This was due to the fact that anyone who borrowed, was obliged to timely fulfill his obligations to the creditor in terms of internal legal culture. At the same time, if there is a judgment regarding the debtor's outstanding obligations and the debtor does not carry out them, we should talk about a debtor of a different level, that is, a judgment debtor, which does not respect the law and does not execute the judgment awarded on behalf of the state. In this case, the state, as a guarantor of law enforcement, is obliged to direct the entire force of state coercion towards this debtor. All this suggests that the situation in the sphere of Russia's enforcement proceedings requires the implementation of offensive reforms both in the legislation on enforcement proceedings and in the structure of the bailiff’s service.
Key words: enforcement proceeding, effectiveness of enforcement of judgments, creditor, debtor, enforcement system, bailiffs.
References
1. Sadovskiy P.V. Osparivaniye otsenki, proizvodimoy v ramkakh ispolnitel'nogo proizvodstva (Challenging the assess performed within the framework of enforcement proceedings), Arbitrazhnyye spory, 2006, No. 3, pp. 95-100. 
2. Genprokuratura trebuyet nakazat' rukovoditeley FSSP (The Prosecutor General's Office demands punishing the leaders of the FBS), RBK Ekonomika, 2013, 16 sent.
3. Danilova D., Yemel'yanenko V., Romanycheva A., Timofeyeva O., Dvortsova S. Dolgovoy okop. Kak ostanovit' massovoye nasiliye vokrug prosrochennykh kreditov (Debt trench. How to stop mass violence over overdue loans), Russkiy Reporter, No. 6 (408).
4. Chmyrev S.N. Litsa, uchastvuyushchiye v ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve (Persons participating in enforcement proceedings), Vestnik SKGI, 2015, No. 1, pp. 255-260.
5. Gal'perin M.L. O samostoyatel'noy otvetstvennosti v ispolnitel'nom proizvodstve (On independent responsibility in enforcement proceedings), Pravo. Zhurnal vysshey shkoly ekonomiki, 2015, No. 2.
6. Grazhdanskiy protsess v mezhkul'turnom dialoge: yevraziyskiy kontekst (Civil Process in Intercultural Dialogue: Eurasian Context), Vsemirnaya konferentsiya Mezhdunarodnoy assotsiatsii protsessual'nogo prava, 18-21 sentyabrya 2012 g., Moskva, Rossiya, sbornik dokladov, pod red. D.Ya. Maleshina. Moscow, Statut, 2012.
Received: 20.07.2018
PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 
SAYFUTDINOVA Venera Maksutovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Currently, the issues related to legal regulation of intellectual property objects are becoming particularly relevant. Due to the existing legal nature, this category of objects of civil rights is among the most vulnerable from the perspective of violation of the rights of right holders. Meanwhile, legal regulation of intellectual property at national and supranational levels is quite extensive and, according to the author, allows taking effective measures to protect intellectual property. State customs authorities play a special role in practical implementation of the relevant protection measures.
Key words: intellectual property objects, Civil code, customs regulation, protection mechanism, national treatment.
References
1. Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Chast' chetvertaya ot 18 dek. 2006 g. № 230-FZ (The Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Part Four of 18 December. 2006 No. 230-FZ), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2006, 22 dek.
2. Dogovor o Yevraziyskom ekonomicheskom soyuze (Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union), (podpisan v g. Astane 29.05.2014 g.) V dannom vide dokument opublikovan ne byl. Pervonachal'nyy tekst dokumenta opublikovan na ofitsial'nom sayte Yevraziyskoy ekonomicheskoy komissii. URL: http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ (accessed date: 05.06.2014).
3. Ofitsial'nyy sayt Federal'noy Tamozhennoy sluzhby (Official website of the Federal Cusom Service). URL: http://www.customs.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 26299:-2017-46-&catid=40:2011-01-24-15-02-45&Itemid=2094&Itemid=1835 (accessed date: 05.06.2014).
4. Sayfutdinova V.M. K voprosu o sootnoshenii ponyatiy «intellektual'naya sobstvennost'» i «intellektual'nyye prava» (On the question of the correlation between the concepts “intellectual property” and “intellectual rights’), Aktual'nyye problemy gosudarstva i obshchestva v oblasti obespecheniya prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina. Ufa, Ufimskiy yuridicheskiy institut MVD RF, 2015, No. 18-4, pp. 102-107.
5. Tamozhennyy kodeks Yevraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza (The Customs Code of the Eurasian Economic Union) (prilozheniye № 1 k Dogovoru o Tamozhennom kodekse Yevraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza). URL: http://www.eaeunion.org/ (accessed date: 12.04.2017).
6. Federal'nyy zakon ot 27.11.2010 N 311-FZ (red. ot 29.12.2017) «O tamozhennom regu-lirovanii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (Federal Law of 27.11.2010 No. 311-FZ (Edited on December 29, 2017) “On Customs Regulation in the Russian Federation”), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2010, 29 noyab.
Received: 27.05.2018
THE CREATION OF LEGAL CLINICS IN SECONDARY VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 
SEMENOVA Yelena Yuryevna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational  Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Legal clinics that function in educational institutions graduating lawyers have long proved their necessity. Nevertheless, according to the current legislation of the Russian Federation, legal clinics are established in educational institutions of higher professional education. It follows that students are deprived of these provisions in secondary vocational schools where there is legal training. At the same time, it is well known that the provision of educational services in secondary vocational schools in our country is currently at a fairly high level. However, in spite of qualitative students training by professional educational institutions that train specialists of middle level, which is aimed at developing theoretical knowledge, there is no practical training of future specialists in these institutions. Accordingly, the above-mentioned educational institutions are deprived of such a powerful tool as a legal clinic that helps students develop the skills of applying theoretical knowledge in practice. Therefore, the need is obvious to introduce a program of legal clinic into the educational process of secondary vocational schools.
Key words: legal clinic, secondary, professional, educational, institution, law, education, knowledge, skills.
References
1. Federal'nyy zakon ot 21 noyabrya 2011 № 324-FZ «O besplatnoy yuridicheskoy pomoshchi v Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 28 noyabrya 2015 g. № 358-FZ) (Federal Law No. 324-FZ of November 21, 2011 “On Free Legal Aid in the Russian Federation” (as amended and supplemented on November 28, 2015, No. 358-FZ)), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2011, No. 48, st. 6725.
2. Federal'nyy zakon ot 29 dekabrya 2012 g. № 273-FZ «Ob obrazovanii v Rossiyskoy Fe-deratsii» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 07 marta 2018 g. № 56-FZ) (Federal Law No. 273-FZ of December 29, 2012 “On Education in the Russian Federation” (with the last amendments from March 7, 2018 No. 56-FZ)), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2012, 31 dek.
3. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 26 maya 2009 goda № 599 «O merakh po sover-shenstvovaniyu vysshego yuridicheskogo obrazovaniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 26, 2009, No. 599 “On measures to improve higher legal education in the Russian Federation”), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF, 2009, No. 22, st. 2698.
4. Prikazom Federal'nogo agentstva po obrazovaniyu ot 25 maya 2007 g. № 921 «O khode op-timizatsii seti podvedomstvennykh obrazovatel'nykh uchrezhdeniy» (Order of the Federal Agency for Education of May 25, 2007 No. 921 “On the course of optimization of the network of subordinate educational institutions”), Ofitsial'nyye dokumenty v obrazovanii, 2007, No. 20.
5. Prikazami Ministerstva obrazovaniya i nauki Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 12 maya 2014 g. № 508 «Ob utverzhdenii federal'nogo gosudarstvennogo obrazovatel'nogo standarta srednego professional'nogo obrazovaniya po spetsial'nosti 40.02.01 Pravo i organizatsiya sotsial'nogo obespecheniya» (The orders of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of May 12, 2014 No. 508 “On approval of the federal state educational standard of secondary vocational education on specialty 40.02.01 Law and organization of social welfare”), Rossiyskaya gazeta (spetsial'nyy vypusk), 2014, 13 noyab.
WAYS TO IMPROVE PROCEEDINGS ON THE CASES OVER INTRODUCING CORRECTIONS OR CHANGES IN CIVIL REGISTRATION IN THE CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
TROFIMOVA Marina Sergeyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University”, Veliky Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Among the categories of cases of special proceedings, one of the most stable and resilient to changes is proceedings on the cases over making corrections or changes in civil registration. Nevertheless, researcher’s attention, study and analysis is demanded by the norms governing the jurisdiction of these cases and the specifics of the subject composition, including procedural characteristics of considering cases on making changes and corrections in civil registration, specifics of making and executing decisions in such cases. This is the reason for the author’s proposals to modernize Chapter 36 of the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation and the Federal Law “On Civil Status Acts”. At the same time, the problem of collision of the norms of the Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation and the Code of Administrative Proceedings on the jurisdiction of cases involving civil registration bodies requires the close attention of the legislator.
Key words: civil case, special proceedings, civil registry bodies, subject matter jurisdiction, court jurisdiction, judgment, length of the period of the examination of the case, execution of judgment.
References
1. Grazhdanskiy protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 14.11.2002 № 138-FZ (red. ot 03.04.2018) (The Civil Procedural Code of the Russian Federation of 14.11.2002 No. 138-FZ (as amended on 03/04/2018), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF. 2002. No. 46. St. 4532.
2. Kontseptsiya yedinogo Grazhdanskogo protsessual'nogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii (odobrena resheniyem Komiteta po grazhdanskomu, ugolovnomu, arbitrazhnomu i protsessual'nomu zakonodatel'stvu GD FS RF ot 08.12.2014 No. 124(1) (The concept of the unified Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation), Konsul'tant-Plyus. URL: http://www.consultant.ru (accessed date: 30.04.2018).
3. Postanovleniye Plenuma Verkhovnogo Suda RF ot 03.10.2017 № 30 «O vnesenii v Gosudarstvennuyu Dumu Federal'nogo Sobraniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii proyekta fede-ral'nogo zakona «O vnesenii izmeneniy v Grazhdanskiy protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii, Arbitrazhnyy protsessual'nyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii, Kodeks administrativnogo sudoproizvodstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii i otdel'nyye zakonodatel'nyye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii» (Decree of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 03.10.2017 No. 30 “On the introduction of the draft federal law to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation “On Amendments to the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, the Arbitration Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, the Code of Administrative Proceedings of the Russian Federation and certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation”), Konsul'tantPlyus. URL: http://www.consultant.ru (accessed date: 30.04.2018).
4. Apellyatsionnoye opredeleniye № 33-1328/2015 ot 10 iyunya 2015 g. po delu № 33-1328/2015 (Appeal Definition No. 33-1328 / 2015 of 10 June 2015 in case No. 33-1328 / 2015), Sudebnyye i normativnyye akty RF. URL: http://sudact.ru/ regular/doc/8sFTpZ3FjLgI/?regular-txt=&regular-case_doc=&regular-lawchunkinfo=Stat'ya+307. +Podacha+zayavleniya+o+vnesenii+ispravleniy+ili+izmeneniy+v+zapis'+akta+grazhdansko go+sostoyaniya%28GPK+RF%29&regular-doc_type=&regular-date_from=&regular-date_ to=&regular-workflow_stage=&regular-area=1044&regular-court=&regular-judge=&_=1524083502136 (accessed date: 30.04.2018).
5. Kodeks administrativnogo sudoproizvodstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 08.03.2015 № 21-FZ (red. ot 28.12.2017) (Code of Administrative Proceedings of the Russian Federation No. 21-FZ of 08.03.2015 (as amended on December 28, 2017), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF. 2015. No. 10. St. 1391.
6. Federal'nyy zakon ot 15.11.1997 № 143-FZ «Ob aktakh grazhdanskogo sostoyaniya» (red. ot 29.12.2017) (Federal Law of 15.11.1997 No. 143-FZ “On acts of civil status” (as amended on December 29, 2017), Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF. 1997. No. 47. St. 5340.
Received: 05.06.2018
NATIONAL MECHANISM FOR PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS TO HOUSING 
KHAIRLVARINA Lilia Ildarovna
Postgraduate Student, Chief Lawyer of the Legal Department of the Soviet District Administration of Urban District the Ufa City of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Today, the human right to housing is one of the most vulnerable rights for violating. Annual increasing of illegal transactions in the sphere of real estate proves this circumstance. The above-mentioned problem is typical, firstly, for newly constructed residential areas. The state is developing a large number of measures aimed at solving the above-mentioned problem, for example, using maternity fund for improving housing facilities, the housing provision program for a young family, etc. First of all, this problem concerns vulnerable categories of the population, for instance, young families, disabled people, low-income citizens. The author studies in detail the mechanism for protecting individual rights to housing, the problems of this mechanism, and develops proposals for its improvement.
Key words: housing, inviolability of housing, right to housing, jurisdictional form of protecting the right to housing, non-jurisdictional form of protecting the right to housing, recognition of the right to housing.
References
1. Vseobshchaya deklaratsiya prav cheloveka (prinyata General'noi Assambleei OON 10.12.1948) (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10.12.1948), Rossiiskaya gazeta, 1995, 5 apr.
2. Mezhdunarodnyi pakt o grazhdanskikh i politicheskikh pravakh (Prinyat 16.12.1966 Rezolyutsiei 2200 (XXI) na 1496-om plenarnom zasedanii General'noi Assamblei OON) (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Adopted on 16.12.1966 by Resolution 2200 (XXI) at the 1496th plenary meeting of the UN General Assembly), Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR, 1976, No. 17, St. 291.
3. Venskaya konventsiya o diplomaticheskikh snosheniyakh (zaklyuchena v g. Vene 18.04.1961) (Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (concluded in Vienna on April 18, 1961), Vedomosti VS SSSR, 1964, No. 18, St. 221.
4. Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii (prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12.12.1993) (s uchetom popravok, vnesennykh Zakonami RF o popravkakh k Konstitutsii RF ot 30.12.2008 № 6-FKZ, ot 30.12.2008 № 7-FKZ, ot 05.02.2014 № 2-FKZ, ot 21.07.2014 N 11-FKZ) (The Constitution of the Russian Federation (adopted by popular vote on 12.12.1993) (taking into account the amendments introduced by the RF Laws on Amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation No. 6-FKZ of December 30, 2008, No. 7-FKZ of December 30, 2008, dated 05.02.2014 № 2-FKZ, from July 21, 2014 N 11-FKZ), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2014, No. 31, St. 4398.
5. Zhilishchnyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 29.12.2004 № 188-FZ (red. ot 31.12.2017) (Housing Code of the Russian Federation No. 188-FZ of December 29, 2004 (as amended on December 31, 2017), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2005, No. 1, Ch. 1, St. 14.
6. Belyaeva G.S., Antonova Zh.D. K voprosu o strukture mekhanizma zashchity prav i svobod grazh-dan (On the structure of the mechanism for protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens), Yuridicheskie issledovaniya, 2017, No. 6, pp. 26-37.
7. Kirichek Yu.V. Spetsifika struktury organizatsionno-pravovogo mekhanizma obespecheniya prav i zakonnykh interesov cheloveka i grazhdanina v Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Specificity of the structure of the organizational and legal mechanism for ensuring the rights and legitimate interests of a person and citizen in the Russian Federation), Vestnik UYurGU, 2013, No. 1, T. 13, pp. 23-28.
8. Minnikes I.A. Pravovaya zashchita: ponyatie i mekhanizm (Legal protection: the concept and mechanism), Izvestiya Irkutskoi gosudarstvennoi ekonomicheskoi akademii, 2013, № 6, pp. 54-59.
9. Khammarberg Tomas. Prava cheloveka v Evrope: ne dopuskat' popustitel'stva, tochka zreniya Komissara po pravam cheloveka Soveta Evropy (Human rights in Europe: to prevent connivance: the view of the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe). Strasburg, Sovet Evropy, sor, 2008.
Received: 10.05.2018
CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINOLOGY. CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW.CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
CRIMINOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONVICTED PREGNANT WOMEN AND WOMEN WITH CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF THREE
ALEKSANDROVA Elena Aleksandrovna
Adjunct of the Academy of Law and Administration of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the current context in according with international law and the Russian legislation, the problem of the conditions for serving a criminal penalty by pregnant women and women with children under the age of 3 years old is particularly relevant. Other important issues are related to the prospect of further reunifying of the mother and her child, strengthening the ties with relatives and friends, as well as increasing the level of equipment and professionalism in providing assistance in the areas of medicine, hygiene and education of the mother and her child. The available statistical data allow assessing the changes in the nature of crimes committed, as well as ascertaining age rejuvenation of women convicted of certain types of crimes.
Key words: marital status, categories of committed crimes, motivation, family ties, guardianship authorities, support.
References
1. Polishchuk N.I. Gumanisticheskaya ideya v formirovanii sovremennoi pravovoi sistemy Rossii (The humanistic idea in the formation of the modern legal system of Russia), Kul'tura i tsivilizatsiya v globalizuyushchemsya mire: aktual'nye sotsial'no-gumanitarnye i pravovye problemy, materialy Vserossiiskoi nauch.-prakt. konf. Kolomna, 2013, pp. 33–34.
2. Polishchuk N.I. Moratorii na smertnuyu kazn' i ego legitimnost' (Moratorium on the death penalty and its legitimacy), Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2015, No. 7, pp. 68–74.
3. URL: http://фсин.рф/structure/inspector/iao/statistika/Kratkaya%20 har-ka%20UIS.
Received: 12.05.2018
THE CONCEPT OF CRIMINAL LAW POLICY AS A CONDITION OF EFFECTIVE PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE INDIVIDUAL, SOCIETY AND STATE AGAINST CRIMES
AKHMADULLIN Azat Sayafovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Currently, in Russia, there is no uniform understanding what state criminal law policy should be, and there is no officially adopted concept of criminal law policy. Meanwhile, the concept of criminal law policy, based on a comprehensive, accurate and timely formed criminal law statistics is essential to ensure public interests in protecting the rights of the individual, society and state against crimes. In addition to this primary objective, the concept of criminal law policy must desist from the vicious practice of making unsubstantiated, inconsistent and contradictory changes in criminal, criminal procedure and penal legislation, as well as improve the efficiency of activities of law enforcement bodies and reduce the real crime.
Key words: criminality, criminal law policy, criminal law statistics, criteria of assessment of activities of law enforcement bodies.
References
1. Vystuplenie General'nogo prokurora Rossiiskoi Federatsii Chaiki Yu.Ya. na parlamentskikh slushaniyakh na temu «Ugolovnaya politika v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: problemy i resheniya» (Statement by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation Chaika Yu.Ya. at parliamentary hearings on “Criminal policy in the Russian Federation: problems and solutions”). URL: https://genproc.gov.ru/genprokuror/appearances/document-85492/ (accessed date: 09.05.2018).
2. Egoryshev S.V., Egorysheva N.V. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo kak osnovnoe uslovie sotsi-al'noi effektivnosti deyatel'nosti organov vnutrennikh del (Civil society as the main condition for social effectiveness of activities of law enforcement bodies), monografiya. Ufa, Ufimskii YuI MVD Rossii, 2016.
3. Inshakov S.M. i dr. Teoreticheskie osnovy issledovaniya i analiza latentnoi prestupnosti (Theoretical bases of research and analysis of latent crime), monografiya, pod. red. S.M. Inshakova. Moscow, Yuniti‑Dana: Zakon i pravo, 2011.
4. Kvashis V.E., Genrikh N.V. Sravnitel'nyi analiz latentnoi prestupnosti v Rossii i zarubezhnykh stranakh: problemy metodologii i metodiki (Comparative analysis of latent crime in Russia and foreign countries: problems of methodology and methodology), Vestnik Krasnodarskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2017, No. 2 (36), pp. 17-21.
5. Luneev V.V. Effektivnost' bor'by s prestupnost'yu i ee otdel'nymi vidami v sovremennoi Rossii (Effectiveness of the fight against crime and its separate species in modern Russia), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2003, No. 7, pp. 106-111.
6. Malikov M.F. Istoki poznaniya. T. 2. Kontseptsiya gosudarstvennoi vlasti i samo-upravleniya v sovremennoi Rossii (The sources of knowledge. V. 2. The concept of state power and self-government in modern Russia). 3-e izd, ispr. i dop. Ufa, AN RB, Gilem, 2012.
7. Nechaev A.D. Osnovaniya klassifikatsii i vidy kriminalizatsii i dekriminalizatsii (Grounds for classification and types of criminalization and decriminalization), Zhurnal rossiiskogo prava, 2017, No. 6, pp. 105-114.
8. Ofitsial'nyi sait General'noi prokuratury Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Official website of the Prosecutor General's Office of the Russian Federation). URL: http://genproc.gov.ru/smi/ interview_and_appearences/appearences/1367434/ (accessed date: 02.05.2018).
9. Ofitsial'nyi sait General'noi prokuratury Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Portal pravovoi statistiki (Official website of the Prosecutor General's Office of the Russian Federation. Legal statistics portal). URL: http://crimestat.ru/offenses_map (accessed date: 06.05.2018).
10. Ofitsial'nyi sait Obshchestvennoi palaty Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Official website of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation). URL: https://www.oprf.ru/discussions/newsitem /17889 (accessed date: 15.04.2018).
11. Recommendation Rec (2000)19 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Role of Public Prosecution in the Criminal Justice System. URL: http://www.refworld.org/docid/43f5c8694.html (accessed date: 09.05.2018).
12. Rayanov F.M. Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava (Yurisprudentsii) (Problems of theory of state and law (Jurisprudence), uchebnyi kurs. Moscow, Pravo i gosudarstvo, 2003.
13. Frans fon-List. Prestuplenie kak sotsial'no-patologicheskoe yavlenie. Doklad, chitannyi v Drezdene (Crime as a social and pathological phenomenon. Report made in Dresden). St. Petersburg, izdanie Yuridicheskogo knizhnogo magazina N.K. Martynova, 1900.
Received: 26.05.2018
PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF IMPROVING ACTIVITIES OF SERVANTS OF THE FEDERAL PENITENTIARY SERVICE OF RUSSIA ON ESTABLISHING ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISION OVER PERSONS RELEASED FROM PRISONS
GRISHIN Dmitrii Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Academy of Law and Administration of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In the context of the further development of the rule-of-law state in modern Russia, many issues become more actual, among them the matters related to the integrated interdisciplinary institution of administrative supervision over persons released from places of deprivation of liberty and its practical implementation through organizational and management activities of correctional and intake officers of the Federal Penitentiary Service. In its turn, this situation makes it necessary to improve the mechanism of activities of officials of the penal correction system for preparing and sending to court documents necessary to establish administrative supervision. At the same time, the problems of practical implementation of the legislative requirements on administrative supervision in facilities and bodies of the penal correction system require special research attention. It is connected with the need to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of this area of activity of facilities and bodies of the penal correction system and is becoming a high-priority task of the present day.
Key words: measures of administrative prevention, administrative supervision, penal correction system, penitentiary security.
References
1. Grishin D.A., Ponikarov V.A., Karasev M.V. Administrativnyi nadzor za litsami, osvobozhdaemymi iz mest lisheniya svobody (Administrative supervision over persons released from places of deprivation of liberty), ucheb.- prakt. posobie. Ryazan', Akademiya FSIN Rossii, 2012. 
2. Grishin D.A. Pravovoe regulirovanie administrativnogo nadzora za litsami, osvo-bozhdennymi iz mest lisheniya svobody, v zarubezhnom zakonodatel'stve: sravnitel'no-pravovoi analiz (Legal regulation of administrative supervision over persons released from places of deprivation of liberty in foreign legislation: comparative legal analysis), Chelovek: prestuplenie i nakazanie, 2012, No. 1, pp. 107-111.
3. Kodeks administrativnogo sudoproizvodstva Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 08.03.2015 № 21-FZ (red. ot 05.12.2017) (The Code of Administrative Proceedings of the Russian Federation of 08.03.2015 No. 21-FZ (as amended on 05.12.2017), Ofitsial'nyi sait kompanii «Konsul'tant Plyus». Gl. 29.
4. Monin Yu.A. Administrativnyi nadzor za litsami, osvobozhdennymi iz mest lisheniya svobody (Administrative supervision over persons released from places of deprivation of liberty). Moscow, 1979. 
5. Nikitin A.D. Administrativnyi nadzor v sisteme individual'nykh sredstv profilaktiki retsidiva (Administrative supervision in the system of individual means of preventing repetition offences), Ugolovno-ispolnitel'naya politika, zakonodatel'stvo i pravo: sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya, sbornik materialov kruglogo stola, posvyashchennogo pamyati doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, professora, zasluzhennogo yurista Rossiiskoi Federatsii Olega Vadimovicha Filimonova (g. Moskva, yuridicheskii fakul'tet MGU im. M.V. Lomonosova, 31 maya 2013 goda). Moscow, Yurisprudentsiya, 2014. pp. 261-269.
6. Ob utverzhdenii Poryadka osushchestvleniya administrativnogo nadzora za litsami, osvobozhdennymi iz mest lisheniya svobody: Prikaz MVD Rossii ot 8 iyulya 2011 g. № 818 (red. ot 29.03.2017) (On approval of the Procedure for the exercise of administrative supervision over persons released from places of deprivation of liberty: Order No. 818 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia of July 8, 2011 (as amended on March 29, 2017), Rossiiskaya gazeta. 2011. 26 avg.
7. Orekhova O.S. Administrativnyi nadzor za litsami, osvobozhdennymi iz mest lisheniya svobody, kak sposob preduprezhdeniya retsidiva prestuplenii (Administrative supervision of persons released from places of deprivation of liberty as a means of preventing repetition offences), Aktual'nye problemy administrativnogo i administrativno-protsessual'nogo prava, materialy ezhegodnoi Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi pamyati d.yu.n., professora, zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki RF V.D. Sorokina (22 marta 2012 g.). V 2 ch. Ch. 2. St. Petersburg, Izd-vo SPb un-ta MVD Rossii, 2012, pp. 94-99.
8. Ugolovno-ispolnitel'nyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 08.01.1997 № 1-FZ (red. ot 16.10.2017) (The Penal Enforcement Code of the Russian Federation of 08.01.1997 No. 1-FZ (as amended on October 16, 2017), Ofitsial'nyi sait kompanii «Konsul'tant Plyus». St. 173.1.
9. Fil'chenko A.P. Administrativnyi nadzor za litsami, osvobozhdennymi iz mest lisheniya svobody: pravovaya priroda i perspektivy zakonodatel'nogo regulirovaniya (Administrative supervision of persons released from places of deprivation of liberty: legal nature and prospects for legislative regulation), Administrativnoe pravo i protsess. Moscow, Yurist, 2012, No. 2, pp. 54-57.
10. Chistotina O.N. Administrativnyi nadzor za litsami, osvobozhdennymi iz mest lisheniya svobody kak otdel'noe napravlenie preduprezhdeniya retsidiva prestuplenii organami vnutrennikh del (Administrative supervision of persons released from places of deprivation of liberty as a separate area for preventing repetition offences by the bodies of internal affairs), Aktual'nye problemy ugolovno-ispolnitel'nogo prava i ispolneniya nakazanii, materialy Mezhvuzovskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, g. Ryazan', 18 aprelya 2014 g. Ryazan', 2014, pp. 170-175.
Received: 15.06.2018
THE CHARACTERISTIC AND FEATURES OF INTERPRETING SIGNS OF ACTUS REUS OF BRIBERY MEDIATION (p.1 of art. 291.1 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
KUZNETSOVA Aleksandra Nikolaevna
Scientific Adviser of the Autonomous Nonprofit Organization “Yaroslavl Center of Economic and Tax Education”, Yaroslavl, Russia. Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The problems associated with framing, interpreting and applying the norm on liability for bribery mediation (Article 291.1 of the Criminal Code) become particularly relevant today. The national legislator when regulating responsibility for bribery in the Criminal Code of 1996 initially opted out of the norm, providing responsibility for bribery mediation and commercial bribery, believing that the intermediary’ acts should be qualified as complicity in bribe taking or bribe giving (commercial bribery). Now the legislator has established responsibility for bribery mediation, which considerably strengthens normative countering illegal activity of the persons promoting bribery. Therefore, such mediation is not a type of complicity in the form of aiding, organizing or abetting, but it is an independent encroachment. The legislator has considerably expanded the legal framework of responsibility for bribery mediation thereby the end of the crime is postponed to earlier stage of criminal behavior. While analyzing Art. 291.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, the author gives the criminal and legal characteristic of actus reus of the main element of bribery mediation, pays attention to a number of debatable formulations in dispositions of the norms contained in this article, reveals some theoretical and practical problems of qualification of the studied act, formulates proposals to solve them.
Key words: criminal law, crime, corruption, state power, service, bribery, mediation, complicity, organized group.
References
1. Volzhenkin B.V. Slujebnie prestupleniya (Office crimes), monograph. Moscow, Yurist, 2000. 
2. Kapinus O. Izmeneniya v zakonodatelstve o doljnostnih prestupleniyah: voprosi kvalifikacii i osvobojdeniya vzyatkodatelya ot otvetstvennosti (Changes in the legislation on malfeasances: questions of qualification and release of the briber from responsibility), Ugolovnoe parvo, 2011, No. 2, рр. 21-26.
3. Kochina M.S. Posrednichestvo vo vzyatochnichestve: istoriya zakonodatelstva i praktiki protivodeistviya (Mediation in bribery: history of the legislation and practice of counteraction), Aktualnie problemi rossiiskogo prava, 2017, No. 4, рр. 117-123.
4. Sharapov R., Moiseenko M. Otlichie fizicheskogo posrednichestva vo vzyatochnichestve ot dachi vzyatki (Difference of physical mediation in bribery from bribery), Ugolovnoe pravo, 2013, No. 1, рр. 71-77.
5. Yani P. Posrednichestvo vo vzyatochnichestve (Mediation in bribery), Zakonnost, 2011, No. 9, рр. 12-18.
6. Yani P. S. Problemi kvalifikacii posrednichestva vo vzyatochnichestve (Problems of qualification of mediation in bribery), Zakonnost, 2013, No. 2, рр. 24-29.
Received: 13.05.2018
THE HISTORICAL ASPECT OF THE EVOLUTION OF MORALITY AND ETHICS AS THE CONTENT OF THE NORMS OF PENAL LAW 
KHOROSHKO Irina Vyacheslavovna
Instructor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the FGEI HE “Academy of Law and Management of the Federal Penal Service of Russia”, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Certainly, morality and ethics since their origin play the role of the basic values of human communication and interaction. These values act as the main moral components in penal relations. It is common knowledge that moral values are formed in the process of mutual communication of people and are a reflection of socio-economic, cultural-historical, individually-collective, spiritual, moral and other values of society. They need voluntary universal recognition, because they are formed on the basis of public opinion, are asserted by the force of mass habits and decrees, educate in the individual inner kindness, develop beliefs and motives, set ethical boundaries of human behavior in his relationships with other people. Penal relations as well as other spheres of human communication are improved and strengthened in the process of state law development of society. Moral component of penal relationships is designed to have a positive impact on the formation and development of legal consciousness and legal culture of convicts, their behavior, self-esteem, beliefs, motives, etc.
Key words: morality, ethics, convict, subculture, pseudo-morality, penal law, spiritually-moral, moral.
References
1. Vaal' de F. Istoki morali: V poiskakh chelovecheskogo u primatov (The origins of morality: In search of human in primates), per. s angl. M. : Al'pina non-fikshn, 2014.
2. Prikaz Minyusta RF ot 3 noyabrya 2005 g. № 205 «Ob utverzhdenii Pravil vnutrennego rasporyadka ispravitel'nykh uchrezhdeniy» (Order of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation of November 3, 2005, No. 205 “On the Approval of the Rules of Internal Order of Correctional Institutions”). URL: http://base.garant.ru/1354625/#ixzz3LOWNHc98 (accessed date: 10.05.2018).
3. Khoroshko I.V. K voprosu o neodnoznachnosti sushchnosti morali (On the issue of the ambiguity of the essence of morality), Yuridicheskaya mysl', 2014, No. 6 (86), pp. 111-114.
Received: 20.05.2018
FORENSICS.  FORENSIC ACTIVITIES. OPERATIVE SEARCH ACTIVITY
“ENVIRONMENTAL FORENSICS”AS AN APPLIED PROJECT IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS 
AND IN DIFFERENT SPHERES OF LAW ENFORCEMENT
POLSTOVALOV Oleg Vladimirovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Head of the Legal Department of the Administration of the Urban District of Krasnogorsk of the Moscow Region, Krasnogorsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In modern conditions, it is evident that both investigative activities in all forms of existing practice and various other areas of law enforcement practice are in need of broader forensic support. This determines the problem of forming an interdisciplinary applied direction of researches in the field of predominantly forensic prevention of environmental crimes. At the same time, the need to implement forensic potential in the sphere of detecting and preventing various kinds of environmental offenses is aggravated. It is also advisable to form a national version of “environmental forensics” as a kind of interdisciplinary education, reference material, which does not pretend to invade the systematics of maternal science, but which is useful in the practice of identifying and preventing the current negative illegal environmental impact. The available foreign experience of forensic support for defecting and preventing environmental offenses has its own specifics, which is of interest to the national legal science. All this justifies the need to expand forensic support for various spheres of law enforcement, and not only criminal proceedings.
Key words: environmental forensics, system of forensics, interdisciplinary researches, forensics in law enforcement, forensic prevention.
References
1. Belkin R.S. Kurs kriminalistiki (Course of Forensic Science), ucheb. posobiye dlya vuzov. 3-ye izd., dop. Moscow, YUNITI-DANA, Zakon i pravo, 2001.
2. Yablokov N.P. Kriminalistika (Forensic science), uchebnik. Moscow, Izd-vo Yurayt; ID Yurayt, 2011.
3. Koldin V.YA., Usov A.I. Metodologicheskiye funktsii sistemnogo podkhoda v kriminalistike (Methodological functions of the system approach in forensics), Problemy sistemnykh issledovaniy v kriminalistike i sudebnoy ekspertize, Konf., 4–5 dekabrya 2006 g., Moscow, MGU im. M.V. Lomonosova, sb. tezisov. Moscow, MAKS Press, 2006, pp. 15-20.
4. Mudge S. M. Approaching environmental forensics. Methods in environmental forensics, editor, Stephen M. Mudge. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, pp. 1-13.
5. Mudge S. M. Environmental forensics and the importance of source identification. Issues in Environmental Science and Technology. Environmental Forensics, Edited by R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008, No. 26, pp. 1-16.
6. Kuchin O.S. Osnovopolagayushcheye znacheniye ugolovno-pravovoy normy v razrabotke krimi-nalisticheskoy metodiki rassledovaniya prestupleniy (The fundamental importance of the criminal law norm in the development of criminal methods of investigating crimes), Kriminalistika i sudebno-ekspertnaya deyatel'nost' v usloviyakh sovremennosti, Materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Krasnodarskiy universitet MVD Rossii. Krasnodar, Izd-vo Federal'nogo gosudarstvennogo kazennogo obrazovatel'nogo uchrezhdeniya vysshego professional'nogo obrazovaniya «Krasnodarskiy universitet Ministerstva vnutrennikh del Rossiyskoy Federatsii», 2016, pp. 18-22.
7. Aleksandrov I.V., Asochakov A.A. Osobennosti rassledovaniya ukloneniya ot uplaty nalogov (Features of the investigation of evasion from payment of taxes), Nauchnyye vedomosti Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya «Filosofiya. Sotsiologiya. Pravo», 2012, No. 8 (127), Vyp. 20, pp. 85-93.
8. Belkin R.S. Kriminalisticheskaya entsiklopediya (Forensic encyclopedia), 2-ye izdaniye dopolnennoye. Moscow, Megatron XXI, 2000.
9. Toporkov A.A. Kriminalistika (Forensic science). Moscow, Yuridicheskaya firma «KONTRAKT»: INFRA-M, 2012. Spravochno-pravovaya sistema «Garant». URL: http://www.garant.ru.
10. Yablokov N.P. Nekotoryye problemy otechestvennoy kriminalistiki v svete segodnyashnego vremeni (Some problems of national in the light of this day), Sovremennaya kriminalistika: problemy, tendentsii, perspektivy, materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 90-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya Zasluzhennogo deyatelya nauki RF, Zasluzhennogo yurista RSFSR, doktora yuridicheskikh nauk, professora Nikolaya Pavlovicha Yablokova. Moskva, 22 dekabrya 2015 g., red.-sost. M.A. Lushechkina. Moscow, MAKS Press, 2015, pp. 20–25.
Received: 22.06.2018
FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY LAW. BANKING AND MONETARY LAW. TAX LAW
USE OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY AND DIGITAL TOKENS IN COMMITTING CRIMES RELATED TO FISCAL EVASION
NAGAITSEV Konstantin Dmitriyevich
Adjunct of the Faculty of Academic and Teaching Staff Training of the Academy of Law and Management of the Federal Penal Service of Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tax crimes cause significant damage to the economy of the country. In the past few years, the number of detected crimes in the field of tax payments has been constantly decreasing. We cannot objectively judge the reasons for such dynamics, but we know for sure that tax crimes have high latency, and using modern technologies makes their detection much more difficult. Systems that work on blockchain technologies are the most dangerous for the tax sphere. The use of digital tokens allows not only to spend arbitrarily large sums through such systems, but also to do it almost unnoticed for any bodies that control the financial sphere. In terms of this article, the author will analyze several illegal acts in the sphere of digital currency turnover, which can be attributed to tax crimes.
Ключевые слова: blockchain, cryptocurrencies, financial crime, criminal law, criminal punishment, tax crimes, financial crimes.
References
1. Glavnyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy tsentr MVD RF (The main information and analytical center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia). URL: https://mvd.rf/reports /item/9338947/.
2. Polishchuk N.I. Funktsional'naya tsennost' printsipa pravovoy opredelennosti v nor-motvorcheskoy politike gosudarstva (Functional value of the principle of legal certainty in the normative-public policy of the state), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, No. 4 (50), 2017, pp. 115-121.
3. Potapov S.A. Problemy vyyavleniya i raskrytiya ekonomicheskikh i nalogovykh pre-stupleniy (Problems of detection and disclosure of economic and tax crimes), Vestnik TGU, No. 4, 2015, pp. 144.
4. URL: ttps://tvzvezda.ru/news/vstrane_i_mire/content/201801112119-6sgu.htm.
Received: 28.05.2018
“SPECIAL ZONES” AS MECHANISMS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTITUENT ENTITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
USMANOVA Rezida Miniyrovna
Doctor of Law, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University, Sterlitamak, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The article reveals the types of “special zones” that can be created within the territories of the Russian Federation. According to the law, the purpose of creating “special zones” is acceleration of socio-economic development of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation through establishing a special mode of business activity. The author reveals in detail such zones: a special economic zone; zones of territorial development; a priority social and economic development area; the free port of Vladivostok. It is noted that the adoption of Federal laws regulating a particular “special zone” was preceded by various strategies, concepts and forecasts of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation. The paper considers the practice of functioning of some “special zones”, and analyzes law enforcement activities of the Prosecutor's office to identify significant violations in this area. The analysis of the current legislation leads to the conclusion that the global goal of all zones is the same – to attract investments to the region, support socio-economic development of the Russian Federation. As a result, all this will entail the economic growth necessary to ensure a decent living standard for the population.
Key words: subjects of the Russian Federation, law, special economic zone, zones of territorial development, priority social and economic development area, economic development.
References
1. Federal'nyi zakon ot 28 iyunya 2014 g. «O strategicheskom planirovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Law of June 28, 2014 “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2014, No. 26 (chast' I), St. 3378.
2. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva Irkutskoi oblasti ot 23.10.2014 No. 518-pp «Ob utverzhdenii gosudarstvennoi programmy Irkutskoi oblasti «Ekonomicheskoe razvitie i innovatsionnaya ekonomika» na 2015–2020 gody» (Decree of the Government of the Irkutsk Region dated 23.10.2014 No. 518-pp “On the Approval of the State Program of the Irkutsk Region “Economic Development and Innovative Economy” for 2015-2020”), Oblastnaya, 2014, 7 noyab.
3. Usmanova R.M. Sozdanie territorii operezhayushchego sotsial'noekonomicheskogo razvitiya kak mera gosudarstvennoi podderzhki munitsipal'nykh obrazovanii (Creation of Priority Socio-Economic Development Areas as a Measure of State Support for Municipalities), Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipal'noe pravo, 2017, No. 6, pp. 54-57.
4. Usmanova R.M., Usmanov A.K. Sozdanie «osobykh zon» kak mera po uluchsheniyu urovnya zhizni naseleniya munitsipal'nogo obrazovaniya (Creation of “Special Zones” As a Measure to Improve the Standard of Living of the Population of the Municipality), Pravo i praktika, 2017, No. 3, pp. 13-20.
5. Federal'nyi zakon ot 22 iyulya 2005 g. No. 116-FZ «Ob osobykh ekonomicheskikh zonakh v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Law of July 22, 2005 No. 116-FZ “On Special Economic Zones in the Russian Federation”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2005, No. 30 (ch. II), St. 3127
6. Bubaeva T.Yu. Osobye ekonomicheskie zony turistsko-rekreatsionnogo tipa v Baikal'skom regione: problemy stanovleniya i effektivnost' funktsionirovaniya (Special Economic Zones of Tourist-Recreational Type in the Baikal Region: Problems of Formation and Efficiency of Functioning), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ekonomika, 2013, No. 4 (24), pp. 176.
7. Emets M.I., Purgin A.S. Sravnitel'nyi analiz instrumentov regional'noi politiki RF: osobye ekonomicheskie zony, zony territorial'nogo razvitiya i territorii operezhayu-shchego sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya (Comparative Analysis of Instruments of Regional Policy of the Russian Federation: Special Economic Zones, Zones of Territorial Development and Priority Social and Economic Development Areas), EGO: Ekonomika. Gosudarstvo. Obshchestvo, 2015, No. 4.
8. Ilyushchenko N.A. Problemy i perspektivy osobykh ekonomicheskikh zon kak formy gosudar-stvenno-chastnogo partnerstva (Problems and Prospects of Special Economic Zones as Forms of Public-Private Partnership), Vestnik Adygeiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, Seriya 5, Ekonomika, No. 5.
9. Genprokuratura vyyavila mnogochislennye narusheniya v OEZ (The Prosecutor General's Office Revealed Numerous Violations in the SEZ). URL: https://www.ufa.kp.ru/daily/24163/376650/ (accessed date: 06.02.2018).
10. Federal'nyi zakon ot 03 dekabrya 2011g. No. 392-FZ «O zonakh territorial'nogo razvitiya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii i o vnesenii izmenenii v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Law of December 03, 2011. No. 392-FZ “On Territorial Development Zones in the Russian Federation and on Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF.2011, No. 49 (ch. 5), St. 7070.
11. Popova O.A. Territorii operezhayushchego razvitiya kak faktor rosta (Areas of Priority Development as a Growth Factor), Vestnik Zabaikal'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2014, No. 8 (111), pp. 116-120.
12. Federal'nyi zakon ot 29.12.2014 No. 473-FZ «O territoriyakh operezhayushchego sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii» (Federal Law No. 473-FZ of December 29, 2014 “On the Priority Social and Economic Development Areas in the Russian Federation”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2015. No. 1 (chast' I). St. 26.
13. Prokuraturoi kraya proanalizirovany rezul'taty planovoi proverki soblyudeniya zako-nodatel'stva o territoriyakh operezhayushchego sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya i o svobod-nom porte Vladivostok (The Prosecutor's Office of the Krai has Analyzed the Results of a Planned Audit of Compliance with the Legislation on the Priority Social and Economic Development Areas and on the Free Port of Vladivostok). URL: http://prosecutor.ru/news/2017-07-12-prokuraturoy-kraya.htm (accessed date: 06.02.2018).
14. Prokuratura Amurskoi oblasti informiruet o rezul'tatakh proverki soblyudeniya prav rezidentov territorii operezhayushchego sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya pri osushchestvlenii gosudarstvennogo kontrolya (nadzora) (The Prosecutor's Office of the Amur Region Informs about the Results of the Verification of Securing the Rights of Residents of the Priority Social and Economic Development Areas while Exercising State Control (Supervision). URL: https://procrf.ru/news/547411-prokuratura-amurskoy-oblasti-informiruet.html (accessed date: 06.02.2018).
15. Federal'nyi zakon ot 13.07.2015 No. 212-FZ «O svobodnom porte Vladivostok» (Federal Law No. 212-FZ of July 13, 2015 “On the Free Port of Vladivostok”), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF. 2015. No. 29 (chast' I). St. 4338.
Received: 22.05.2018
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 
ON THE FRAMEWORKS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW RESPONSIBILITY SANCTIONS
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University Tolyatti, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sanctions of environmental law responsibility are one of the means to prevent environmental violations and to encourage legitimate behavior in the sphere of environmental relations. For just sentencing and for applying incentive measures, legal sanctions committed in terms of legal technology are required. The author analyzes the sanctions of the complex institute of environmental law responsibility. The author's definition of responsibility on the basis of broad positions, including positive and negative aspects of implementation, calls for not only punitive but also encouraging sanctions. The paper analyzes alternative and other sanctions of environmental law responsibility, notes typical shortcomings, which include excessive “enthusiasm” of the legislator's alternatives, and develops the optimal structure for alternative sanctions. The article contains recommendations aimed at improving the current legislation.
Key words: environmental law responsibility; alternative sanctions; types of sanctions; environmental offense; incentive sanctions; punitive sanctions.
References
1. Tsvetkova I.V., Ivanova T.N. Sotsial'nyye kriterii ekologicheskoy otvetstvennosti molodezhi (Social criteria of environmental responsibility of youth), Integratsiya obrazovaniya, 2017, T. 21, pp. 14-32.
2. Lipinskiy D.A. O pravovoy politike v sfere differentsiatsii i individualizatsii ekologo-pravovoy otvetstvennosti (On the legal policy in the sphere of differentiation and individualization of environmental and legal responsibility), Pravovoye gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika, 2017, No. 4, pp. 42-48.
3. Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation). 1995. No. 17. St.1462.
4. Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation). 1995. No. 10. St. 823.
5. Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation). 2002. No. 1. St. 2.
6. Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation). 2007. No. 20. St. 2437.
7. Narysheva N.G. Ponyatiye i sushchnost' taksovoy otvetstvennosti za narusheniye zakonoda-tel'stva o prirodnykh resursakh (The concept and essence of tax liability for the violation of legislation on natural resources), Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1997, No. 10, pp. 43-47.
8.  Bykovskiy V.K. Taksovaya otvetstvennost' za narusheniye lesnogo zakonodatel'stva (Tax liability for violation of forest legislation), Lex Russica, 2011, No. 3, pp. 489-490.
9. Kokunov A.I. Tekhniko-yuridicheskoye konstruirovaniye yedinichnykh i al'ternativnykh sanktsiy v kodifitsirovannom ugolovnom zakone: postanovka problemy (Technical and legal design of single and alternative sanctions in the codified criminal law: statement of the problem), Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravookhranitel'naya praktika, 2016, No. 1, pp. 80-85. 
10. Tikhonova S.S., Kisileva I.V., Frolovichev YA.V. Dlina al'ternativnoy sanktsii stat'i osobennoy chasti Ugolovnogo kodeksa: teoriya i zakonotvorcheskaya praktika (The length of the alternative sanction of the article of a special part of the Criminal Code: theory and lawmaking practice), Vestnik Altayskoy akademii ekonomiki i prava, 2014, No. 4 (36), pp.. 124-128.
11. Tikhonova S.S., Kisileva I.A., Frolovichev Ya.V. Model' sanktsii za prestupleniya opredelennoy kategorii: teoriya i zakonodatel'naya praktika (The model of sanction for crimes of a certain category: theory and legislative practice), Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Yuridicheskiye nauki, 2014, No. 2 (17), pp. 131-134.
12. Ugolovnyy kodeks Frantsii (The Criminal Code of France). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press, 2002.
13. Ugolovnyy kodeks Federativnoy Respubliki Germaniya (The Criminal Code of the Federal Republic of Germany). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press, 2003.
14. Ugolovnyy kodeks Respubliki San-Marino (The Criminal Code of the Republic of San Marino). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press, 2003.
15. 1Ugolovnyy kodeks Bel'gii (The Criminal Code of Belgium). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press, 2003.
16. Ugolovnoye zakonodatel'stvo Norvegii (The criminal legislation of Norway). St. Petersburg, Yuridicheskiy tsentr Press, 2003.
17. Barshinov V.I. Pravovoye regulirovaniye stimulirovaniya okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy (Legal regulation of the stimulation of environmental protection), avtoref. dis. …kand. yurid. nauk. Moscow, 2009.
18. Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation). 2002. No. 2. St. 133.
19. Sobraniye zakonodatel'stva RF (Collection of legislation of the Russian Federation). 1995. No.17. St. 1462.
Received: 20.06.2018
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NORMS OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN THE SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN LAW
MUSTAFIN Ilmir Ralifovich
Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The development of the Russian Federation towards forming the rule-of-law, democratic and social state is impossible without the study of state construction in foreign countries, as well as the functioning of national legal systems. Currently there is a close interaction of legal systems of different states, one of the means of such interaction is the category “implementation”. 2017 in the Russian Federation in accordance with the Decree of the President of Russia is declared the Year of Ecology. The problems of ecology and environmental protection are of a global nature, since the environment is the basis of life on Earth. In connection with this circumstance, the issue of the implementation of international environmental standards in the Russian legal system becomes topical. Some aspects of the mechanism of the implementation of international norms in the Russian legal system are revealed, and some ways of further development of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of ensuring environmental safety and environmental protection are suggested.
Key words: jurisprudence, legal system of the Russian Federation, legal reception, national legal system, implementation of international norms, environmental protection, environmental safety.
References
1. Konstitutsiya RF. Prinyata vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12 dekabrya 1993 g. (s uchetom popra-vok, vnesennykh Zakonami RF o popravkakh k Konstitutsii RF ot 30 dekabrya 2008 g. № 6-FKZ, ot 30 dekabrya 2008 g. № 7-FKZ, ot 5 fevralya 2014 g. № 2-FKZ, ot 21 iyulya 2014 g. № 11-FKZ) (The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted by Popular Vote on December 12, 1993 (taking into account the amendments introduced by the RF Laws on Amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation of December 30, 2008 No. 6-FKZ, dated December 30, 2008 No. 7-FKZ, dated February 5, 2014 No. 2-FKZ, dated July 21, 2014 No. 11-FKZ), Rossiiskaya gazeta, 1993, 25 dekabrya.
2. Brinchuk M.M. Pravo na blagopriyatnuyu okruzhayushchuyu sredu kak faktor natsional'noi bezopasnosti (The Right to a Favorable Environment as a Factor of National Security), Astrakhanskii vestnik ekologicheskogo obrazovaniya, 2014, No. 1 (27), pp. 4-16.
3. Aznagulova G.M. Dialektika vzaimosvyazi pravovoi sistemy i gosudarstva (Dialectics of The Relationship between the Legal System and the State), Yurisprudentsiya, 2010, No. 3, pp. 5-14.
4. Federal'nyi zakon ot 10 yanvarya 2002 g. № 7-FZ «Ob okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy» (s posl. izm. i dop. ot 29 iyulya 2017 g. № 280-FZ) (The Federal Law of January 10, 2002 No. 7-FZ “On Environmental Protection” (last amended and supplemented from July 29, 2017, No. 280-FZ), Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2002, No. 2, st. 133.
5. Malakhov V.P., Lanovaya G.M. Rol' mezhdunarodnogo prava v modernizatsii otechestvennoi pravovoi sistemy (The Role of International Law in Modernizing the National Legal System), Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2017, No. 2, pp. 37-40.
6. Aznagulova G.M. Vzaimodeistvie mezhdunarodnogo i vnutrigosudarstvennogo prava i Konstitutsiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Interaction of International and National Law and the Constitution of the Russian Federation), Lex russica, 2015, No. 8, pp. 84-95.
7. Dubovik O.L. Mekhanizm implementatsii ekologicheskogo prava Evropeiskogo soyuza v natsional'noe zakonodatel'stvo ob okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy stran-uchastnits (The Mechanism for the Implementation of The European Union's Environmental Law in the National Environmental Legislation of Participating Countries), Ekologicheskoe pravo, 2014, No. 4, pp. 25-31.
8. Bogolyubov S.A. Rol' prava i gosudarstva v realizatsii ekologicheskoi politiki (The Role of Law and State in the Implementation of Environmental Policy), Sotsial'no-ekologicheskie tekhnologii, 2012, No. 1, pp. 19-27.
9. Deklaratsiya Rio-de-Zhaneiro po okruzhayushchei srede i razvitiyu. Prinyata Konferentsiei OON po okruzhayushchei srede i razvitiyu v g. Rio-de-Zhaneiro 14 iyunya 1992 g. (The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro on June 14, 1992), Organizatsiya ob"edinennykh natsii, sait. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/riodecl (reference date: 07.11.2017).
Received: 12.02.2018
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY. 
INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW 
LIMITS OF AUTHORITIES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS BODIES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE
ALIYEVA Gunay Vidadi gizi
Postgraduate Student of the Department of International Law of the Law Institute of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Peoples' Friendship University of Russia”, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Under no special provisions on the protection of the intangible cultural heritage in international human rights treaties, the question arises of the possibility of protecting such key elements of cultural heritage as cultural human rights, the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities and other categories of human rights and freedoms. International human rights bodies have accumulated vast experience in protecting cultural heritage by protecting human rights and freedoms that form the basis of this heritage. The comparative law method of research makes it possible to study in detail specific features of the activities of the human rights treaty bodies of the United Nations system and regional judicial bodies for ensuring cultural human rights, the right to assembly and association, inviolability of home, freedom of opinion, religion and expression. Regional and universal judicial and quasi-judicial human rights bodies generally do not have sufficient authority to effectively safeguard the intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, there is an extensive case law on the protection of human rights to the inviolability of private and family life, to equality and non-discrimination and others.
Key words: cultural, world, intangible, heritage, international legal, international system, protection, human rights.
References
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Abashidze A.Kh., Koneva A.E. Dogovornye organy po pravam cheloveka (Human Rights Treaty Bodies), uchebnoe posobie. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. Moscow, RUDN, 2015. 
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18. Human Rights Committee, Communication No 35/1978, Shirin Aumeeruddy-Cziffra et al v Mauritius, UN Doc CCPR/C/12/D/35/1978, 9 April 1981.
19. Human Rights Committee, Communication No 511/1992, Ilmari Lansman et al. v Finland, UN Doc. CCPR/C/52/D/511/1992, 8 November 1994.
20. Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 549/1993, Francis Hopu and Tepoaitu Bessert v France, UN Doc CCPR/C/60/D/549/1993/Rev/l, 29 December 1997.
21. Human Rights Committee, Communication No 879/1999, George Howard v Canada, UN Doc. CCPR/C/84/D/879/1999, 4 August 2005.
22. Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 942/2000, Jarle Jonassen v Norway, UN Doc CCPR/C/76/D/942/2000, 12 November 2002.
23. Human Rights Committee, General Comment 23, Article 27 (Fiftieth session, 1994), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 38 (1994).
24. I/A Court HR, Case of Fermin Ramirez v Guatemala. Merits, Reparations, and Costs. Judgment of 20 June 2005. Series С No. 126.
25. I/A Court HR, Case of Lopez-Alvarez v Honduras. Merits, Reparations, and Costs. Judgment of 1 February 2006. Series С No. 141.
26. I/A Court HR, Case of the Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Community v Nicaragua. Merits, Reparations, and Costs. Judgment of 31 August 2001. Series С No. 79.
27. I/A Court HR, Case of the Moiwana Community v Suriname. Preliminary Objections, Merits, Reparations, and Costs. Judgment of 15 June 2005. Series С No. 124.
28. I/A Court HR, Case of the Yakye-Axa Indigenous Community v Paraguay. Merits, Reparations, and Costs. Judgment of 17 June 2005. Series С No. 125.
29. I/A Court HR, Juridical Condition and Rights of the Undocumented Migrants. Advisory Opinion OC-18 of September 17, 2003. Series A No. 18.
30. Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights, Declarations and Reservations to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Available at: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TRMTY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed date: June 15, 2018).
31. Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, Adopted in July 1998, entry into force January 2004. Available at: http://www.achpr.org/instruments/court-establishment/ (accessed date: date: June 15, 2018).
32. Scheinin M. The Right to Enjoy a Distinct Culture: Indigenous and Competing Uses of Land. In: Orlin T.S., Rosas A., Scheinin M. The Jurisprudence of Human Rights Law: A Comparative Interpretive Approach. Turku, Institute for Human Rights, 2000. 
33. Silverman H., Fairchild Ruggles D. Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. London, Springer, 2007. 
34. Steiner H.J., Alston P. International Human Rights in Context – Law, Politics, Morals. New York, Oxford University Press, 2001. 
Received: 14.05.2018
LIFE AND WORKS OF J.K. BLUNTSCHLI
MAZITOV Artur Ildusovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
In 1808 J.K. Bluntschli was born. J.K. Bluntschli is an outstanding Swiss scholar of jurisprudence, one of the founders of the Institute of International Law. He wrote many works on theory of state and law, international law, genesis and typology of states; he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and Arts, a member of the Moscow University and many other scientific communities. Professor of Law J.K. Bluntschli led a very private life and many facts and stories, materials for his biography are now irretrievably lost in the course of time. One of the brightest books dedicated to J.K. Bluntschli is “In Memoriam of Bluntschli”, by L. Kamarovsky who knew him personally.
Key words: Bluntschli, Swiss law, theory of law, political doctrines, political science, international law, natural law, historical theory, natural theory, organic theory.
References
1. Kamarovskiy L.K. Pamyati Blyunchli (In memoriam of Blyntschli). Moscow, Tipografiya A.I. Mamontova, 1882. 
2. Entsiklopedicheskiy slovar' Brokgauza i Yefrona (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron). V 86 t. T. 2, sost. S.A. Vengerov. St. Petersburg, Brokgauz-Yefron, 1890.
3. Chicherin B.N. Filosofiya prava (Philosophy of law). St. Petersburg, 1898.
4. Blyunchli I.K. Istoriya obshchego gosudarstvennogo prava i politiki ot XVI veka po nasto-yashcheye vremya (The history of general state law and politics from the 16th century to the present). St. Petersburg, Izdatel'stvo O.I. Baksta, 1874. 
5. Blyunchli I.K. Antropologicheskiye ocherki ucheniy o prave i gosudarstvo (Anthropological sketches of the teachings on law and the state). St. Petersburg, 1867. 
6. Shiller F.P., Lifshits M.A. Marks i Engel's ob iskusstve (Marx and Engels about art). Moscow, Sovlit, 1933. 
7. Klassiki revolyutsionnoy mysli domarksistskogo perioda (Classics of revolutionary thought of the pre-Marxist period). V 4 t. T. 4. Moscow, 1935. 
8. Völkerrechtliche Betrachtungen über den deutsch-franzosischen Krieg. Heidelberg, Holtzondorff’s Labrbuch, 1871.
Received: 20.05.2018
CRIME IN ITALY: FEATURES, FORMS OF MANIFESTATION 
YAMALETDINOVA Natalia Vladimirovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of History and Theory of State of Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Italy is considered one of the most attractive countries in the world. Attractive for tourists, it is officially recognized by UNESCO as containing 60% of the world's art treasures. The more surprising is the fact that this country cannot state that it has overcome such a negative social phenomenon as crime. Moreover, in Italy it is possible to observe very specific features of organized illegal activities, for example, its territorial “linkage” to a particular region, the existence of various large criminal groups. Nevertheless, recently in Italy significant progress has been made in combating crime. The law enforcement structures of this state quite clearly coordinate efforts to find and catch the most dangerous criminals. In this country, for many years now, there has been a program to protect witnesses and other participants in criminal proceedings, which makes it possible to ensure their full security. All this indicates the need to carefully study the experience of the activities of foreign law enforcement agencies, including Italy.
Key words: Sicilian mafia, Neapolitan “businessmen”, Cosa Nostra, law enforcement agencies, police, carabineers.
References
1. Schumpeter. Mafia management. The crime families of Naples are remarkably good at business. The Economist, Aug 27th, 2016. 
2. URL: htpp: //espresso.republica.it/plus/articoli/2016/05/05/news/cosi-le-mafia-si-mangiano-il-nord-1.263991 (дата обращения: 20.08.2018) (accessed date: 20.08.2018).
3. Euronews / Italy/ Mapping the mafia: Italy's web of criminal gangs explained/ By Lillo Montalto Monella/last updated: 22/11/2017 (дата обращения: 17.08.2018) (accessed date: 17.08.2018).
4. URL: http://italy.usembassy.gov/ Italy 2017 Crime & Safety Report: Rome 2/15/2017 (дата обращения: 16.08.2018) (accessed date: 16.08.2018)
Received: 20.05.2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
AKHMADULLIN Azat Sayafovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ALEKSANDROVA Elena Aleksandrovna
Adjunct of the Academy of Law and Administration of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ALIYEVA Gunay Vidadi gizi
Postgraduate Student of the Department of International Law of the Law Institute of the Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Peoples' Friendship University of Russia”, Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ARTAMONOVA Natalya Vyacheslavna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Municipal Law, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Bryansk Branch), Bryansk, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
AVDEEV Dmitry Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Constitutional and Municipal Law, Institute of State and Law of the Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
AZNAGULOVA Guzel Mukhametovna
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Principal Deputy Director of the Institute of Law, Head of the Chair of Theory and History of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
YELIZAROV Mikhail Vladimirovich
Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Assistant Professor of the Chair of International Law and International Relations of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ENIKEEV Rafael Nailevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor at the Institute of Law of the Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GALIKEEVA Irina Gayazovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
GRISHIN Dmitrii Aleksandrovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Academy of Law and Administration of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ISMAGILOV Igor Rashidovich
Corporate lawyer of Eurasian Resources Group (Luxembourg). E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KHAIRLVARINA Lilia Ildarovna
Postgraduate Student, Chief Lawyer of the Legal Department of the Soviet District Administration of Urban District the Ufa City of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KHOROSHKO Irina Vyacheslavovna
Instructor of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the FGEI HE “Academy of Law and Management of the Federal Penal Service of Russia”, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
KUZNETSOVA Aleksandra Nikolaevna
Scientific Adviser of the Autonomous Nonprofit Organization “Yaroslavl Center of Economic and Tax Education”, Yaroslavl, Russia. Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
LARINBAEVA Ilmira Ishmurzovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
LIPINSKY Dmitry Anatolyevich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Chair of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Togliatti State University Tolyatti, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MAZITOV Artur Ildusovich
Postgraduate Student of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FSBEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MURZABULATOV Ural Mullakhmetovich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MUSTAFIN Ilmir Ralifovich
Teaching Assistant of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
MUSTAFINA Liliya Salavatovna
Postgraduate Student of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
NAGAITSEV Konstantin Dmitriyevich
Adjunct of the Faculty of Academic and Teaching Staff Training of the Academy of Law and Management of the Federal Penal Service of Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORLOVA Alexandra Andreevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
POLISHCHUK Nikolay Ivanovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.ъ
POLSTOVALOV Oleg Vladimirovich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor, Head of the Legal Department of the Administration of the Urban District of Krasnogorsk of the Moscow Region, Krasnogorsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
PROKOFYEV Konstantin Georgiyevich
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Acting Rector of the Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROMANOVSKAYA Vera Borisovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ROZHKOVA Irina Yurievna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of Theory of State and Law, International and European Law of the Academy of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Ryazan, Russia. E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SAYFUTDINOVA Venera Maksutovna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Law and Procedure of the Bashkir Academy of State Service and Administration under the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SALNIKOV Viktor Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal “Legal Science: History and Modernity”, St. Petersburg, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SEMENOVA Yelena Yuryevna
Senior Instructor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the Federal State Budgetary Educational  Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
SHCHEPOTKINA-MARININA Tatiana Vladimirovna
Second-year Master Student of the Faculty of Law of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (National Research University), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TROFIMOVA Marina Sergeyevna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University”, Veliky Novgorod, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
TULUPOVA Elena Olegovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Theory of State and Law of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia.E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
USMANOVA Rezida Miniyrovna
Doctor of Law, Dean of the Law Faculty of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Bashkir State University, Sterlitamak, Russia.E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
VANYUSHOVA Yana Vladimirovna
Instructor of the Department of History and Theory of State and Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the MIA of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
YAMALETDINOVA Natalia Vladimirovna
Candidate of Sciences (Law), Senior Instructor of the Department of History and Theory of State of Law of the Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ZHEMALETDINOV Rustem Maratovich
Candidate of Sciences (law), Assistant Professor of the Chair of Civil Procedure of the Institute of Law of the FBSEI HE “Bashkir State University”, Ufa, Russia. Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ZHUNUSKANOV Tolybek Zhunuskanuly
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the PEI HE “Law Institute” (Saint Petersburg), Lawyer of the Kostanay Regional Bar Association, Kostanay, Republic of Kazakhstan.
Е-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 
 

ISSN 2500-0217 / Включен в Перечень ВАК